HRM) • • six functional area) •1. human resource planning , recruitment and selection •2. human resource development •3. compensation and benefit •4. safety and health •5. employee and labor relation •6. human resource research
- - - Shared Service Center) - Outsourcing Firm) work flow) - The human resource manager)
Dimension Personnel/IR HRM Beliefs and assumptions 1. Contract Careful delineation of written contracts Aim to go beyond contract„ 2. Rules Importance of devising clear rules/mutuality Can-do outlook; - - ---impatience with rule 3. Guide to management action ProceduresBusiness need 4. Behaviour referent Norms custom and practice Values/mission 5 Managerial task vis a vis labour Monitoring Nurturing 6. Nature of relations Pluralist Unitarist 7. Conflict Institutionalised De-emphasised 8. Key relations Labour management Customer 9. Initiatives piecemeal Integrated 10.Corporate plan Marginal to Central to 11. Speed of decision Slow Fast
12. Management role Transactional Transformational leadership 13. Key managers Personnel/IR specialists General/business/line managers 14. Communication Indirect Direct 15. Standardisation High (for example parity an issue) Low (for example parity not an issue) 16. Prized management skills Negotiation Facilitation 17. Selection Separate, marginal task Integrated, key task 18. Pay Job evaluation (fixed grades) Performance related 19. Conditions Separately negotiated Harmonisation 20. Labour management Collective bargaining contracts Towards individual contracts21 .21.Thrust of relations with stewards Regularised through facilities Marginalised (with exception of some - and training - bargaining for change model)
- Scientific Management Human Relation Human Resource management Human Resource today Human Resource tomorrow Strategic Human Resource Management
What to do 1. duties) 2. tasks) 3. responsibility) How to do it 1. (method) 2. 3.
Why to do it 1. 2. 3. Qualification 1. KSA 2. 3.
Job Analysis is a systematic exploration, study and recording the responsibilities, duties, skills, accountabilities, work environment and ability requirements of a specific job. It also involves determining the relative importance of the duties, responsibilities and physical and emotional skills for a given job. All these factors identify what a job demands and what an employee must possess to perform a job productively. What Does Job Analysis Involve ? The process of job analysis involves in-depth investigation in order to control the output, i.e., get the job performed successfully. The process helps in finding out what a particular department requires and what a prospective worker needs to deliver. It also helps in determining particulars about a job including job title, job location, job summary, duties involved, working conditions, possible hazards and machines, tools, equipments and materials to be used by the existing or potential employee.
However, the process is not limited to determination of these factors only. It also extends to finding out the necessary human qualifications to perform the job. These include establishing the levels of education, experience, judgment, training, initiative, leadership skills, physical skills, communication skills, responsibility, accountability, emotional characteristics and unusual sensory demands. These factors change according to the type, seniority level, industry and risk involved in a particular job. Importance of Job Analysis The details collected by conducting job analysis play an important role in controlling the output of the particular job. Determining the success of job depends on the unbiased, proper and thorough job analysis. It also helps in recruiting the right people for a particular job. The main purpose of conducting this whole process is to create and establish a perfect fit between the job and the employee. Job analysis also helps HR managers in deciding the compensation package and additional perks and incentives for a particular job position. It effectively contributes in assessing the training needs and performance of the existing employees. The process forms the basis to design and establish the strategies and policies to fulfill organizational goals and objectives.
However, analysis of a particular job does not guarantee that the managers or organization would get the desired output. Actually collecting and recording information for a specific job involves several complications. If the job information is not accurate and checked from time to time, an employee will not be able to perform his duty well. Until and unless he is not aware of what he is supposed to do or what is expected of him, chances are that the time and energy spent on a particular job analysis is a sheer wastage of human resources. Therefore, proper care should be taken while conducting job analysis. A thorough and unbiased investigation or study of a specific job is good for both the managers and the employees. The managers get to know whom to hire and why. They can fill a place with the right person. On the other hand, existing or potential employee gets to know what and how he is supposed to perform the job and what is the desired output. Job analysis creates a right fit between the job and the employee.
Recruitment and Selection: Job Analysis helps in determining what kind of person is required to perform a particular job. It points out the educational qualifications, level of experience and technical, physical, emotional and personal skills required to carry out a job in desired fashion. The objective is to fit a right person at a right place. Performance Analysis: Job analysis is done to check if goals and objectives of a particular job are met or not. It helps in deciding the performance standards, evaluation criteria and individual‟s output. On this basis, the overall performance of an employee is measured and he or she is appraised accordingly. Training and Development: Job Analysis can be used to assess the training and development needs of employees. The difference between the expected and actual output determines the level of training that need to be imparted to employees. It also helps in deciding the training content, tools and equipments to be used to conduct training and methods of training. Compensation Management: Of course, job analysis plays a vital role in deciding the pay packages and extra perks and benefits and fixed and variable incentives of employees. After all, the pay package depends on the position, job title and duties and responsibilities involved in a job. The process guides HR managers in deciding the worth of an employee for a particular job opening. Job Designing and Redesigning: The main purpose of job analysis is to streamline the human efforts and get the best possible output. It helps in designing, redesigning, enriching, evaluating and also cutting back and adding the extra responsibilities in a particular job. This is done to enhance the employee satisfaction while increasing the human output.
7. 8. 9. JD JS Identification of Job Analysis Purpose: Well any process is futile until its purpose is not identified and defined. Therefore, the first step in the process is to determine its need and desired output. Spending human efforts, energy as well as money is useless until HR managers don‟t know why data is to be collected and what is to be done with it. Who Will Conduct Job Analysis: The second most important step in the process of job analysis is to decide who will conduct it. Some companies prefer getting it done by their own HR department while some hire job analysis consultants. Job analysis consultants may prove to be extremely helpful as they offer unbiased advice, guidelines and methods. They don‟t have any personal likes and dislikes when it comes to analyze a job.
