History of Graphic Design Midterm Review
Historical Background of Design Vitruvius  names a guiding principle that has found its place in design history:  “all bui...
<ul><li>Social Process of Design </li></ul><ul><li>Event or Discovery:  natural /man-made /technology </li></ul><ul><li>Ch...
Looking at Images <ul><li>Which includes the breakdown of the parts of an image </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding difference...
<ul><li>Literacy  means that a group shares the assigned meaning of a common body of information - visually is without as ...
Reproduction and Authenticity  <ul><li>Printing – quantity and mass distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Lithography – speed and...
<ul><li>The whole province of genuineness is beyond technological ( and of course not only technological) reproducibility....
<ul><li>What does this mean when creating work that is reproduced? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it affect the message? </li>...
<ul><li>How do you create authority and authenticity with multiple reproductions? </li></ul>
 
 
Phaistos Disk,, 2nd half 16th century BC - 1st half of the 11th century Crete, Greece Clay
Papyrus of Hunefer Book of the Dead, Anubis introducing Hunefer to weighing of his heart.  1300 BC, Egyptian
Caves of Lascaux, Hall of Bulls, painting, prehistoric, France
Incarnation Initial, Chi Rho Book of Kells Illuminated Manuscript, Celtic 1 st  decade 9 th  Century
Gospel of St. Mark Illuminated manuscript Book of Durrow c.680
Lindisfarne Gospels Carpet Page Celtic 698-700
Ormesby Psalter Illuminated Manuscript English, late Gothic 13 th  Century English
Coronation Gospels St. Mark’s Gospel Aachen 800 AD Carolignian
Psalter in Latin Fust and Schoeffer 1457 German, Gothic Earliest example of color printing in Europe
Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Beatus of Fernando and Sancha, 1047 Moorish Spain
Les Tres Riches heures du duc de Berry Illuminated Manuscript January page Limbourg Bros 1413-1416 France Gothic
Jack of Diamonds woodblock playing card 1400
Ex Libris, for Johannes Knabensberg, c 1450, woodblock ‘ Hans Igler that the hedgehog  may kiss you’
Gutenberg Bible, 1450-55, Johan Gutenberg, Mainz, Germany
Nuremberg Chronicle , 1493  Anton Koberger , Printer,  George Alt , Calligrapher
Travels in Mt. Syon ,  1486, Bernardus de Breidenbach ( Erhard Reuwich, illustrator)
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse , Albrecht Durer, 1498
Jenson-Eusebius Typeface, 1470, Nicolas Jenson,  Evangelica Praeparatio
Schwabacher typeface, 1522 New Testament Martin Luther Woodcuts of the Apocalypse,  Hans Cranach broken curves oblique str...
A course in the art of measurement with compass and ruler   1525 , Albrecht Durer
Octavo Aldus Manutius Early 16 th  ce Venice Renaissance  1400 – early 1600s ( 15 th  – early 17 th  century)
<ul><li>Romain due Roi typeface, 1702 </li></ul><ul><li>Phillipe Grandjean deFouchy,  French </li></ul>
Modern  <ul><li>1750 onward </li></ul><ul><li>greater contrast  between thin and thick  strokes,  - often  hairline </li><...
Germany Unger -Fraktur 1793  Johann Friedrich Unger
1725 Wm Caslon –   London  type foundry over 200 types based upon Caslon  which had Dutch roots solid functionality  easy ...
18 th  century  Robert Clee Trade Card for  liquor dealer Copperplate engraved MMA
Steam Engine, James Watt, 1744
Slab Serif , Egyptian Typeface  ( six line pica),  1821, William Thorowgood
The Siege of Troy Astley’s Circus, Anonymous 1833 Letterpress and Woodcut
<ul><li>MIDDLE AGES 373 - 1453 AD Celtic, Saxon, & Hiberno 200 - 732 AD Byzantine Art 400 - 1453 AD Justinian 527 - 565 AD...
Technology to Know <ul><li>Printing Press </li></ul><ul><li>Typography </li></ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Dag...
<ul><li>Font Timeline </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old Style - Renaissance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional -...
