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Cobb, Seltmann, Franz. 2014. The Current State of Arthropod Biodiversity Data: Addressing Impacts of Global Change.

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Cobb et al. 2014. The Current State of Arthropod Biodiversity Data: Addressing Impacts of Global Change. Presented at https://www.idigbio.org/content/collections-21st-century-symposium Program available at https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php/Collections_for_the_21st_Century

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Cobb, Seltmann, Franz. 2014. The Current State of Arthropod Biodiversity Data: Addressing Impacts of Global Change.

  1. 1. The Current State of Arthropod Biodiversity Data: Addressing Impacts of Global Change Neil S. Cobb (Northern Arizona University) Katja Seltmann, (American Museum of Natural History), and Nico Franz (Arizona State University) May 5, 2014 Tri-Trophic Thematic Collection Network
  2. 2. The Current State of Arthropod Biodiversity Data: Addressing Impacts of Global Change  Focus on North American– United States > Canada  How many species can we model future distributions under climate change? (n>30)  Museum Occurrence records:  Major taxonomic and functional groups  Biogeography  Timeline  Linking trophic connections
  3. 3. Race Against Time Arthropods comprise ~70% of described species, only 15% of climate impact studies ~15% of arthropod species have been described, 70% for North America(?) Less than 10% of arthropod species have “enough” occurrence data Arthropod occurrence data resides primarily in museum collections 600,000 million specimens worldwide, <50,000,000 digitized (8%) Cannot predict climate change impacts without knowing existing species distributions
  4. 4. 4 Arthropods Dominate Biodiversity ~70% Really: Insects Dominate Biodiversity ~63% Or at least Binomial Biodiversity
  5. 5. North American Arthropod Functional Diversity: Major Players Araneae Orthoptera Hemiptera Coleoptera Hymenoptera Diptera Minor insect orders, Crustacea, Myriapods, non-spider arachnids Lepidoptera Seven Major Terrestrial Arthropod Orders Economic & Health Impacts Pests (Herbivores & Parasites) Ecosystem Services Parasitoids & Predators Pollinators Herbivores (Biocontrol & Food) Ants Decomposers
  6. 6. Understanding Climate Change Impacts on Arthropods Ecological Niche Modeling, Species Distribution Modeling Document Present Distributions Promote Data Acquisition Near-Future Goals Predict Biodiversity Understand Mechanisms Present Goals Way in the Future Goals Predict Future Species Distributions Model Cross-Trophic Interactions
  7. 7. Predicting Impacts of Climate Change on Species Distributions BIOMOD2+ Modeling Workflow  30-100 occurrence localities  Distributed over entire range
  8. 8.  How many arthropod species are observable in the field?  Museums currently hold the vast majority of arthropod occurrence data!! Field Observable Arthropod Taxa Dragonflies some damselflies Butterflies Ants Grasshoppers Mantids Crickets Cockroaches Earwigs Vespid Wasps Projects that use observations Odonata Central Butterflies & Moths of NA BugGuide Discoverlife (Bee Hunt) Life on Loosestrife Cricket Crawl Lost Ladybug Great Sunflower Project # of NA Arthropod Species that can be Observed in Field 3,001 species 6,000 aquatic species?? 9,000 total observable species 95,000 total unobservable species
  9. 9. The Data  Museum Occurrence Records for United States & Canada  Three sources of data Southwest Collections of Arthropods TCN Tri-Trophic TCN GBIF 4,606,160 (500k) (900k) (3.2 million)
  10. 10. Methods The “Seltmann model 865B” Biodiversity Cluster Array 1. Compile Raw data 2. Clean Data 3. Format Data 4. Compile & run scripts
  11. 11. Museum Occurrence Records for United States & Canada 2,166 Families 20,153 Genera 80,161 species (105,000(?) total) 4,606,160 Specimen Records 3,7331,257 Georeferenced Records (81%) 2,803,956 Identified to Species (77%)
  12. 12. Canada USA Mexico # of Collections 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 # of Specimens (Millions) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 North American Arthropod Collections (USA-Canada-Mexico)
  13. 13. Key Estimates Current Holdings 237 million specimens accounted for >17 million not accounted for 254 million Total specimens in NA collections 85 million Total North American specimens (?) Annual Additions 3.8 million total new specimens per year 1.2 million new North American specimens per year # Specimens (Millions) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 North American Arthropod Collections Total Arthropod Specimens (USA-Canada-Mexico) North American Specimens North American Specimens Digitized
  14. 14. North American Arthropod Collections Key Estimates Current Holdings 237 million specimens accounted for >17 million not accounted for 254 million Total specimens in NA collections 85 million Total North American specimens (?) Annual Additions 3.8 million total new specimens per year 1.2 million new North American specimens per year # Specimens (Millions) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Can we catch up? NA Specimens Digitized To Date NA Specimens Digitized Per Year NA Specimens Collected Per Year (USA-Canada- Mexico)
  15. 15. North American Arthropod Collections Total Arthropod Specimens (USA-Canada-Mexico) North American Specimens North American Specimens Digitized # Specimens (Millions) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0
  16. 16. 400 300 200 100 5-Fold increase in digitization 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 2055 Year # Digitized Specimens (millions) 0 Projected # of NA specimens Current rate of digitization Can we catch up?
  17. 17. Biogeography of NA Arthropod Collections 692,749 Species Records (Georeferenced) # Records / 2500 km2