How to Conduct the Process: Deciding the way in which job analysis process needs to be conducted is surely the next step. A planned approach about how to carry the whole process is required in order to investigate a specific job. Strategic Decision Making: Now is the time to make strategic decision. It‟s about deciding the extent of employee involvement in the process, the level of details to be collected and recorded, sources from where data is to be collected, data collection methods, the processing of information and segregation of collected data. Training of Job Analyst: Next is to train the job analyst about how to conduct the process and use the selected methods for collection and recoding of job data. Preparation of Job Analysis Process: Communicating it within the organization is the next step. HR managers need to communicate the whole thing properly so that employees offer their full support to the job analyst. The stage also involves preparation of documents, questionnaires, interviews and feedback forms. Data Collection: Next is to collect job-related data including educational qualifications of employees, skills and abilities required to perform the job, working conditions, job activities, reporting hierarchy, required human traits, job activities, duties and Documentation, Verification and Review: Proper documentation is done to verify the authenticity of collected data and then review it. This is the final information that is used to describe a specific job. Developing Job Description and Job Specification: Now is the time to segregate the collected data in to useful information. Job Description describes the roles, activities, duties and responsibilities of the job while job specification is a statement of educational qualification, experience, personal traits and skills required to perform the job. Thus, the process of job analysis helps in identifying the worth of specific job, utilizing the human talent in the best possible manner, eliminating unneeded jobs and setting realistic performance measurement standards. responsibilities involved and employee behaviour.
What to Collect ? Job Content Job Context Job Requirements Job Content: It contains information about various job activities included in a specific job. It is a detailed account of actions which an employee needs to perform during his tenure. The following information needs to be collected by a job analyst: › Duties of an employee › What actually an employee does › Machines, tools and equipments to be used while performing a specific job › Additional tasks involved in a job › Desired output level (What is expected of an employee?) › Type of training required
The content depends upon the type of job in a particular division or department. For example, job content of a factory-line worker would be entirely different from that of a marketing executive or HR personnel. Job Context: Job context refers to the situation or condition under which an employee performs a particular job. The information collection will include: Working Conditions Risks involved Whom to report Who all will report to him or her Hazards Physical and mental demands Judgment Well like job content, data collected under this category are also subject to change according to the type of job in a specific division or department. Job Requirements: These include basic but specific requirements which make a candidate eligible for a particular job. The collected data includes: Knowledge or basic information required to perform a job successfully Specific skills such as communication skills, IT skills, operational skills, motor skills, processing skills and so on Personal ability including aptitude, reasoning, manipulative abilities, handling sudden and unexpected situations, problem-solving ability, mathematical abilities and so on Educational Qualifications including degree, diploma, certification or license Personal Characteristics such as ability to adapt to different environment, endurance, willingness, work ethic, eagerness to learn and understand things, behaviour towards colleagues, subordinates and seniors, sense of belongingness to the organization, etc
Most Common Methods of Job Analysis Observation Method: A job analyst observes an employee and records all his performed and non- performed task, fulfilled and un-fulfilled responsibilities and duties, methods, ways and skills used by him or her to perform various duties and his or her mental or emotional ability to handle challenges and risks. However, it seems one of the easiest methods to analyze a specific job but truth is that it is the most difficult one. Why? Let‟s Discover. It is due to the fact that every person has his own way of observing things. Different people think different and interpret the findings in different ways. Therefore, the process may involve personal biasness or likes and dislikes and may not produce genuine results. This error can be avoided by proper training of job analyst or whoever will be conducting the job analysis process. This particular method includes three techniques: direct observation, Work Methods Analysis and Critical Incident Technique. The first method includes direct observation and recording of behaviour of an employee in different situations. The second involves the study of time and motion and is specially used for assembly-line or factory workers. The third one is about identifying the work behaviours that result in performance. Interview Method: In this method, an employee is interviewed so that he or she comes up with their own working styles, problems faced by them, use of particular skills and techniques while performing their job and insecurities and fears about their careers. This method helps interviewer know what exactly an employee thinks about his or her own job and responsibilities involved in it. It involves analysis of job by employee himself. In order to generate honest and true feedback or collect genuine data, questions asked during the interview should be carefully decided. And to avoid errors, it is always good to interview more than one individual to get a pool of responses. Then it can be generalized and used for the whole group. Questionnaire Method: Another commonly used job analysis method is getting the questionnaires filled from employees, their superiors and managers. However, this method also suffers from personal biasness. A great care should be takes while framing questions for different grades of employees.
Job Analysis Tools O*Net Model: The beauty of this model is that it helps managers or job analysts in listing job-related data for a very large number of jobs simultaneously. It helps in collecting and recording basic and initial data including educational requirements, physical requirements and mental and emotional requirements to some extent. It also links the level of compensation and benefits, perks and advantages to be offered to a prospective candidate for a specific job. FJA Model: FJA stands for Functional Job Analysis and helps in collecting and recording job-related data to a deeper extent. It is used to develop task-related statements. Developed by Sidney Fine and his colleagues, the technique helps in determining the complexity of duties and responsibilities involved in a specific job. This work- oriented technique works on the basis of relatedness of job-data where complexity of work is determined on a scale of various scores given to a particular job. The lower scores represent greater difficulty. PAQ Model: PAQ represents Position Analysis Questionnaire. This well-known and commonly used technique is used to analyze a job by getting the questionnaires filled by job incumbents and their superiors. Designed by a trained and experienced job analyst, the process involves interviewing the subject matter experts and employees and evaluating the questionnaires on those bases. F-JAS Model: Representing Fleishman Job Analysis System, it is a basic and generic approach to discover common elements in different jobs including verbal abilities, reasoning abilities, idea generation, quantitative abilities, attentiveness, spatial abilities, visual and other sensory abilities, manipulative abilities, reaction time, speed analysis, flexibility, emotional characteristics, physical strength, perceptual abilities, communication skills, memory, endurance, balance, coordination and movement control abilities. Competency Model: This model talks about the competencies of employees in terms of knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviors, expertise and performance. It also helps in understanding what a prospective candidate requires at the time of entry in an organization at a particular designation in a given work environment and schedule. The model also includes some basic elements such as qualifications, experience, education, training, certifications, licenses, legal requirements and willingness of a candidate. Job Scan: This technique defines the personality dynamics and suggests an ideal job model. However, it does
Lack of Management Support: The biggest problem arises when a job analyst does not get proper support from the management. The top management needs to communicate it to the middle level managers and employees to enhance the output or productivity of the process. In case of improper communication, employees may take it in a wrong sense and start looking out for other available options. They may have a notion that this is being carried out to fire them or take any action against them. In order to avoid such circumstances, top management must effectively communicate the right message to their incumbents. Lack of Co-operation from Employees: If we talk about collecting authentic and accurate job-data, it is almost impossible to get real and genuine data without the support of employees. If they are not ready to co-operate, it is a sheer wastage of time, money and human effort to conduct job analysis process. The need is to take the workers in confidence and communicating that it is being done to solve their problems only. Inability to Identify the Need of Job Analysis: If the objectives and needs of job analysis process are not properly identified, the whole exercise of investigation and carrying out research is futile. Managers must decide in advance why this process is being carried out, what its objectives are and what is to be done with the collected and recorded data. Biasness of Job Analyst: A balanced and unbiased approach is a necessity while carrying out the process of job analysis. To get real and genuine data, a job analyst must be impartial in his or her approach. If it can‟t be avoided, it is better to outsource the process or hire a professional job analyst. Using Single Data Source: A job analyst needs to consider more than one sources of data in order to collect true information. Collecting data from a single source may result in inaccuracy and it therefore, defeats the whole purpose of conducting the job analysis process.
