Digital Divide


Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • PRESENTATION NOTES ONLY - FOR LINDA No timing sequence on any slides (ie: does not move to next slide in a certain number of seconds). On any slide, click mouse to move to next slide in sequence.
  • Global telelearning communities are already a reality. Educational organizations, research teams, individual researchers, companies, and different learning communities are increasingly being linked in order to share knowledge and practices. They distribute information and promote collaboration in designing and implementing telelearning systems and research. From this exchange of experiences GEN anticipates new alliances involving joint research projects, research exchanges, and debate about the consequences of the new technologies of information and communication.
  • Digital Divide

    1. 1. <ul><li>D igital D ivide </li></ul><ul><li>Pertinent Questions </li></ul><ul><li>* Facts (global, national, educational levels) </li></ul><ul><li>* Why important? </li></ul><ul><li>As educators, what can we do? </li></ul><ul><li>Ferdinand B. Pitagan, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>EdTech 101 </li></ul>
    2. 2. <ul><li>Sharing your experience </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of technology do you use? (mobile phone, iPod, Wiki, Blogs, social networking, Skype, YM, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>For what? </li></ul><ul><li>How often? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the individual differences? </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Gap Access Skills Knowledge Attitude ICT Digital haves - Info rich Digital not haves - Info poor
    4. 4. Nations Generations Genders Ethnic groups Education Economic levels Social status Languages A series of Gaps Digital haves - Info rich Digital not haves - Info poor
    5. 5. Digital Technologies Changes in Society Education (Policies, Practices) Digital Divide Digital Opportunities
    6. 6. Digital Divide a deepening of existing forms of exclusion Unemployed, poor, housebound, disabled, less educated, minorities Women/girls
    7. 9. Internet World Statistics (2009)
    8. 12. Digital Divide at A Glance (ITU figures) <ul><li>less than 3 out of every 100 Africans </li></ul><ul><li>1 out of every 2 inhabitants of the G8 countries </li></ul><ul><li>top 20 countries (Internet bandwidth) ---80% of all Internet users </li></ul><ul><li>30 countries with an Internet penetration of less than 1% </li></ul><ul><li>429 million Internet users in G8 </li></ul><ul><li>444 million Internet users in non-G8 </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile = 34% of the world’s total mobile users from G8 countries – 14% world population </li></ul>G8- Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the UK and the US
    9. 13. Digital Divide Economic factors Other factors Social factors (gender, race, etc) Cultural factors
    10. 14. Internet Users by Income Level of country Asahi Statistics p.189 <ul><li>High-income : 65.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Upper middle income : 7.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Lower middle income : 21.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Low-income : 5.6% </li></ul>
    11. 16. UCLA World Internet Project (2004) Internet Users by Gender <ul><li>Britain men 63.6; women 55.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Germany men 50.4; women 41.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary men 20.3; women 15.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Italy men 41.7; women 21.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan men 54.7; women 46.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Korea men 67.8; women 53.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Macao men 37.8; women 28.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore men 47.2; women 34.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Spain men 46.4; women 27.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden men 67.7; women 64.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan men 25.1; women 23.5 </li></ul><ul><li>United States men 73.1; women 69.0 </li></ul>
    12. 17. Internet Users by Age Group “… 86 percent of women ages 18 to 29 were online, compared with 80 percent of men in the same age group. “… among the older group, those age 65 and older, 34 percent of men are online, compared with 21 percent of women. ” USA, Washingtonpost Thursday, December 29, 2005
    13. 18. Not easy to stop/lessen gaps Need for awareness Need for strong policies Need for international collaboration Need for education If we don’t do anything about it ….
    14. 19. <ul><li>World Summit on the </li></ul><ul><li>Information Society </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>International Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>“ UNDP etc – e Vietnamese Village” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Japan – Asian Broadband Project” </li></ul><ul><li>2. NGOs/Public sectors </li></ul><ul><li>“ Brazil – Tele-centers” </li></ul><ul><li>3. National Policies </li></ul><ul><li>“ Egypt – E-readiness Plan” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Korean Agency for Digital Opportunity” </li></ul><ul><li>4. Business Involvement “Sudan – SUDATEL” </li></ul>
    15. 20. <ul><li>8 Key Areas for Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Access for all to HW & SW </li></ul><ul><li>Changed roles of teachers/learners </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting lifelong learning </li></ul><ul><li>Quality assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Brokering services and agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Support, encourage & direct research </li></ul><ul><li>Change in role of policy-maker in education </li></ul>World Summit on the Information Society
    16. 21. Digital Opportunities ICT, helping to overcome some forms of exclusion Distance learning to remote areas Village tele-centers with ICT ICT in Basic Education Lifelong Learning through ICT Others
    17. 22. <ul><li>Digital Divide in Education </li></ul><ul><li>Digital divide in investment (input) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital divide in ICT use (process) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital divide in people (output) </li></ul>
    18. 23. Digital Divide in Education <ul><li>1. Input Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware, </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><li>Materials and Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of ICT in curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Supports </li></ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul>
    19. 24. Digital Divide in Education 2. Process Factors Different approaches to ICT use - Used for advanced applications and thinking? - Used for basic skill training? - Used for computer games? - Others
    20. 25. Digital Divide in Education 3. Human (Outcome) Factors Digital literacy? - ICT skills / knowledge - confidence - competencies
    21. 26. ICT Skills (University, Perception) Source: NIME (2003) “ I do not have adequate ICT skills and knowledge” - More faculty than students - More older people than younger ones - More people in human ities and social sciences than those in natural sciences and engineering
    22. 27. Digital divide in informal learning (more learning happens outside schools) Home differences Differences at work Differences in communities