  18. 18. Timeline of Arthropod Collecting 120 4.2 million total records 120 100 80 60 40 20 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Year Collected Number 0 100 80 60 40 20 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Year Collected # Specimens Digitized (Millions) 0 1,526 records before Columbus 637 records in future 2011 2012 2013 1.6 million records Pre-Climate Change
  19. 19. Research Ready Data (identified to species & georeferenced) 50000 52,604 species less than 30 >= 30 >= 100 >= 500 >=1000 # of Occurence Records Number of Species 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 8,871 species (11%)
  20. 20. Taxonomic Distribution: Databased Species Araneae Orthoptera Hemiptera Hymenoptera Coleoptera Diptera Lepidoptera Number of Species 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 # Species in NA # Species in database
  21. 21. Araneae Orthoptera Hemiptera Coleoptera Hymenoptera Diptera Lepidoptera # Records (Millions) 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 Taxonomic Distribution: Expected vs Observed Records Expected Observed
  22. 22. Vector pests Aquatics Herbivores Pollinators Predators Parasitoids # of Species 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 Ecological Distribution: Databased Species # Species in NA # Species in database
  23. 23. Vector pests Aquatics Herbivores Pollinators Predators Parasitoids # Records (Millions) 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Ecological Distribution: Expected vs Observed Records Expected Observed
  24. 24. Status of Research-Ready Arthropod Biodiversity Data 1. Fraction of specimens digitized, but enough to model for climate change impacts. 2. Current rate of digitization needs to increase exponentially to fully utilize existing specimen data. 3. Biogeography of specimen records suggests significant bias. 4. Historical data indicate a number of taxa can be used to test for climate change responses now. 5. Taxonomic breadth of data generally good (except Diptera). 6. Ecological categories demonstrate good coverage (except predators & parasitoids).
  25. 25. Stacked Species Distribution Models • Can assess overlap among species • Predicted community “types” • Examine Biotic Interactions Present 2090 Plant Enemies Herbivore Pollinator Networks
  26. 26. Modeling Biotic Associations Assessment of Trophic Network Data 1. Rigorous Data-filtering Framework 2. High confidence in < 20% of recorded associations
  27. 27. Conclusions TCN Collaboration Lots to do Lots to work with Take Your Pick Really 11% Full
  28. 28. Next Steps Extend analysis to Mexico and Central America. Compare with other continents and oceans as well as other phyla in North America. Create website that provides near real time statistics to identify gaps and advertise research-ready data.
  29. 29. Timeline Biogeography of NA Arthropod Collections 692,749 Species Records (Georeferenced)
  30. 30. Conclusions: A few suggestions Promote Interoperability of user-friendly databases & software (Symbiota, Arthropod Easy, GBIF [Arctos], CalBug?) Push for technological advances (InvertNet imaging [100’s to >1000 specimens per image]) Crowd-sourcing (Notes from Nature) Increase # of observable species (DiscoverLife) Extend beyond political boundaries (SpeciesLink, GBIF)
  31. 31. Specific ways museums can address climate change impacts on Arthropods 1. Provide occurrence records from museum specimens 2. Provide expertise A. Monitoring Programs B. Observational Inventories C. Taxonomic revisions D. Identification Services through loans E. Training Taxonomists and Parataxonomists
  32. 32. We compiled distribution records for all Sphingidae of Sub-Saharan Africa (south of ca. 17° N latitude, including Madagascar), based on an extensive search of published literature and the internet: 1. Lepidoptera blogs, 2. specimen trading sites, 3. the Barcode of Life Database (http://www.barcodinglife.org), 4. the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (http://www.gbif.org ) 5. correspondence with a large number of professional and amateur collectors, 6. our own field sampling, and 7. through databasing several major natural history collections (e.g. museums in London, Berlin, Paris, Munich, Tervuren and Pittsburgh).
  33. 33. Assessment of Trophic Network Data Filtered Association Network Unfiltered Association Network (Raw Data) High confidence in < 20% of recorded associations
  34. 34. Proposed Activities to increase our knowledge of species distributions. Crowdsource data entry (Notes from Nature) Promote technological advances (InvertNet) Increase “informed” observations (mobile identification apps, NextGen field kit)
  35. 35. COLLECTING EVEN DATA: The occurrence of an insect species on a plant genus Compute frequency of occurrence on a particular plant genus Compare with all insect collecting events on any plant ANALYSIS: evaluate insect/plant associations with different scores Modify algorithm to improve fit of model to data based on results Scores: High, Medium, or Low confidence in insect--plant association HEURISTIC DATA: Larvae present? Multiple specimens? Voucher specimen available?
  36. 36. ~105,000 Described Arthropod Species occur in US-Canada Possibly ~35,000 Undescribed Arthropod Species
  37. 37. 1. Small labels 2. Poor taxonomic resolution 3. Lack of coordination Use sp, sp., spp, sp? Etc as example iDigBio takes everything: when are going to start improving the quality of the data?
  38. 38. 476,946 insect specimens 37 collections and subcollections 476,946 online records 388,451 georeferenced records 21,505 type records 41 records of species in redlists 5,855 distinct accepted species spp. names records accepted 190,855 synonyms 2,361 not found 209,372 not identified 74,358
  39. 39. Focus on North America – United States Over 6,000 species of potential pests World Food Production would be reduced by 1/3 as a result of unchecked insect pests

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