Bacteria of periodontits powerpoint


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Bacteria of periodontits powerpoint

  1. 1.  Many people get Periodontitis and Periodontal Disease confused. They think they are the same thing, but they are not. They are not interchangeable. Periodontal Disease is inflammation of the periodontium. Periodontal Disease that involves all the structures of the periodontium is called periodontitis. Periodontitis is a form of periodontal disease.
  2. 2.  Periodontitis is….  -bacterial infection of all parts of the periodontium including the gingiva, periodontal ligament, bone and cementum  -The tissue damage that occurs in periodontitis results in irreversible destruction of tissues of the periodontium  -chronic inflammation due to bacteria filled plaque.  -destruction of the alveolar bone and periodontal ligament  -apical migration of the junctional epithelium causing periodontal pockets
  3. 3. -gums and bones pull away from teeth causing large pockets. Debris and bacteria collect in there and causes infections Structures that hold the teeth together wear down -causes loss and exfoliation of teeth
  4. 4.  - Not a continuous process but occurs in an intermittent matter with extended periods or disease inactivity followed  by short periods of destruction. Destruction is site specific, it does not occur in all parts of the mouth
  5. 5.  Signs and Symptoms:  Gums can be bright red, inflamed, or bleed.  pain  Halitosis  loose teeth.
  6. 6.  Causes-  Dental plaque forms on teeth - this is a pale-yellow biofilm that develops naturally on teeth. It is formed by bacteria that try to attach themselves to the tooth's smooth surface.  If it is not removed, within two or three days it hardens into calculus. It is much harder to remove than plaque.  Plaque can gradually and progressively damage teeth and surrounding tissue. At first, the patient may develop gingivitis - inflammation of the gum around the base of the teeth.  Persistent gingivitis can result in pockets developing between the teeth and gums. These pockets fill up with bacteria.  Bacterial toxins and our immune system's response to infection start destroying the bone and connective tissue that hold teeth in place. Eventually the teeth start becoming loose, and can even fall out.
  7. 7.  Bacteria are microorganisms too small to see with the naked eye that exists in virtually all environments in the world. They exist in dirt, water, caves and hot springs, organic materials like fallen trees and dead animals, and inside the bodies of virtually every living animal on earth.
  8. 8.  Bacteria comes in three main shapes:  Spherical (like a ball) These are usually the simplest ones. Bacteria shaped like this are called cocci (singular coccus).   Rod shaped These are known as bacilli (singular bacillus). Some of the rod-shaped bacteria are curved; these are known as vibrio.   Spiral These known are as spirilla (singular spirillus). If their coil is very tight they are known as spirochetes.
  9. 9.  BIOFilm is a living, organized community of bacteria that grows on a surface. One of the main advantages to bacteria to form biofilm is protection. It is harder to kill just by adding antimicrobial substances without first breaking through biofilm attachments.  Plaque is a biofilm, and is therefore difficult to control. This is the reason flossing and brushing twice a day is so important, because it helps to break up biofilm attachments.
  10. 10.  There are 5 phases to the development of Dental Plaque Biofilm.  Phase 1 – Film Coating  Acquired pellicle – the purpose of this coating is to protect enamel, however it changes the electric charge of the tooth, which allows for easier bacterial adhesion.  Phase 2 – Initial Attachment of Bacteria to Pellicle  Hours after Pellicle is formed, bacteria attach themselves using structures such as fimbriae to the pellicle.
  11. 11.  Phase 3 – New Bacteria join  After initial attachment, bacteria send chemical signals to other bacteria to help form community.
  12. 12.  Phase 4 – Extracellular Slime Layer and Microcolony Formation › Extracellular Slime layer  The bacteria attached to the tooth surface are stimulated to excrete slime, which anchors the bacteria and provides protection. › Microcolony Formation – once the tooth has been covered with attached bacteria, the growth of the biofilm occurs through the cellular division of the adherent bacteria. That means that the growth of the biolfilm is from the bacteria that’s already there, not new bacteria joining the gang. › Bacterial Blooms – periods when specific species or groups of species grow at accelerated rates.
