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Mobile Internet Standards

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Mobile Internet Standards

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Mobile Internet Standards

  1. 1. Mobile Website Development Mobile Internet Standards Facilitated by: Michael Wakahe July 2011
  2. 2. Table of Contents  Introduction to Mobile Web Standards  Structure  Presentation  Client Side Scripting  MIME Types  Standardization Bodies Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Introduction to Mobile Web Standards Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Mobile Web Standards  Fundamentally, there is one Web.  Its content is standardized markup, styles, scripts, and multimedia viewable using web browsers. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Mobile Web Standards  A standards-based approach to Mobile Web development ensures compliance and usability across mobile browsers & platforms.  Knowing all the rules & knowing when to ignore the rules is necessary for success on the Mobile Web. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Mobile Web Standards  Various standards involved in:  Structure  Presentation  Client Side Scripting Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Structure Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Mobile Web Standards  XML-formatted markup defines the document structure  Handsets may support WML, XHTML, HTML4, HTML5 in varying degrees  These XML standards have various versions & derivations Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Mobile Web Standards  Previously WML was dominant, now best results with XHTML MP  Specifically XHTML MP 1.0  Most modern phones support WAP 2.0, which uses XHTML MP as the primary markup language while WAP 1.0 used WML. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Mobile Web Standards  XHTML-MP (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language - Mobile Profile) is a specialization XHTML designed to incorporate features useful to mobile devices.  XHTML-MP 1.0 was defined by the OMA and is an extension of the original W3C-inspired XHTML Basic 1.0. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Mobile Web Standards  Over time, OMA has developed XHTML-MP and now has a proposed 1.2 version of its specification.  XHTML-MP comes with a mobile-friendly means of using CSS to separate presentation from the markup, just like on the desktop. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Mobile Web Standards  XHTML-MP 1.0 sets the base tags for mobile markup.  XHTML-MP 1.1 adds the <script> tag and support for mobile JavaScript.  XHTML-MP 1.2 adds more form tags and text input modes.  Currently many mobile browsers do not support XHTML-MP 1.2. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Mobile Web Standards  Mobile Web sites targeting only smartphones can use the full feature set of HTML 4 & in the near future, HTML 5.  Using desktop markup also invites transcoders - network appliances designed to optimize the Desktop Web for mobile devices by reformatting markup Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Mobile Web Standards  HTML 5 is the next major release of the foundational language of the Web.  It is currently a draft recommendation undergoing active revision at the W3C (http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/)  HTML 5 will be the next standard for markup and APIs supported in Web browsers. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Presentation Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Mobile Web Standards  Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) control the presentation.  Most XHTML-MP mobile browsers support Wireless CSS, CSS Mobile Profile, and/or CSS 2.  CSS 3 is new, coming along with HTML5 Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. Mobile Web Standards  The OMA-managed Wireless CSS standard is a subset of CSS and is also part of the WAP 2.0 specification.  Note that Wireless CSS is not backwards compatible with WML. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. Mobile Web Standards  Wireless CSS and CSS Mobile Profile are tightly related, but independent mobile subsets of CSS2 used to style XHTML-MP documents.  Wireless CSS is a CSS2 subset standardized by the Open Mobile Alliance. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. Mobile Web Standards  CSS Mobile Profile is a CSS2 subset—with some features borrowed from CSS3—that is standardized by the W3C.  The W3C’s goal is to align CSS Mobile Profile with Wireless CSS as much as possible. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. Mobile Web Standards  Overall, Wireless CSS is a more restricted subset and an older standard targeted at Web browsers on resource-limited mobile devices.  CSS Mobile Profile adds in much more of the CSS2 standard to enable richer web documents but risks full support on mass market mobile browsers. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. Mobile Web Standards  You can add Wireless CSS to your document the same way as you would for a normal HTML document.  Link to an external global stylesheet using the following line:  <link href="external.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />  Insert styles at the document head the following example shows:  <style>  p {  font-size: small;  }  </style> Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. Mobile Web Standards  Wireless CSS supports a lot CSS attributes, but not all of them.  More advanced styling techniques won’t likely work across multiple mobile browsers.  The best advice is to keep your CSS as simple as possible. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. Client Side Scripting Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. Mobile Web Standards  Client-side scripting mainly through Javascript  ECMAScript-MP or mobile JavaScript targets mobile phones  WMLScript is a scripting language which complements WML. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. Mobile Web Standards  Client-side scripting in mobile browsers used to be the exclusive domain of smartphones, but this is rapidly changing.  Many mass-market mobile devices beginning to support mobile JavaScript. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. Mobile Web Standards  As with any client-side mobile technology, testing JavaScript on actual mobile devices is critical for effective development  Testing on emulators and in Firefox might not uncover syntax problems and performance issues that can occur on the target mobile device. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27. Mobile Web Standards  Mobile and desktop JavaScript have virtually identical syntax.  The mobile version is stringent about ending lines with semicolons. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  28. 28. Mobile Web Standards  Mobile JavaScript reduces the supported character sets and excludes computationally intensive language elements.  It differs from its desktop counterpart in the extent of its DOM and event support in the mobile browser. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  29. 29. Mobile Web Standards  DOM and event support can vary from one browser vendor and version to another.  On-device testing is critical for success with mobile JavaScript. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  30. 30. Mobile Web Standards  You can use device awareness and content adaptation techniques that enable conditional inclusion of scripting to target only mobile browsers with support for JavaScript. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  31. 31. MIME Types Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  32. 32. Mobile Web Standards  Mobile MIME types (or content types) identify the format of Mobile Web content.  Formats are differentiated by web servers and browser clients in an HTTP transaction using MIME types Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  33. 33. Mobile Web Standards  Text documents containing mobile markup  Binary files include viewable or playable content like ringtones, wallpaper and videos, and binary executable mobile applications Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  34. 34. Standardization Bodies Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  35. 35. Mobile Web Standards  Mobile Industry Groups and Standards Bodies adherence to Mobile Web industry standards and best practices is important for flexible and cross- platform development.  Several Internet and mobile industry bodies govern Mobile Web standards and recommended best practices Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  36. 36. Mobile Web Standards  W3C: This body standardizes mobile markup languages and publishes best practices documents for Mobile Web development and testing. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  37. 37. Mobile Web Standards  Open Mobile Alliance (formerly WAP Forum): This body standardizes mobile markup and style languages and other mobile technologies designed to be interoperable across devices, geographies, and mobile networks. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  38. 38. Mobile Web Standards  dotMobi (http://mtld.mobi): This body controls the .mobi top-level domain, the content of which must be device-adaptive and compatible with mobile devices.  This body also publishes best practices for Mobile Web development and nurtures mobile developers, marketers, and operators with online communities. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  39. 39. Mobile Web Standards  Mobile Marketing Association: This body centralizes technology recommendations and best practices for marketing and advertising on mobile devices. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  40. 40. Mobile Web Standards  Open Mobile Terminal Platform (OMTP) (www.omtp.org): This operator-sponsored mobile industry group standardizing mobile device access from Web applications. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  41. 41. The End Michael Wakahe michael@tawi.mobi +254 (0) 20 239 3052 www.tawi.mobi Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.

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