Table Of Contents Presente Ser y Estar Verbs Like Gustar Preterit & Imperfect Subjunctive in Noun Clauses Commands Object Pronouns Possessive adjectives & Pronouns Demonstrative adjectives & pronouns Subjunctive in Adverb Clauses Reflexives Por y Para “To become”
El Presente AR VERBS ER/IR VERBSYO form Hablo EscriboTu form Hablás EscribésEl/Ella/Usted Habla EscribeNosotros Hablamos EscribemosEllos/Ustedes Hablan Escriben
Ser y Estar (Irregular)Ser and Estar both mean “to be”. Their conjugatedforms are different variations of the form of “tobe”.Ser is used for describing identity, (personality,physical description, race, gender, profession,origin) things having to do with time, (dates,seasons, events, time) and possession.Estar is used for describing STATES OF BEINGsuch as: feelings/emotions, appearances,locations, and with the present progressive tense. Ser Estar YO Soy Estoy Tu Eres Estás Ud Es Está Nosotros Somos Estamos Ustedes Son Están
Verbs Like Gustar In English, to express our liking of something we might say “I like that color.” In Spanish, it is grammatically correct to say “The color is pleasing to me.” Gustar is used in two forms: singular and plural, depending on the object being “gustar-ed” Pronouns are used IN FRONT OF gustar to express who is being liked. (Me te, Le, Nos, Les) Other verbs like gustar are used in the same way: Molestar Fascinar Ex: Me gustan los libros. (I Encantar like the books) Te gusta la computadora. Disgustar (You like the computer) Faltar Importar
Preterit & Imperfect Preterit and Imperfect are both forms of the past tense. Preterit is used to describe actions with a definite ending, whereas imperfect is used to describe things that happened over an indefinite period of time.Preterit (AR) Imperfect (AR)Hablé HablabaHablaste HablabasHabló HablabaHablamos Hablabamos Preterit (ER/IR) IMPERFECT (ER/IR)Hablaron Hablaban Comí Comía Comiste Comías Comió Comía Comimos Comíamos Comieron Comían
Subjunctive in Noun Clauses The subjunctive is not a tense, it’s a mood. There are 6 irregular A mood describes how the speaker feels about the action. The subjunctive presents a verbs in the present question of certainty. subjunctive: There are multiple clauses that can be used Dar, estar, haber, ir, with the subjunctive, including: es bueno saber, ser que, es dudoso que, es imposible que, es malo que, etc. To conjugate verbs in the present subjunctive, use the opposite endings as the infinitive. For example, ar verbs change to normal er/ir endings. An example of a sentence using the subjunctive would be “Es importante que tengas un grado bueno” AR- e, es, e, emos, en ER- a, as, a, amos, an
Commands Formal Commands: only used in the UD/UDS form. The verb forms are conjugated in the same way as the present subjunctive tense. For example, -ar verbs switch to either –e or –en depending on if the subject is plural, and –er to –a or –an. Informal Commands (or Tu commands) are conjugated in the same way as the present INDICATIVE form for affirmative commands only. Negative informal commands are conjugated like the present subjunctive form. Example: No hables (don’t speak) vs Habla (speak) There are 8 irregular verbs in the affirmative tu command form: Decir, Hacer, Ir, Poner, Salir, Ser, Tenir, Venir
Object Pronouns There are two forms of object pronouns: Direct and indirect. Direct objects indicate who or what is specifically receiving the action. The pronouns me, te, lo/la, nos, los/las are used when replacing the direct object. Placement: in an affirmative statement with just one verb, the DO pronoun comes right before the conjugated verb. Example: Tengo la pluma = La tengo. When the pronoun takes the place of an indirect object, the pronouns me, te, le, nos, les are used. The IO tells us where the DO is going. For example: “Juan me da a mi el dinero”. (Juan gives me the money) Who does he give the money (DO) to? Me- IO.
Possessive Adjectives & Pronouns Possessive adjectives are used to show ownership. There are 4 possessive adjectives: mi, tu, su,y nuestra. Possessive adjectives agree with the noun they modify. Ex: (mi libro/mis libros). Nuestra is changed depending on the gender of the noun. Ex: (Nuestra tienda/Nuestro vestido) Possessive pronouns take the place of a noun. The following are possessive pronouns, and all have plural forms as well: Mio/Mia Examples: Tuyo/Tuya Tu carro es verde. (adj) El mio es rojo. (pronoun) Suyo/Suya Nuestro/Nuestra
Demonstrative Adjectivesand Pronouns Demonstrative adjectives describe a noun while demonstrative pronouns take the place of a noun. For example: Juan lee este libro. (adjective because it indicates which book) Juan lee este. (This replaces the word book) There are 3 demonstrative adjectives which each have four forms: Este libro (this book) Estos libros (these books) Esta pluma (this pen) Estas plumas (these pens) Ese libro (that book) Esos libros (those books) Esa pluma (that pen) Esas plumas (those pens) Aquel libro (that book over there) Aquellos libros (those books over there) Aquella pluma (that pen over there) Aquellas plumas (those pens over there)
Demonstrative Adjectives andPronouns Continued The demonstrative pronouns are the same as the demonstrative adjectives, except instead the replace the noun. For example: Te gusta esta camisa? “Do you like this shirt?”
Subjunctives in Adverb Clauses The subjunctive is used in adverb clauses when the action described in the clause is anticipated or hypothetical (a reservation, a condition not yet met, a mere intention) Adverbial Clauses are introduced by conjunctions Example: a menos que, siempre que, hasta que, etc. Example: No voy a menos que venga ella. (I’m not going unless she comes)Adverbial Conjunctions of Time: followed by a subjunctivewhen introducing an anticipated situation.Examples: hasta que, luego que, despues de que, tanpronto como, etc.Example: Me lavaré los dientes despues de que comamos.(I’ll brush my teeth after we eat)Como is followed by the subjunctive if used to mean “if”.
Reflexives A verb is reflexive when the subject and object are the same, for example: “I wash myself”. Pronouns are used in front of the conjugated reflexive verb to indicate who the verb is talking about. These pronouns include: Me, te, se, nos, se Examples: Me lavo- I wash myself. Me llamo Taylor- I call myself Taylor.
Por y Para Por and Para both mean “for”, and each has different uses:Uses of Por Uses of ParaTo express gratitude or apology DestinationMultiplication/Division Purpose/UseFrequency and Proportion In order to…“Through, along, by” Indicate a recipientExchange (sales) Deadline for a specific timeLength of time Contrast from what is expectedGeneral time (during) Actions that will soon be completedCommunication/TransportationCause/Reason“Estar por” = in the mood forPassive Constructions