Ragain Sess1 102209

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Ragain Sess1 102209

  1. 1. Water Distribution Assessment at Tule-Lake NWR: Using LiDAR Technology to Support Water Resource Management<br />2009 SAME Water Conference<br />Sean Ragain – GeoEngineers, Inc.<br />
  2. 2. Background on the LiDAR System<br />
  3. 3. What LiDAR Is:<br />Active Sensing System: <br /><ul><li>Uses its own energy source, rather than reflected natural light or naturally emitted energy
  4. 4. Features on the ground are “detected” from a reflection of light energy from an airborne source
  5. 5. Ranging of (distance to) the reflecting object based on time difference between emission and reflection</li></li></ul><li>Benefits of LiDAR<br /><ul><li>Accuracy
  6. 6. Volume of data
  7. 7. Digital format/data quantification (volume calculations, cross sections, profiles, useable databases – GIS)
  8. 8. Access to difficult/inaccessible terrain
  9. 9. Cost – similar $/acre as conventional ground survey ($250 - $600/mi2)
  10. 10. Speed
  11. 11. Ability to combine with orthophotos, video, magnetic, thermal etc.</li></li></ul><li>LiDAR Instrumentation<br /><ul><li>Laser Source
  12. 12. Laser Detector
  13. 13. Scanning mechanism & controller
  14. 14. Computer timing circuits for emissions & reflections
  15. 15. Airborne Differential GPS (position)
  16. 16. Inertial Measurement Unit (attitude)
  17. 17. High Capacity Data Recorders
  18. 18. Pan, infrared or multi-spectral cameras for othophotography</li></li></ul><li>LiDAR Instrumentation<br />
  19. 19. LiDAR Operational Theory<br /><ul><li>A pulse of light is emitted, then reflected – precise time is recorded
  20. 20. Using the constant speed of light, the time delay is converted into a slant-range distance
  21. 21. Knowing the position and orientation of the sensor, the XYZ coordinate of the reflective surface can be calculated</li></li></ul><li>Digital Elevation Models (DEM)<br /><ul><li>DEMs are cartographic constructs used to visualize topography
  22. 22. DEMs produced directly from the LiDAR Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) are not aesthetically pleasing
  23. 23. LiDAR data is converted into a DEM at the nominal spacing which retains fidelity to the original data and which appropriately smoothes the contours</li></li></ul><li>DEM from LiDAR<br />
  24. 24. Contour Generation<br /><ul><li>Contours are generated from the DEM and can be exported in CAD format
  25. 25. The CAD contours are edited to ensure proper cartographic standards
  26. 26. Contours are converted into ArcInfo format where QC routines ensure quality final product</li></li></ul><li>1-ft. Contours Derived from DEM<br />Be careful what you ask for?<br />
  27. 27. Combining DEMs and Photos<br />
  28. 28. Common Applications<br /><ul><li>General Land Use / Land Cover Classification
  29. 29. Vegetation Volume / Canopy Characteristics Analysis
  30. 30. Hydrologic and Watershed Modeling
  31. 31. Slope Stability
  32. 32. Habitat Classification
  33. 33. Property Management
  34. 34. Linear Corridor Assessment</li></li></ul><li>Lower Klamath Basin California National Wildlife Refuges<br />GRAND AWARD WINNER<br />
  35. 35. Background<br /><ul><li>The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) manages the Lower Klamath and Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuges
  36. 36. The Refuges are dependent on water supplies from the Bureau of Reclamation’s Klamath Project
  37. 37. Drought in 2001 brought water resource issues to a head
  38. 38. Controversy made national news
  39. 39. Conflict became political</li></li></ul><li>Project Location<br />Oregon<br />California<br />
  40. 40. Background | REFUGE HABITAT<br /><ul><li>Over 350 water-control structures and more than 230 habitat management units
  41. 41. Habitat Types
  42. 42. Permanent and Seasonal Open Water and Marsh
  43. 43. Lost River and Shortnose Suckers
  44. 44. Waterfowl
  45. 45. Permanent and Seasonal Wetlands
  46. 46. Leased Agricultural Lands (>15,000 acres)
  47. 47. Uplands</li></li></ul><li>Water Schematic<br />Lost River<br />Straits Drain<br />Klamath River<br />ADYCanal<br />D Pumping<br />Plant<br />Tule Lake<br />Tunnel<br />J Canal<br />Lower Klamath<br />Refuge<br />Tule Lake<br />Refuge<br />Sheepy<br />Ridge<br />