Job Analysis Provides First Hand Job-Related Information: The job analysis process provides with valuable job-related data that helps managers and job analyst the duties and responsibilities of a particular job, risks and hazards involved in it, skills and abilities required to perform the job and other related info. Helps in Creating Right Job-Employee Fit: This is one of the most crucial management activities. Filling the right person in a right job vacancy is a test of skills, understanding and competencies of HR managers. Job Analysis helps them understand what type of employee will be suitable to deliver a specific job successfully. Helps in Establishing Effective Hiring Practices: Who is to be filled where and when? Who to target and how for a specific job opening? Job analysis process gives answers to all these questions and helps managers in creating, establishing and maintaining effective hiring practices. Guides through Performance Evaluation and Appraisal Processes: Job Analysis helps managers evaluating the performance of employees by comparing the standard or desired output with delivered or actual output. On these bases, they appraise their performances. The process helps in deciding whom to promote and when. It also guides managers in understanding the skill gaps so that right person can be fit at that particular place in order to get desired output. Helps in Analyzing Training & Development Needs: The process of job analysis gives answer to following questions: › Who to impart training › When to impart training › What should be the content of training › What should be the type of training: behavioral or technical › Who will conduct training Helps in Deciding Compensation Package for a Specific Job: A genuine and unbiased process of job analysis helps managers in determining the appropriate compensation package and benefits and allowances for a particular job. This is done on the basis of responsibilities and hazards involved in a job.
Time Consuming: The biggest disadvantage of Job Analysis process is that it is very time consuming. It is a major limitation especially when jobs change frequently. Involves Personal Biasness: If the observer or job analyst is an employee of the same organization, the process may involve his or her personal likes and dislikes. This is a major hindrance in collecting genuine and accurate data. Source of Data is Extremely Small: Because of small sample size, the source of collecting data is extremely small. Therefore, information collected from few individuals needs to be standardized. Involves Lots of Human Efforts: The process involves lots of human efforts. As every job carries different information and there is no set pattern, customized information is to be collected for different jobs. The process needs to be conducted separately for collecting and recording job-related data. Job Analyst May Not Possess Appropriate Skills: If job analyst is not aware of the objective of job analysis process or does not possess appropriate skills to conduct the process, it is a sheer wastage of company‟s resources. He or she needs to be trained in order to get authentic data. Mental Abilities Can not be Directly Observed: Last but not the least, mental abilities such as intellect, emotional characteristics, knowledge, aptitude, psychic and endurance are intangible things that can not be observed or measured directly. People act differently in different situations. Therefore, general standards can not be set for mental abilities.
How to Establish Effective Hiring Strategies ? Identifying KRAs: Job Analysis process helps in identifying Key Result Areas/ Key Responsibilities Areas (KRAs) such as knowledge, technical, communication and personal skills, mental, aptitude, physical and emotional abilities to perform a particular task. Different jobs have different requirements. Therefore, the process needs to be performed every time when there is a requirement to fill the job opening. This is a basis for developing questionnaires, devising interview questions and setting selection test papers. The information in the form of scores or grades can then be used for hiring process. Setting Selection Standards: Job Analysis also helps managers in setting certain standards for selection process in terms of educational qualifications, work experience, expertise, special skill sets, unusual sensory abilities, specific career track, certifications and licenses and other legal requirements. This helps in identifying the basic requirements that make a candidate eligible for a particular post. Identifying KSAs: The process also helps managers in determining Key Success Areas or Key Performance Areas. These are performance measurement tools that are used by companies around the world to measure those aspects that determine success of a job such as organizational goals, individual goals and the actions required to achieve these goals. This is about comparing the actual results delivered by an individual with pre-set success factors and analyzing the performance. Once through, the whole process may require few changes if achieved results are around the set standards. They may require a complete change if there is a huge gap between the expected and delivered results. Therefore, a thorough and unbiased job analysis process can help organizations source right candidates, hire the most suitable individual and set appropriate selection standards.
Human Resource Management is the most critical function of any organization as it deals with the most complicated problems - the people problems, especially when the organizations are operating in highly competitive and uncertain environments. Strategic HRM lays emphasis on developing and implementing policies and strategies in order to get the desired output. Therefore, job analysis and strategic HRM are inter-related. In fact, we can say, establishing a person-job-environment fit is the basic function of SHRM. Person-Job-Environment Fit Job analysis demonstrates who can fit at a particular place and why. The process promotes the alignment of other HR processes and functions. Additionally, it supports the organizational strategy to deal with talent crisis and market competition. The process of job analysis involves collecting job-related information and assembling it together to design a corporate strategy that helps HR managers in determining whom to target and how to fill a particular job vacancy.
it also creates linkages between other HR verticals including recruitment and selection, training needs analysis, performance evaluation and appraisal, entry and exit of talent and many more. Strategic Human Resource Management endeavors to connect all these HR functions with organizational goals, work quality, organizational culture, annual turnover and profit and tapping resources for future organizational needs. SHRM is basically concerned with the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats of an organization. The identification of organization‟s competencies and flaws is extremely crucial for its success. It provides a clear vision to managers to source, recruit and retain people, develop their skills and competency, address their issues and concerns, motivate people to produce desired output and ensure future planning. Inter-relationship between Job Analysis and SHRM Job Analysis, being an integral part of strategic planning, provides a detailed analysis of tasks and responsibilities, risks and hazards, functions and duties, tools and equipments to be used and the expected output. The main objective of conducting the process is to understand who to fit at a particular place to get the work done. Whereas, the fundamental aim of Strategic Human Resource Management is to determine how to exploit
Job Analysis deals in determining the training needs analysis of employees to get the desired output whereas SHRM decides upon the training content, when and how to train the employees to increase the output to achieve higher business profits. To successfully plan the future strategies of a company, the process of job analysis serves as the basis. If information collected during the process is genuine, managers can make effective strategies and policies in advance and can remain pro-active to deal with unforeseen situations. The main aim of conducting job analysis process is to determine the things affecting human behavior in an organization. The idea is to find out if they are competent enough to perform the assigned job successfully or they need to be placed somewhere else. Strategic Human Resource Management is all about making strategies and policies to place right person at the right place and at the right time to get the maximum out of an employee. In other way, it is concerned about optimal utilization of human resources.
