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  1. 1. A MUTATION IS...A mutation can be as little as a change in the DNA and can rise into something that can prevent the development of a young fetus.Mutations occur when there is a change in the original DNA sequence.In a genes DNA sequence, a mutation can then alter the amino acid sequence thatthen helps to encode proteins for that gene. A mutation can also form because of a chemical or physical mutagen,a virus, and radiation. Mutations can also occur during cell reproduction and meiosis.HOW DO MUTATIONS OCCUR?Mutations occur by a mutagen.A mutagen is a chemical or physical agent that can change the sequence of DNA. Some chemical mutagens include but are not limited to, toxins, pollution, radiation, and other chemicals that may need to be controlled by a HAZMAT crew. A physical mutagen can include UV damage, heat and x-ray damage.<br />
  2. 2. Point MutationA point mutation is a small change on one base of the gene sequence ATCG. For Example: The big red rat ate the ant.The wig red rat ate the ant.<br />Notice the small difference? the difference is as small as one letter change but can be significant enough to change and mutate a protein or gene trying to be accomplished.Frame-shift mutationA frame shift mutation is a mutation that has one or more of the bases (ATCG) that either get deleted off the original sequence or insertion occurs with a different base. This type of mutation can make the DNA meaningless and can also result in a shortened protein or not allow the protein to work at all.For Example: The big red rat ate the ant.The big reedra tat eth ea.<br />
  3. 3. DeletionIn a deletion mutation, this results in a missing DNA. In the deletion mutation, one combination of the three groups of bases can simply just be deleted. When this occurs, the genes in the cromosome can then be impacted.For Example: The big red rat ate the ant.The big red ate the ant.<br />InsertionIn an insertion mutation, there is an addition with the chain when an extra DNA is inputted. When this occurs, a nonfunctional protein is then made. For Example: The big red rat ate the ant.The big red rat owp ate the ant.<br />InversionIn an inversion mutation, the entire section of DNA is reversed. When this occurs, it can affect small portions of a gene, just a few bases or it can be longer and include regions of a chromosome that may contain many genes.For Example: The big red rat ate the antThe big red tnaeht eta tar<br />
  4. 4. The Bases<br />
  5. 5. Normal DNA to a Mutated DNA <br />
  6. 6. Plant Mutations<br />A natural genetic mutation, can cause change in the appearance of a plant. <br />This can show by seeing different colored specks or stripes on a flower. You may also see it when it comes to a flower that is made to hold two flowers, may only actually have one flower. <br />Usually, you may see only one or two mutations on a plant. <br />This includes change in the fruit, flower, color, size and shape. Normally, this mutation will go back to its original by the next year.<br />
  7. 7. Finch Mutations<br />
  8. 8. Different Mutations in the Finch<br />
  9. 9. The Chernobyl Accident<br />
  10. 10. Steel Pollution<br />