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  • Cards – game of kings From ivory slats and silver plate to coarse paper Socializing – symbol recognition/sequencing/ logical deduction hearts - clergy spades - (spada) sword nobility club – leaf - peasant diamonds - burghers /merchant citizen
  • Ownership by individuals – use of humor, not solely religious Illustration/text A shift in their cultural role Manuscript to book Clergy to lay person
  • Combined the complex system and subsystems to print a typographic book BIBLE 11.75 X 15 INCH two columns ¾ inch margin between ( lpcol lines per column inch) 1-9 40 lpcol 10 41lpcol 42 lpcol 2 – 4 presses space for decorative initials 210 copies /180 on paper/ 30 on fine vellum / 5000 calfskins   investor loan scandal – locked out of printshop on the eve of completion Peter Schoeffer – designer illuminator &amp; Fust the investor took over ( he was the inspiration for Goethe’s Dr. Faustus) Debatable in history who was first but it came down to Gutenberg johan Gutenberg 1450 / Laurens Janzoon Coster 1444-1450 - Dutch  
  • 1,809 woodcut illustrations Masterpiece 18 x 12 pages Title page - full calligraphy woodblock Nuremburg Anton Koberger 1440-1513 100 craftsmen - 24 presses 200 editions/15 bibles 16 shops and agents 1490 smaller books   he still did large version with illustration George Alt – did the calligraphy Michael wolgemuth &amp; Sons created exemplar - hand made model layouts and manuscript texts used as guides for the woodcut illustrations, typesetting, page design, and makeup of books create exemplar. Draw the illustrations, , typesetting, page design, makeup of books)
  • Albrecht Durer( 1471 – 1528) Apprenticed with Wogelmuth, godson of Korberger ( individual /artistic interpretation of the supernatural)   went to Venice age 23 for 6 mos age 31 returned for 1.5 yrs painting theory and technique studied humanist philosophy recognized Germans lacked the theoretical knowledge
  • Jenson-Eusubius Venetian, humanist gothic calligraphic &amp; classical styling light open roman letters – popular today
  • Schwabacher 1480/1522 Martin Luther – rejection of the Roman style   1514 Fraktur by Anton Schonsperger ( fraktur also includes anything after 1450) broken curves an oblique strokes - retaining the calligraphers curve   roman and fraktureboth were used side by side - ---- religion govt and culture
  • germans lacked the theoretical knowledge A course in the art of measurement with compass and ruler 1525 Chapters: 1 st theoretical discussion of linear geometry/ 2 nd 2 d geometric construction 3 rd - application of geo to arch, decora, engineering, letterforms square as a base 4 th construction of geometric solids, linear perspective and mechanical aids to drawing USING THE SQUARE AS A FORM
  • Italic types as a cursive used less space- more words per page Italics with roman capitals
  • Louis XIV The Sun King gave an edict for a royal typeface de Fouchy created a system to standardize the lettering creating the Roman du Roi ( The King’s Roman Type)
  • science and its rules give you control over change/changing society  
  • Unger-Fraktur 1793 Johann Friedrich Unger dilemma - How to repopularize and inject geometric clarity of roman Moderns into german type a variant of fraktur printers were working with both and wanted something to bridge it
  • agri- industrial steam engine factory system – division of labor capitalist replaced landowner mass production   workers &amp; social problems   from humanist to material   more education   graphic communication system became more specialized design and production components photography lithography   from type to abstract visual forms letterpress to lithographers more creative fewer limitations   letter press went to typefounders to be more creative
  • Slab serif - overemphasized the serif rather than eliminating it name only from the phenomena of Napoleon and Egypt and weighty and grounded
  • Job printers operate the industrial machinery Anonymous The Siege of Troy , Astley’s Circus, 1833 Letterpress and Woodcut
  • History of graphic_design_midterm_review_fall_2011_update

    1. 1. History of Graphic Design Midterm Review
    2. 2. Historical Background of Design Vitruvius names a guiding principle that has found its place in design history: “all buildings must satisfy three criteria: strength (firmitas), functionality (utilitas), and beauty (venustas)” (Bürdek 1997)   Leonardo – designer as inventor – science and engineering based Disegno - the artistic idea/the creative spark inspiration Interno – plan the draft Esterno - the work of art Disegno as the father of the ‘arts’ - painting sculpture architecture ( hierarchy)   In 1588 Oxford Dictionary   a plan or scheme devised by a person for something that is to be realized, a first graphic draft of a work of art, -an object of the applied arts, which is to be binding for the execution of a work      
    3. 3. <ul><li>Social Process of Design </li></ul><ul><li>Event or Discovery: natural /man-made /technology </li></ul><ul><li>Change : philosophy/approach </li></ul><ul><li>Response: Aesthetic & Practice ( the link to Art & Design) </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction: good/bad? Does it work? </li></ul><ul><li>Dissemination: travel and migration – ideas and people </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation: - of practice/technology/philosophy/aesthetics </li></ul>