Job Analysis and Total Quality Management (TQM) TQM is a management approach that concentrates on teamwork, integrity, continuous improvement and continuous assessment jobs and their worth. On the other hand, job analysis deals in investigating each job separately and collecting the job- related information. Usually, the process is conducted in an organization once in a while especially when HR department has to source candidates for a particular job. TQM is a new approach and is almost inconsistent with traditional management approaches and processes. Job Analysis is no exception. Points of Inconsistency between Job Analysis and TQM The concept of Total Quality Management stresses on continuous improvement of management processes as well as employees. For example, if employee joins an organization at a certain level, according to TQM, he or she should not confine themselves to their basic jobs only. Instead they should consider other options and try to learn more and more in order to explore other areas of operations. Whereas, job analysis process is conducted to determine what an employee is supposed to do and how specific duties and activities need to be performed. Total Quality Management approach focuses on an all-round development of employees and expects them to do everything while on job in order to attain higher levels of quality. It also concentrates on their continuous improvement personally as well as professionally. While job analysis defines specific duties and responsibilities of an employee and each one of them is supposed to do only what is assigned to them. The concept is just opposite to TQM approach. The job description and job specification talk about employee‟s job title, job summary, job duties, job responsibilities, educational qualifications and working conditions. While it does not discuss about maintaining quality in operations, treating waste and scraps properly and quality of services delivered. It simply gives brief details about what an
TQM does not confine employees only to a particular job. The concept leaves scope for additional duties along with the basic job duties. Whereas, it is not true in case of job analysis. It simply measures the worth of a job and determines the duties involved in it. Employees are not encouraged to explore other areas of operations. Instead they are supposed to perform only the assigned job. Relevance of Job Analysis Job Analysis is not consistent with TQM. They do not go hand in hand as they focus on entirely different theories and operate on different models. But it does not mean that job analysis has lost its relevance in today‟s world. It has its own importance and is still required to be carried out as this gives basic information related to specific jobs and helps managers in decision making process. It assists in various other management processes including recruitment and selection, job evaluation, performance evaluation and appraisal and training and development need analysis. It also regulates the entry of talent in an organization and helps in sourcing and attracting a pool of talent to work with the organization.
Talent Management, as the name itself suggests is managing the ability, competency and power of employees within an organization Talent Management in organizations is not just limited to attracting the best people from the industry but it is a continuous process that involves sourcing, hiring, developing, retaining and promoting them while meeting the organization‟s requirements simultaneously. For instance, if an organization wants the best talent of its competitor to work with it, it needs to attract that person and offer him something that is far beyond his imagination to come and join and then stick to the organization. Only hiring him does not solve the purpose but getting the things done from him is the main task. Therefore, it can be said that talent management is a full-fledged process that not only controls the entry of an employee but also his or her exit.
Right Person in the right Job: Through a proper ascertainment of people skills and strengths, people decisions gain a strategic agenda. The skill or competency mapping allows you to take stock of skill inventories lying with the organization. This is especially important both from the perspective of the organization as well as the employee because the right person is deployed in the right position and employee productivity is increased. Also since there is a better alignment between an individual‟s interests and his job profile the job satisfaction is increased. Retaining the top talent: Despite changes in the global economy, attrition remains a major concern of organizations. Retaining top talent is important to leadership and growth in the marketplace. Organisations that fail to retain their top talent are at the risk of losing out to competitors. The focus is now on charting employee retention programs and strategies to recruit, develop, retain and engage quality people. Employee growth in a career has to be taken care of, while succession planning is being performed those who are on the radar need to be kept in loop so that they know their performance is being rewarded. Better Hiring: The quality of an organization is the quality of workforce it possesses. The best way to have talent at the top is have talent at the bottom. No wonder then talent management programs and trainings, hiring assessments have become an integral aspect of HR processes nowadays. Understanding Employees Better: Employee assessments give deep insights to the management about their employees. Their development needs, career aspirations, strengths and weaknesses, abilities, likes and dislikes. It is easier therefore to determine what motivates whom and this helps a lot Job enrichment process. Better professional development decisions: When an organization gets to know who its high potential is, it becomes easier to invest in their professional development. Since development calls for investment decisions towards learning, training and development of the individual either for growth, succession planning, performance management etc, an organization remains bothered where to make this investment and talent management just make this easier for them.
Before we discuss the financial benefits of talent management the following may be of our interest and worth a thought: Most of the organizations are short sighted, when it comes to people management. People management may not go well with pure capitalists. Organizations and industries are growing at a fast pace, faster than the rate at which talent is produced. There is dearth of talented and skilled professionals both at the top as well as bottom. Due to cut throat competition and a consequent lack of talented professionals the attrition rates have increased across all industries, especially so in services industry. Poaching has become common place; employee retention has become the Achilles heel of corporations.
Less attrition means lesser expenditure on hiring: BPO‟s and start ups, for example where the attrition rate is the highest remain occupied in searching for people every now and then. Now this incurs financial losses to the organization. An organization not only pays an employee for his/her work but also spends a considerable amount on their training and development. There is transfer of skill and expertise and when the same employee leaves after a brief stint with the organization, it costs the latter. The problem gets even worse when such a scenario occurs at the top level. An unoccupied executive position can cost an organization dearly. The solution - a proper talent management in place can solve this problem. The following facts become worth consideration here: New employees cost the company 30-60 % more than the existing employee in terms of compensation only. There is an additional cost incurred on training and developing the new individual. The process of recruitments itself costs an organization in a big way, right from advertising a post, to attracting talent and finally short listing and hiring someone for the job. Often there is a compromise in hiring when the need is urgent. Organizations clearly need to look inside for solutions and design and develop better employee retention, rewards and recognition strategy. Performance management needs to be taken care of.