  13. 13.  Phase 5 – Mature Biofilm – now the bacteria form mushroom shaped microcolonies. This allows different colonies to attach to each other.  After Phase 5, parts of the biofilm can break off, and travel to other places to form new colonies.
  14. 14.  -Periodontitis is associated with an enormous number of Gram Negative Bacteria  -The number of bacteria in Periodontitis that can be cultured from an individual tooth surface ranges from 100,000 to 100 million bacteria!  -Gram Negative rods compromise about 74% of the bacteria associated with Periodontitis.
  15. 15.  -Chronic periodontitis is associated with high proportions of gram negative and motile bacteria.  -Bacteria composition of periodontitis differs significantly from patient to patient and site to site within the same mouth.
  16. 16.  Aggregatibacter actinonmycetemcomitans -is an microorgranism that is strongly associated with periodontitis. It is capable of invading normal hosts in immune response and of destroying gingival connective tissue and bone. It secretes a protein toxin, leukotoxin (LtxA), which evades the host immune response during infection.
  17. 17.  Tannerella forsythia –It has been determined by researchers to be the most significant microbial risk factor that distinguishes subject with periodontitis from those who are periodontally healthy. The risk of periodontal attachment loss is higher in adolescents who are colonized with this bacteria than in those whom the species is not detected.
  18. 18.  Porphyromonas gingivalis- Is commonly seen in sites that exhibit recurrence of disease or persistence of deep periodontal pockets after periodontal therapy. The species has been shown to induce elevated host response in subjects with various forms of periodontitis.
  19. 19.  Streptococcus intermedius- contributes to the formation of biofilms that act as a protective layer against antibiotics in chronic infections.  Campylobacter rectus- it induces bone loss. It is gram negative and anaerobic. Can cause oral absesses.  Eubacterium nodatum- anaerobic, gram positive rod shaped bacteria that is more present in people who have moderate to severe periodontitis. They live and multiply close together on a tooth surface.
  20. 20.  Fusobacterium nucleatum-is a bacteria that is commonly found in plaque of the mouth. It is a key component of plaque due to its abundance and its ability to closely live together with other species in the oral cavity. The cells are rods and spindle-shaped of many different lengths. This bacteria has been shown to play a central role in plaque formation and periodontitis due to its ability to adhere to a wide range of both Gram-positive and Gram- negative plaque microorganisms. It is very much associated with periodontitis, along with invasive human infections of the head and neck, chest, lung, liver and abdomen. It acts as a bridge between early and late colonizers on surfaces of teeth.
  21. 21.  Fusobacterium nucleatum, subspecies polymorphyum- acts as an intermediate between early and late colonizers in the oral cavity. It binds to any salivary component. A rod-shaped bacterium in which the cell is thicker in the center and tapers toward the ends.
  22. 22.  Prevotella intermedia- are anaerobic, non-spore forming, gram- negative rods that live in the periodontal pockets in between the teeth where they co-exist with other microbes.  Peptosteptococcus micros- anaerobic gram positive non spore forming bacteria found supra-gingivally  Prevotella nigrescens- located in subgingival plaque of patients with periodontitis. Gram negative. Aids in attachment loss and irregular bone loss.
  23. 23.  Prevotella nigrescens- located in subgingival plaque of patients with periodontitis. Gram negative. Aids in attachment loss and irregular bone loss.  Treponella denticola- Gram negative anaerobic. Considered one of the main agents for periodontitis. Forms within plaque. Destruction of surrounding tissue and alveolar bone.
  24. 24.  321.php  Foundations of Periodontics for the Dental Hygienist Text Book by Jill S. Nield-Gehrig and Donald E. Willmann Third Edition  5  http://medical- +polymorphum  act  41-1626.2012.00129.x/pdf  nodatum-flash-cards/