    4. 4. Looking at Images <ul><li>Which includes the breakdown of the parts of an image </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding difference between an ‘image’ and its parts and </li></ul><ul><li>how that affects the ‘whole’ </li></ul><ul><li>The message that the image sends/ and the role and relationship between creator/image/ viewer </li></ul><ul><li>This relationship is key to our understanding of art & design </li></ul><ul><li>We need to ask why = why do I like it </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important </li></ul><ul><li>What would happen if it was changed? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>These images – are part of our visual and cultural literacy </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Literacy means that a group shares the assigned meaning of a common body of information - visually is without as much rigidity (Dondis, 1973) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning lies as much in the eye of the beholder as in the talents of the creator. Form is affected by content; content is affected by form the message is cast by the creator and modified by the observer. (Dondis,1973) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Reproduction and Authenticity <ul><li>Printing – quantity and mass distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Lithography – speed and variety of reproduction increased </li></ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul><ul><li>“ the eye perceives faster than the hand can draw” ( Benjamin, 1936) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kept pace with speech </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opened up possibilities for art/interpretation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changed our relationship with the image/object in regard to its authenticity </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>The whole province of genuineness is beyond technological ( and of course not only technological) reproducibility. </li></ul><ul><li>An object ’s authority is its genuineness </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive technology removes the thing reproduced from the realm of tradition - it substitutes for its unique incidence a multiplicity of incidences. </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>What does this mean when creating work that is reproduced? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it affect the message? </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>How do you create authority and authenticity with multiple reproductions? </li></ul>
    10. 12. Phaistos Disk,, 2nd half 16th century BC - 1st half of the 11th century Crete, Greece Clay
    11. 13. Papyrus of Hunefer Book of the Dead, Anubis introducing Hunefer to weighing of his heart. 1300 BC, Egyptian
    12. 14. Caves of Lascaux, Hall of Bulls, painting, prehistoric, France
    13. 15. Incarnation Initial, Chi Rho Book of Kells Illuminated Manuscript, Celtic 1 st decade 9 th Century
    14. 16. Gospel of St. Mark Illuminated manuscript Book of Durrow c.680
    15. 17. Lindisfarne Gospels Carpet Page Celtic 698-700
    16. 18. Ormesby Psalter Illuminated Manuscript English, late Gothic 13 th Century English
    17. 19. Coronation Gospels St. Mark’s Gospel Aachen 800 AD Carolignian
    18. 20. Psalter in Latin Fust and Schoeffer 1457 German, Gothic Earliest example of color printing in Europe
    19. 21. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Beatus of Fernando and Sancha, 1047 Moorish Spain
    20. 22. Les Tres Riches heures du duc de Berry Illuminated Manuscript January page Limbourg Bros 1413-1416 France Gothic
    21. 23. Jack of Diamonds woodblock playing card 1400
    22. 24. Ex Libris, for Johannes Knabensberg, c 1450, woodblock ‘ Hans Igler that the hedgehog may kiss you’
    23. 25. Gutenberg Bible, 1450-55, Johan Gutenberg, Mainz, Germany
    24. 26. Nuremberg Chronicle , 1493 Anton Koberger , Printer, George Alt , Calligrapher
    25. 27. Travels in Mt. Syon , 1486, Bernardus de Breidenbach ( Erhard Reuwich, illustrator)
    26. 28. The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse , Albrecht Durer, 1498
    27. 29. Jenson-Eusebius Typeface, 1470, Nicolas Jenson, Evangelica Praeparatio
    28. 30. Schwabacher typeface, 1522 New Testament Martin Luther Woodcuts of the Apocalypse, Hans Cranach broken curves oblique strokes – retaining the Calligrapher’s curve
    29. 31. A course in the art of measurement with compass and ruler 1525 , Albrecht Durer
    30. 32. Octavo Aldus Manutius Early 16 th ce Venice Renaissance 1400 – early 1600s ( 15 th – early 17 th century)
    31. 33. <ul><li>Romain due Roi typeface, 1702 </li></ul><ul><li>Phillipe Grandjean deFouchy, French </li></ul>
    32. 34. Modern <ul><li>1750 onward </li></ul><ul><li>greater contrast between thin and thick strokes, - often hairline </li></ul><ul><li>serifs </li></ul><ul><li>vertical stress </li></ul><ul><li>more abstract in appearance </li></ul><ul><li>horizontal/vertical/circular </li></ul><ul><li>compass and ruler </li></ul>
    33. 35. Germany Unger -Fraktur 1793 Johann Friedrich Unger
    34. 36. 1725 Wm Caslon – London type foundry over 200 types based upon Caslon which had Dutch roots solid functionality easy to read Transitional Roman  
    35. 37. 18 th century Robert Clee Trade Card for liquor dealer Copperplate engraved MMA
    36. 38. Steam Engine, James Watt, 1744
    37. 39. Slab Serif , Egyptian Typeface ( six line pica), 1821, William Thorowgood
    38. 40. The Siege of Troy Astley’s Circus, Anonymous 1833 Letterpress and Woodcut
    39. 41. <ul><li>MIDDLE AGES 373 - 1453 AD Celtic, Saxon, & Hiberno 200 - 732 AD Byzantine Art 400 - 1453 AD Justinian 527 - 565 AD Islamic Art 622 - 900 AD Carolingian Art 732 - 900 AD Romanesque Style 1000 - 1140 AD Gothic Style 1140 - 1500 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance 1400-1600 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy 1400-1600 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. Europe 1500-1600 (includes Mannerism) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baroque 1600- 1725 </li></ul><ul><li>Rococo 1720-1760 </li></ul><ul><li>Neo Classical 1750-1830 Age of Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution 1750- 1850 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 42. Technology to Know <ul><li>Printing Press </li></ul><ul><li>Typography </li></ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Daguerrotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photograph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Lithography </li></ul></ul>
    41. 43. <ul><li>Font Timeline </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old Style - Renaissance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional - 16 th – early 17 th , Baroque </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modern - second half 18 th Century, Neoclassical </li></ul></ul></ul>

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