Principle 1 - Avoid Mismatch Costs In planning for future manpower requirements, most of the HR professionals prepare a deep bench of candidates or manpower inventory. Many of the people who remain in this bracket start searching for other options and move when they are not raised to a certain position and profile. In such a scenario it is better to keep the bench strength low and hire from outside from time to time to fill gaps. This in no way means only to hire from outside, which leads to a skill deficit and affects the organizational culture. Principle 2 - Reduce the Risk of Being Wrong In manpower anticipations for future an organization can ill afford to be wrong. It‟s hard to forecast talent demands for future business needs because of the uncertainty involved. It is therefore very important to attune the career plans with the business plans. A 5 year career plan looks ridiculous along with a 2 year business plan. Further, long term development and succession plans may end up as a futile exercise if the organization lacks a firm retention strategy.
Principle 3 - Recoup Talent Investments Developing talent internally pays in the longer run. The best way to recover investments made in talent management is to reduce upfront costs by finding alternative and cheaper talent delivery options. Organizations also require a rethink on their talent retention strategy to improve employee retention. Principle 4 - Balancing Employee Interests How much authority should the employees‟ haves over their own development? There are different models that have been adopted by various corporations globally. There is „the chess master model‟, but the flipside in this is that talented employees search for options. Organizations can also make use of the internal mobility programs which are a regular feature of almost all the top organizations. These principles are just broader guidelines; their application varies across industries and organizational cultures.
Understanding the Requirement: It is the preparatory stage and plays a crucial role in success of the whole process. The main objective is to determine the requirement of talent. The main activities of this stage are developing job description and job specifications. Sourcing the Talent: This is the second stage of talent management process that involves targeting the best talent of the industry. Searching for people according to the requirement is the main activity. Attracting the Talent: it is important to attract the talented people to work with you as the whole process revolves around this only. After all the main aim of talent management process is to hire the best people from the industry. Recruiting the Talent: The actual process of hiring starts from here. This is the stage when people are invited to join the organization. Selecting the Talent: This involves meeting with different people having same or different qualifications and skill sets as mentioned in job description. Candidates who qualify this round are invited to join the organization. Training and Development: After recruiting the best people, they are trained and developed to get the desired output. Retention: Certainly, it is the sole purpose of talent management process. Hiring them does not serve the purpose completely. Retention depends on various factors such as pay package, job specification, challenges involved in a job, designation, personal development of an employee, recognition, culture and the fit between job and talent.
Promotion: No one can work in an organization at the same designation with same job responsibilities. Job enrichment plays an important role. Competency Mapping: Assessing employees‟ skills, development, ability and competency is the next step. If required, also focus on behaviour, attitude, knowledge and future possibilities of improvement. It gives you a brief idea if the person is fir for promoting further. Performance Appraisal: Measuring the actual performance of an employee is necessary to identify his or her true potential. It is to check whether the person can be loaded with extra responsibilities or not. Career Planning: If the individual can handle the work pressure and extra responsibilities well, the management needs to plan his or her career so that he or she feels rewarded. It is good to recognize their efforts to retain them for a longer period of time. Succession Planning: Succession planning is all about who will replace whom in near future. The employee who has given his best to the organization and has been serving it for a very long time definitely deserves to hold the top position. Management needs to plan about when and how succession will take place. Exit: The process ends when an individual gets retired or is no more a part of the organization. Talent Management process is very complex and is therefore, very difficult to handle.
Positive Aspects of Talent Management Consulting Primarily organizations outsource their talent management because of underlying assumptions like - the management will be effective, efficient and result oriented, HR people will be spared of unnecessary engagement, employees can be focused in their respective domains and the like. The following are some of the benefits or positive aspects of talent management Talent management consulting firms employ proven talent selection, career planning and development, people orientation and retention tools after strategizing with the top management. This is contrary to the common in- hose organizational practice which is very unsystematic and does not make use of any tools. They are focused unlike in-house talent management team that has other things to take care of. Negative Aspects of Talent Management Consulting The negative views are based on the fact that since it‟s the employee data and the employees themselves that the talent management consulting deals with, there is a potential risk of the information getting leaked. However the negative aspects of talent management consulting are summarized as follows: Talent management consulting/outsourcing demands access to your critical organizational/people data. There is a potential risk of any consulting firm gaining insights into organizational functioning. Since organizations do not have a great belief upon the effectiveness of the practice they do not want to spend much on the same. There is a big cost attached to the outsourcing thing.
It faces the following opportunities and challenges: Recruiting talent Training and Developing talent Retaining talent Developing Leadership talent Creating talented ethical culture Recruiting Talent The recent economic downturn saw job cuts globally. Those who were most important to organizations in their understanding were retained, other were sacked. Similarly huge shuffles happened at the top leadership positions. They were seen as crisis managers unlike those who were deemed responsible for throwing organizations into troubled waters. It is the jurisdiction of talent management to get such people on onboard, who are enterprising but ensure that an organization does not suffer for the same. Training and Developing Talent The downturn also opened the eyes of organizations to newer models of employment - part time or temporary workers. This is a new challenge to talent management, training and developing people who work on a contractual or project basis. What‟s more big a challenge is increasing the stake of these people in their work. .
. Retaining Talent While organizations focus on reducing employee overheads and sacking those who are unessential in the shorter run, it also spreads a wave of de motivation among those who are retained. An uncertainty about the firing axe looms in their mind. It is essential to maintain a psychological contract with employees those who have been fired as well as those who have been retained. Investing on people development in crisis is the best thing an organization can do to retain its top talent. Developing Leadership Talent Leadership in action means an ability to take out of crisis situation, extract certainty out of uncertainty, set goals and driving change to ensure that the momentum is not lost. Identifying people from within the organization who should be invested upon is a critical talent management challenge. Creating Talented Ethical Culture Setting standards for ethical behavior, increasing transparency, reducing complexities and developing a culture of reward and appreciation are still more challenges and opportunities for talent management. (Since an opportunity is the other face of challenge and vice versa, the words chall
Talent management is now looked upon as a critical HR activity; the discipline is evolving every day. Let‟s analyze some trends in the same. Talent War: ( ) Finding and retaining the best talent is the most difficult aspect of HR management. HR survey consultancies are one in their view that organizations globally are facing a dearth of talented employees and it‟s often more difficult to retain them. Further research has also shown that there is clear link between talent issues and overall productivity. Technology and Talent Management: Technology is increasingly getting introduced into people development. Online employee portals have become common place in organizations to offer easy access to employees to various benefits and schemes. In addition employees can also manage their careers through these portals and it also helps organizations understand their employees better. Promoting Talent Internally: An individual is hired, when there is a fit between his abilities or skills and the requirements of the organization. The next step is enabling learning and development of the same so that he/she stays with the organization. This is employee retention. An enabled or empowered means an empowered organization. It is also of interest to organizations to know their skills inventories and then develop the right individual for succession planning internally.
