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History of graphic_design_midterm_review_fall_2011_update


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History of graphic_design_midterm_review_fall_2011_update

  1. 1. History of Graphic Design Midterm Review
  2. 2. Historical Background of Design Vitruvius names a guiding principle that has found its place in design history: “all buildings must satisfy three criteria: strength (firmitas), functionality (utilitas), and beauty (venustas)” (Bürdek 1997)   Leonardo – designer as inventor – science and engineering based Disegno - the artistic idea/the creative spark inspiration Interno – plan the draft Esterno - the work of art Disegno as the father of the ‘arts’ - painting sculpture architecture ( hierarchy)   In 1588 Oxford Dictionary   a plan or scheme devised by a person for something that is to be realized, a first graphic draft of a work of art, -an object of the applied arts, which is to be binding for the execution of a work      
  3. 3. <ul><li>Social Process of Design </li></ul><ul><li>Event or Discovery: natural /man-made /technology </li></ul><ul><li>Change : philosophy/approach </li></ul><ul><li>Response: Aesthetic & Practice ( the link to Art & Design) </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction: good/bad? Does it work? </li></ul><ul><li>Dissemination: travel and migration – ideas and people </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation: - of practice/technology/philosophy/aesthetics </li></ul>
  4. 4. Looking at Images <ul><li>Which includes the breakdown of the parts of an image </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding difference between an ‘image’ and its parts and </li></ul><ul><li>how that affects the ‘whole’ </li></ul><ul><li>The message that the image sends/ and the role and relationship between creator/image/ viewer </li></ul><ul><li>This relationship is key to our understanding of art & design </li></ul><ul><li>We need to ask why = why do I like it </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important </li></ul><ul><li>What would happen if it was changed? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>These images – are part of our visual and cultural literacy </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Literacy means that a group shares the assigned meaning of a common body of information - visually is without as much rigidity (Dondis, 1973) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning lies as much in the eye of the beholder as in the talents of the creator. Form is affected by content; content is affected by form the message is cast by the creator and modified by the observer. (Dondis,1973) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reproduction and Authenticity <ul><li>Printing – quantity and mass distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Lithography – speed and variety of reproduction increased </li></ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul><ul><li>“ the eye perceives faster than the hand can draw” ( Benjamin, 1936) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kept pace with speech </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opened up possibilities for art/interpretation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changed our relationship with the image/object in regard to its authenticity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The whole province of genuineness is beyond technological ( and of course not only technological) reproducibility. </li></ul><ul><li>An object ’s authority is its genuineness </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive technology removes the thing reproduced from the realm of tradition - it substitutes for its unique incidence a multiplicity of incidences. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>What does this mean when creating work that is reproduced? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it affect the message? </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>How do you create authority and authenticity with multiple reproductions? </li></ul>
  10. 12. Phaistos Disk,, 2nd half 16th century BC - 1st half of the 11th century Crete, Greece Clay
  11. 13. Papyrus of Hunefer Book of the Dead, Anubis introducing Hunefer to weighing of his heart. 1300 BC, Egyptian
  12. 14. Caves of Lascaux, Hall of Bulls, painting, prehistoric, France
  13. 15. Incarnation Initial, Chi Rho Book of Kells Illuminated Manuscript, Celtic 1 st decade 9 th Century
  14. 16. Gospel of St. Mark Illuminated manuscript Book of Durrow c.680
  15. 17. Lindisfarne Gospels Carpet Page Celtic 698-700
  16. 18. Ormesby Psalter Illuminated Manuscript English, late Gothic 13 th Century English
  17. 19. Coronation Gospels St. Mark’s Gospel Aachen 800 AD Carolignian
  18. 20. Psalter in Latin Fust and Schoeffer 1457 German, Gothic Earliest example of color printing in Europe
  19. 21. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Beatus of Fernando and Sancha, 1047 Moorish Spain
  20. 22. Les Tres Riches heures du duc de Berry Illuminated Manuscript January page Limbourg Bros 1413-1416 France Gothic
  21. 23. Jack of Diamonds woodblock playing card 1400
  22. 24. Ex Libris, for Johannes Knabensberg, c 1450, woodblock ‘ Hans Igler that the hedgehog may kiss you’
  23. 25. Gutenberg Bible, 1450-55, Johan Gutenberg, Mainz, Germany
  24. 26. Nuremberg Chronicle , 1493 Anton Koberger , Printer, George Alt , Calligrapher
  25. 27. Travels in Mt. Syon , 1486, Bernardus de Breidenbach ( Erhard Reuwich, illustrator)
  26. 28. The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse , Albrecht Durer, 1498
  27. 29. Jenson-Eusebius Typeface, 1470, Nicolas Jenson, Evangelica Praeparatio
  28. 30. Schwabacher typeface, 1522 New Testament Martin Luther Woodcuts of the Apocalypse, Hans Cranach broken curves oblique strokes – retaining the Calligrapher’s curve
  29. 31. A course in the art of measurement with compass and ruler 1525 , Albrecht Durer
  30. 32. Octavo Aldus Manutius Early 16 th ce Venice Renaissance 1400 – early 1600s ( 15 th – early 17 th century)
  31. 33. <ul><li>Romain due Roi typeface, 1702 </li></ul><ul><li>Phillipe Grandjean deFouchy, French </li></ul>
  32. 34. Modern <ul><li>1750 onward </li></ul><ul><li>greater contrast between thin and thick strokes, - often hairline </li></ul><ul><li>serifs </li></ul><ul><li>vertical stress </li></ul><ul><li>more abstract in appearance </li></ul><ul><li>horizontal/vertical/circular </li></ul><ul><li>compass and ruler </li></ul>
  33. 35. Germany Unger -Fraktur 1793 Johann Friedrich Unger
  34. 36. 1725 Wm Caslon – London type foundry over 200 types based upon Caslon which had Dutch roots solid functionality easy to read Transitional Roman  
  35. 37. 18 th century Robert Clee Trade Card for liquor dealer Copperplate engraved MMA
  36. 38. Steam Engine, James Watt, 1744
  37. 39. Slab Serif , Egyptian Typeface ( six line pica), 1821, William Thorowgood
  38. 40. The Siege of Troy Astley’s Circus, Anonymous 1833 Letterpress and Woodcut
  39. 41. <ul><li>MIDDLE AGES 373 - 1453 AD Celtic, Saxon, & Hiberno 200 - 732 AD Byzantine Art 400 - 1453 AD Justinian 527 - 565 AD Islamic Art 622 - 900 AD Carolingian Art 732 - 900 AD Romanesque Style 1000 - 1140 AD Gothic Style 1140 - 1500 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance 1400-1600 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy 1400-1600 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. Europe 1500-1600 (includes Mannerism) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baroque 1600- 1725 </li></ul><ul><li>Rococo 1720-1760 </li></ul><ul><li>Neo Classical 1750-1830 Age of Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution 1750- 1850 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 42. Technology to Know <ul><li>Printing Press </li></ul><ul><li>Typography </li></ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Daguerrotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photograph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Lithography </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. <ul><li>Font Timeline </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old Style - Renaissance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional - 16 th – early 17 th , Baroque </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modern - second half 18 th Century, Neoclassical </li></ul></ul></ul>