Plagiarism & Copyright


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Plagiarism & Copyright

  1. 1. Plagiarism and Copyrights Ferdinand B. Pitagan, PhD Professor of Education University of the Philippines College of Education Educational Technology Department EDUC190 – Computers in Education
  2. 2. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, to &quot;plagiarize&quot; means <ul><li>to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own </li></ul><ul><li>to use (another's production) without crediting the source </li></ul><ul><li>to commit literary theft </li></ul><ul><li>to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source. </li></ul>Source:
  3. 3. Types of Plagiarism <ul><li>Sources Not Cited </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Ghost Writer&quot; &quot;The Photocopy&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Potluck Paper&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Poor Disguise&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Labor of Laziness&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Self-Stealer&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Sources Cited (But Still Plagiarized) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Forgotten Footnote&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Misinformer&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Too-Perfect Paraphrase&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Resourceful Citer&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Perfect Crime&quot; </li></ul>Source:
  4. 4. Burke’s survey with 742 Faculty, USA 86% had suspected plagiarism; 65% had found it in the classroom A UK survey of 943 sophomores Reasons for plagiarism: too much homework, high pressure Some studies (e.g. Hayes & Introna , 2005) Cultural norms play a role; Seriousness in plagiarizing Internet sources Plagiarism
  5. 5. Plagiarism <ul><li>Rinnert and Kobayashi (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>-- 605 Japanese and 76 American college students </li></ul><ul><li>--- Japanese college students lack understanding in the need to fully and correctly cite sources compared with their American counterparts </li></ul><ul><li>--- Do not perceive the borrowing ideas or words without appropriate citations as unethical or reprehensible </li></ul><ul><li>--- Lack of institutional policies and systematic training for correctly citing sources in academic writing in Japanese colleges </li></ul><ul><li>Norris (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>--- Only a small number of Japanese universities have established coherent policies on anti-plagiarism or academic integrity </li></ul><ul><li>--- Japanese teachers tend to tolerate plagiarism (## all Japanese universities have introduced privacy protection measures since the Personal Information Protection Law was enforced in 2005) </li></ul>
  6. 6. B asic Term of Protection <ul><li>Japan: 50 years </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico: 100 years </li></ul><ul><li>Colombia: 80 years </li></ul><ul><li>Germany, France, Italy, UK, Argentine, Brazil, and USA: 70 years </li></ul><ul><li>India: 60 years </li></ul><ul><li>Iran: 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Philippines ??? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Copyright issues in Education <ul><li>See </li></ul>
  8. 8. Copyrights/Ownership <ul><li>Belong to a person who creates a idea (author) </li></ul><ul><li>To own copyrights of the author - Separate contract needed </li></ul><ul><li>Copying possible for home use, personal/small scale use </li></ul><ul><li>Educational institutions – fair use – one time, educational purposes, classroom use, a portion of book or digital materials (only for teachers) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Copyrights/Ownership <ul><li>P2P file sharing (Music file sharing) – illegal </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube – some contain copyrighted work </li></ul><ul><li>Freeware / shareware (free of charge or charged) – generally ok, but sometimes involve copyright issues </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cases <ul><li>Students’ work – copyrights </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-existing teaching materials / others – can be used without authorization in school teaching contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed learning environment (distance education; e-learning), materials can be shared if in non-profit educational contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Special lectures? – get permission from speaker </li></ul><ul><li>## Ideas, copyright protected? No unless expressed </li></ul>
  11. 11. The President-elect asks YOUR Committee…. To outline and review existing Philippine Copyright Laws; To make suggestions for revision/elaboration Group Activity: Committee on Promoting Academic Integrity
  12. 12. Plagiarism Prevention <ul><li>Systematic Training </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain What &quot;Plagiarism&quot; Means ; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What's Wrong About Plagiarism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the Consequences Clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to cite properly </li></ul></ul>