Population Worries Globally: World populations are either young or aging. For example, stats have it that by 2050 60% of Europe‟s working population will be over 60! On the other hand a country like India can boast of a young population in the coming and present times. Population demographics are thus a disturbing factor for people managers. Still more researches have predicted that demographic changes in United States will lead to shortage of 10 million workers in the near future! Talent Management to rescue HR: HR has been compelled to focus on qualitative aspects equally and even more than quantitative aspects like the head count etc. Through talent management more effort is now being laid on designing and maintaining employee scorecards and employee surveys for ensuring that talent is nurtured and grown perpetually. Increase in Employer of Choice Initiatives: An organization‟s perceived value as an employer as helps improve its brand value in the eyes of its consumer. Most importantly it helps it attract the right talent.
Myth 1 - Paying higher compared to Rival Firms will stop the Employee from Leaving: Offering more compensations than rivals or above industry standard will prevent employees from leaving and will also attract the best talent. Reality: Paying higher than rival firms may help to a certain extent in retaining your employees. It may also help you poach certain employees from your rivals but in the long run, money fails to motivate people. Money is a hygiene factor; its absence may be a de-motivating factor but presence surely cannot be motivating for long. Solution: It is the day to day work, organizational culture and career progression that motivates people more on a daily basis. Analyze each employee on what motivates whom and try to align their career interests with their growth in the organization. Myth 2 - Rewards and Incentives only Motivate People: The first myth that we discuss here is that its rewards and incentives only that motivates people to give their hundred percent and work more productively. Consequently it‟s the rewards and incentives that is at the focus of HR people. Reality: It is the attributes and the culture of the organization that is most likely to motivate people to work better and be happy with their jobs. Leadership and job empowerment are other factors that contribute to that happiness of employees. Solution: Work on making the organization a better place in terms of enriching the culture, improving senior junior relationships and of course laying due emphasis on how the employees are being compensated.
Myth 3 - Employee Engagement is Useless: In industries where the attrition rate is low there is a common feeling prevalent that employee engagement programs are of no benefit. Further there is also a feeling that employee engagement helps only the employees and not the organization. Reality: There is no direct connection between levels of attrition and employee engagement. In fact employees who are engaged well are more productive and take ownership of their work. Since organizations about people, well engagement not only improves employee performance but also organizational or corporate performance. According to one recent research engaged employees perform 22 percent better, have lesser rates of absenteeism, and produce greater customer satisfactions. Solution: Customize engagement strategy for each employee and show the connection between employees work commitment and organizational success. Improvise key drivers such as manager‟s expertise and future career opportunities and development. Myth 4 - Low Growth Periods do not require Employee Engagement: Organizations typically believe that low growth is an industry wise phenomenon and does not demand employee engagement. Employees are naturally left with lesser options to switch jobs. Reality: In absence of employee engagement the organizations stands at the risk of losing projects in hand. Continued absence of employee engagement may in fact de- motivate an employee to contribute his best. Solution: Employee engagement is critically required to retain and polish talent that is essential for future growth and opportunities.
talent management system solutions typically take care of the following: Performance Management Goal Management Talent acquisition Learning management Succession planning Learning management Compensation management
Some strategies in this direction could be: Aligning Business strategies with the HR strategies: Business HR is one function that is developing fast as part of the human resource department. The person is responsible for ensuring a smooth relationship between business and HR functions. They work with business heads to develop people strategies to support both short term and long term business objectives. Performance Planning and Evaluation: An integrated HR approach means that are uniform and standard procedures for employee performance evaluation and compensation, up and down the organization. Performance is linked to growth and the process adds value for employees to evaluate their work on their own. Indian digital disk giant Moser Baer employs such process. Strategic Manpower Planning: HR and Business function are interrelated. None can exist without the other. HR functions need to work in collaboration to assess current and future manpower requirements are plan for the same. They need to strategize on the approximate manpower requirements, the relevant skills and educational qualification, compensation and the like. This has to happen well in advance. Recruitment itself means a host of other activities like training and development, compensation, induction and orientation etc. Mapping your Talent: An ever increasing emphasis is being laid on identifying the top performing and talented employees to think of ways to develop, nurture and retain them. Further organizations also like to keep skill inventories for contingencies. As organizations realize the skills and abilities of individuals, they can then be more focused on devising means and strategies to attract, develop and retain these people.
McKinsey conducted one research in this direction in the year 2006 and found out that the obstacles preventing talent management programs from delivering business value are too human
The talent market is more than competitive presently than it was and could be in the next decades. In an economy that is knowledge driven the demand for highly skilled workers is on the rise incessantly. Though the demand may decline at times due to the changes economic cycle but in the longer run the rising trend will remain the same more or less. In a survey conducted by McKinsey in 2001, 72 % of the managers they interviewed were of the opinion that winning the war for talent is critical and only 3 % were confident that their actions would create a strong talent pool in the next 3 years. Apart from the talent constraint, it was also found out that people at executive ranks (in the age group of 35 - 40) will also decrease by 14 % in the next 15 years. This can be countered for a few more years by replacing these positions with older baby boomers, but it is not long before these older baby boomers retire and management ranks turn lean. It is also of interest to mention here that individual expectations of rewards (developmental, psychological and financial) have increased! These are challenges and the most disconcerting element is that not many organizations are prepared to face them. The Solution Organizations need to act, and act now! The following is the five point solution suggested by McKinsey Develop a talent mindset at all levels in the organization. Create a winning Employee Value Proposition. Recruit great talent continuously. Grow leaders Differentiate and affirm.