  48. 48. Challenges<br /><ul><li>No new water sources available
  49. 49. Potentially diminishing volume from current sources
  50. 50. Significant water losses to evaporation and seepage
  51. 51. Limitations and inefficiencies in moving water from A to B</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Document and evaluate the current water system
  52. 52. Recommend facility improvements and analyze management alternatives that:
  53. 53. Improve wetland productivity
  54. 54. Increase efficiency – decrease costs
  55. 55. Enhance water reuse capabilities
  56. 56. Increase water storage capacity</li></ul>Project Goals<br />
  57. 57. Constraints<br /><ul><li>Competing demands for water – Endangered Species, Tribes, Agriculture
  58. 58. Kuchel Act – Requires Refuge land dedicated to wildlife with consideration for optimum agricultural use
  59. 59. Funding limitations restrict improvement options
  60. 60. Limited topographic information available</li></li></ul><li>Accurate Maps<br />Detailed topographic information and accurate maps are critical for:<br /><ul><li>Documenting current conditions
  61. 61. Confirming water flow directions
  62. 62. Calculating areas and volumes
  63. 63. Evaluating how water can be moved and reused more efficiently
  64. 64. Designing new structures
  65. 65. Water budgeting</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>>90,000 acres to survey
  66. 66. Accuracy in x,y,z of 15 to 30 cm required.
  67. 67. One x,y,z data point for every 2 m2 (approximately 114 million data points - both Refuges)
  68. 68. Creation of detailed DTMs
  69. 69. 3-Dimensional modeling necessary for volume/ capacity calculations
  70. 70. Fully GIS-compatible</li></ul>Right Tool for the Job<br />
  71. 71. Total Station GPS used in Field for Structural Details<br />Custom DataloggerMenu developed to prompt recording of:<br /><ul><li>Structure Name
  72. 72. Type and Condition
  73. 73. Dimensions</li></ul>Supplemental GIS Mapping<br />
  74. 74. Survey Area<br />
  75. 75. Klamath Data Index<br />44 kilometers<br />Area of enlargement<br />28 kilometers<br />2000 meter block<br />
  76. 76. Area of enlargement<br />Orthophoto<br />
  77. 77. Orthophoto Zoom<br />
  78. 78. Digital Elevation Model<br />
  79. 79. Shaded Elevation Model<br />
  80. 80. Shaded Elevation Model<br />
  81. 81. DEM with Contours<br />
  82. 82. DEM with Contours<br />
  83. 83. GIS Inundation Model<br />Plan view of extent of flooding in five (~150A) management units at various water-level stages. Used to determine if installing structures to gravity flow water between the units would allow a large area to be periodically flooded. <br />
  84. 84. Slopes in 3D<br />
  85. 85. 3D-Rendering<br />
  86. 86. <ul><li>Documented current physical conditions of Refuge
  87. 87. Provided highly detailed GIS database supported by orthophotography
  88. 88. Facilitated analysis of water management alternatives by thoroughly documenting:
  89. 89. Infrastructure
  90. 90. Habitat
  91. 91. Management practices (water rights, etc.)</li></ul>Project Results<br />
  92. 92. Conclusions<br />The survey data will have substantial utility for other purposes, including:<br /><ul><li>Preparing accurate area-capacity curves for the wetlands
  93. 93. Estimating seepage and evaporation losses needed as part of calculating water-storage balances
  94. 94. Identifying the optimum use of water at the refuges
  95. 95. Providing a detailed snapshot of the current site conditions, infrastructure and habitat distribution for future comparison</li></li></ul><li>Conclusions<br /><ul><li>LiDAR is a cost-effective tool for application to numerous mapping, science, and engineering type projects.
  96. 96. FWS provided with long-term tools to identify, analyze and implement water-management improvements that will facilitate the efficient storage, movement and reuse of the water available to the Refuges.</li></li></ul><li>Conclusions<br /><ul><li>LiDAR technology has tremendous potential to facilitate water-resource management, and its use should be considered in scoping all large-scale engineering and water resource projects.</li></li></ul><li>THANK YOU!<br />Questions?<br />

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