Succession planning is a systematic process of identifying and developing talent for leadership positions in the future. According to SHRM survey of 2003 it was found out that 60% of the firms that they interviewed had no succession planning in place and contrastingly about 70% of the major corporations globally had a proper succession planning in place in the late 1970‟s. Similarly IPMA HR survey of 2004 found out that 63% of companies have no manpower planning at all which was commonplace in every organization till the late 1950‟s. So the question that arises is when did succession planning emerge as a problem? Who is responsible - is it because of some demographic changes or because of the apathy on the part of management?
Strategic Value: The resource has to contribute substantially and add value in his/her area of expertise. Rare: Unique in terms of skills, knowledge and abilities in order to qualify as rare. Appropriable: The extent to which the resource is owned by the firm. Inimitable: Such that the resource cannot be replaced even after the competitors having spotted the same. Cannot be Substituted: This means that the resource cannot be substituted by the rival firms and that there is no match for the talent!
Typically the following steps are involved in performance management: Commitment analysis. Work analysis. Defining performance standards.
In commitment analysis a job mission statement is made for each job or process which is a job definition in terms of product, scope and purpose. Here the key objectives are outlined and performance standards are set against the same. Work analysis follows next; this underlines the reporting structure and job description. Finally performance standards and expectations are set against each job or process keeping in view the efficiency and effectiveness both. Employee performance management is of key benefit to organizations in helping them realize effectively the strategic and operational goals. In organizational behavior lexicon, performance problem is a gap between desired and actual results and performance management seeks to address just the same problem. There the effort is called as performance improvement. The guidelines that determine whether or job is being carried out effectively is based upon factors like whether the work is planned and clear expectations are set, work performance is monitored, staff is trained and developed continuously for a certain job etc.
Noted management author Peter Drucker said that the fastest growing industry would be training and development as a result of replacement of industrial workers with knowledge workers. In United States, for example, according to one estimate technology is de-skilling 75 % of the population. This is true for the developing nations and for those who are on the threshold of development. In Japan for example, with increasing number of women joining traditionally male jobs, training is required not only to impart necessary job skills but also for preparing them for the physically demanding jobs. They are trained in everything from sexual harassment policies to the necessary job skills.
Donald Kirkpatrick, professor emeritus, university of Wisconsin began working on evaluating the effectiveness of training very early in his life. His early work on the same was published in the year 1959 in a journal of American Society of Training Directors. He laid out four levels for evaluation of any training. This model is arguably the most widespread for evaluation in use. It is simple, very flexible and complete. The four levels as described by Kirkpatrick are as follows: Reaction of the Trainee - thoughts and feelings of the participants about the training Learning - the increase in knowledge or understanding as a result of the training Behavior - extent of change in behavior, attitude or capability Results - the effect on the bottom line of the company as a result of the training. The fifth level which is the ROI has been recently added which is not but a part of the original model. The graphic description is as follows:
The success of a training program is evaluated in terms of the end result or the increase in the work ability, skill or competency in the trainee. For any training program to be successful it is very essential to follow a certain process. The basic process as illustrated in the figure below consists of four stages which are assessment, development, delivery and evaluation.
Collins and Porras, Built to Last ( Successful Habits of Visionary Companies), 1997 Collins, Good to Great, 2001 Collins, Good to Great and the Social Sectors, 2006 Pfeffer, Competitive Advantage through People (Unleashing the Power of the Work Force), 1994 Becker, Huselid and Ulrich, The HR Scorecard, 2001 Ulrich and Brockbank, The HR Value Proposition, 2005 Huselid, Becker and Beatty, The Workforce Scorecard, 2005 Ulrich, Human Resource Champions, 1997 Human Resource Competency Studies, RBL Group and Michigan School of Business, 2002 and 2007 178
1. Organisations and Culture Organisations are changing Higher education is no different Culture in Higher Education Institutions2. Leadership3. The strategic role of people4. Human Resource practitioners Expectations Competencies5. Human Resource practitioner credibility 179
The Organisation of yesterday was: › Standardised and functionally based, with position based, top-down power structures, compliance and information scarcity. Focus was primarily on products The Organisation of tomorrow is: › distributed, global, virtual and flexible with leadership directed towards specific outcomes via individually negotiated contributions which are expert- based, and rich in information. Focus is on markets and customers 181
In fact it is particularly so in Higher Education where a dual culture of bureaucracy („order and rules‟) and collegiality (by it‟s nature „chaotic‟) exist side by side – the old and the new The Academic enterprise is increasingly being required to be more competitive, effective and efficient, that is focussing on customers and markets, not „product‟ only Academic institutions are increasingly being required to survive and perform in an increasingly competitive world on the one hand, on the other, the Academic enterprise has always been much like the organisation of tomorrow in the way it has worked 182
Positive Negative Freedom from organisational Selfish interference No knowledge sharing (secretive) Focus on individual excellence Low individual identification with Set out own agenda the organisation Define own goals Very fragile psychological contract Scope for individual creativity between organisation and staff Work with who you choose (inside or member outside the institution) Difficult to manage meetings or „Steal‟ ideas and practices from any collective events anywhere Bad-mouthing of colleagues may Resources follow „stars‟ take place (excessive critique can degenerate into inaction) Space exists to explore ideas without either sociability or solidarity All ideas get savaged getting in the way 183
Are introvert, reflective and self-contained Have a high autonomy drive and a strong desire for independence with no controls Have a strong sense of self Are analytical rather than intuitive Are self critical and criticize the ideas of others 184
Investing in yourself and your human capital Focussing on outputs and knowing the reward system inside out Recruiting other very good people Never letting personal relationships get in the way of evaluation of ideas Managing yourself well because it gives you space 185
Which are familiar with bureaucracy Which are increasingly required to become more competitive in a customer focussed environment Which have a „fragmented‟ culture where it is difficult to generate focussed collective effort Where individual academic staff members are primarily focussed on personal growth and development This has implications for leadership…. 186
A „great‟ organisation: delivers superior performance, makes a distinctive impact, achieves lasting endurance (Collins) Social sector leaders increasingly look to business for leadership models and talent, yet I suspect we will find more true leadership in the social sectors than the business sector‟ (Collins) Level 5 leadership „Builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will‟ (Collins) 13 Behaviours of High Trust Leaders (Covey) True leadership only exists if people follow when they have the freedom not to……. 188
Is a tough role… Means continually reminding members of their obligations to the collective Means enforcing these obligations through a formal control system Means encouraging acceptable levels of sociability Means encouraging institutional as well as individual learning Means encouraging collective as well as individual creativity 189
‘In those rare cases when individualcreativity is critical, the fragmented(culture) is also appropriate. But evenacademic institutions should beware.The individualist model of organisationmay not be sustainable as organisations(universities) face new competitivethreats from emerging sources ofknowledge and informationexchange…’ 190
Workforce Success: The Impact of Workforce Strategy onBusiness Strategy Execution • HR success is about driving workforce success. • HR success is measured by Financial Success the impact of HR on work- force success. Customer Success Operational Success Leadership and Workforce Behaviours HR Success Workforce Competencies Workforce Success Workforce Mind-set and culture • Creating value with the workforce is about managing and measuring HR Management Systems relationships. HR Practices • Workforce success is about driving business success. HR Workforce Competencies • Ideally, workforce success is measured by the impact of your workforce strategy
Human Resource Competency Study2002 Model 197
1. The ability to anticipate the institutions‟ future needs given the institutional environment and competitive strategy.2. The ability to articulate the institution‟s strategic intent and to translate it into appropriate people systems.3. The ability to analyze the institution‟s resource processes and design work systems in support of these processes.4. The ability to demonstrate the value added to the institutions‟ outputs by the people systems.5. The ability to diagnose and prepare appropriate organizational interventions – the consulting role 198
6. The ability to provide feedback and guidance to subordinates.7. The ability to provide leadership for the attainment of individual and group goals.8. The ability to transfer knowledge and capabilities to line managers and senior management.9. The ability to work as a team member.10. To act as a role model in the process of aligning people systems with the institutional mission.11. To possess narrow, functional HR expertise (e.g. compensation, employee relations etc.). 199
1. Personal credibility2. Management of change processes3. Management of culture4. Delivery of HR practices (basics)5. Knowledge of the organisation and it‟s delivery system 200
Human Resource Competency Study - model - 2007This model suggests that HR professionals must master competencies dealing both with people andbusiness. Following one of these two paths independent of the other leads to failure. HR professionalswho emphasize the people side at the exclusion of the business side may be well liked and popular, butthey will not succeed, because their work does not further business goals. HR professionals who focuson the business side without sensitivity to the human element will also not succeed because, althoughthe business may prosper in the short term, people will not sustain the success in the longer term. 201
Systems and processes › Operational Executor: Executing the operational aspects of managing people and the organization, ensuring credibility through flawless execution › Business Ally: Contributing to the success of the business by knowing the social context in which the business operates, how the business makes money and how the parts of the business work together for business success 202
Relationships › Credible Activist: Credible (respected, admired, listened to) and active (offers a point of view, takes a position, challenges assumptions). “HR with an attitude.” HR professionals who are credible but not activists are admired but do not have much impact. Those who are activists but not credible may have ideas but will not be listened to. 203
Strategic Contribution: managing culture, facilitating "fast change,” strategic decision making and creating “market-driven connectivity” together account for 43% of HR‟s total impact on business performance Personal Credibility: credible to their HR counterparts and their business line managers and having effective relationships with key people both inside and outside the business. Also a need to promise and deliver results and establish a reliable track record and have effective written and verbal communication skills. HR Delivery: Delivery of both traditional and operational HR in respect of People and Organisation Development, Structure and HR Measurement, Staffing, Performance Management and Reward. Business Knowledge: Be a key player in the organization understanding the business and industry including applied understanding of the organisation‟s value chain and value proposition HR Technology : Be able to leverage technology for HR practices and use e-HR/web-based channels to deliver value. 204
1. Personal resilience2. Emotional „intelligence‟3. Soft skills and knowledge4. Ethics (personal integrity)5. Understanding „one-down power‟ 206
Being grounded and connected, regarding one‟s life as having purpose, meaning and direction Understanding and accepting self, being self- aware and being realistically optimistic about one‟s own capabilities and limits Successful coping with adversity results in enhanced resilience, which in turn enables better coping with future adversity 207
Managing and choosing thoughts (positive and negative); feelings (emotional impulses); and attitude (a positive outlook) Giving and accepting support Having an action focus (persistent, yet flexible) 208
Managing and choosing thoughts (positive and negative); feelings (emotional impulses); and attitude (a positive outlook) Giving and accepting support Having an action focus (persistent, yet flexible) 209
the need for personal feedback and experiential development of HR practitioners lessons learned from experience have a lasting impact on how a person manages and leads. developmental experiences fall into four areas* › Challenging Assignments 42% › Significant other people 22% › Hardships 20% › Other events 16% *Center for Creative Leadership Benchmarks, Greensboro, North Carolina 210
A credible HR practitioner is: › In the organisational system but able to constructively observe and influence the system › Accept that praise for success should be directed at the client manager – any direct praise to the HR person is a bonus › Not standing outside the system and being critical: „the University must/should etc…………‟ › Standing alongside the client line manager, even when the HR practitioner‟s advice has been rejected, and assisting him/her to deal with the „crisis‟ which has arisen 211
What is Employee Relations ? Every individual shares a certain relationship with his colleagues at the workplace. The relationship is either warm, so-so or bad. The relationship can be between any one in the organization - between co workers, between an employee and his superior, between two members in the management and so on. It is important that the employees share a healthy relationship with each other to deliver their best performances.
Employee relations refer to the relationship shared among the employees in an organization. The employees must be comfortable with each other for a healthy environment at work. It is the prime duty of the superiors and team leaders to discourage conflicts in the team and encourage a healthy relationship among employees. Life is really short and it is important that one enjoys each and every moment of it. Remember in an organization you are paid for your hard work and not for cribbing or fighting with each other. Don‟t assume that the person sitting next to you is your enemy or will do any harm to you. Who says you can‟t make friends at work, in fact one can make the best of friends in the office. There is so much more to life than fighting with each other. Observation says that a healthy relation among the employees goes a long way in motivating the employees and increasing their confidence and morale. One starts enjoying his office and does not take his work as a burden. He feels charged and fresh the whole day and takes each day at work as a new challenge. If you have a good relation with your team members you feel going to office daily. Go out with your team members for a get together once in a while or have your lunch together. These activities help in strengthening the bond among the employees and improve the relations among them.