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Mobile Boot Camp
November 2010
Mobile Website Development
Introduction to Mobile Internet
Facilitated by:
Michael Wakahe
T...
Table of Contents
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 The Need for Mobile Web
 Mobile ...
The Need for Mobile Web
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
The Need for Mobile Web
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 Limitations of mobile phone...
The Need for Mobile Web
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 TCP/IP protocol suite was n...
The Need for Mobile Web
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 Users consume mobile servic...
The Need for Mobile Web
Mobile devices available today can be
broken down in to a few broad classes:
1. Feature Phones
2. ...
The Need for Mobile Web
 Feature Phones are the most common device
type.
 They usually come in candy bar, clamshell or
s...
The Need for Mobile Web
Figures: Feature
Phones
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
The Need for Mobile Web
 Smart phones share the same features as a
feature phone with two primary differences:
 its abil...
The Need for Mobile Web
 Smart phones typically use a more full
featured operating system
 Companies market them as them...
The Need for Mobile Web
Figure: Smartphone
- iPhone
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
The Need for Mobile Web
 PDAs evolved from the PDAs of the ‘90s
 Now often include voice, messaging, and data
capabiliti...
The Need for Mobile Web
Figure: Personal
Digital Assistants
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Res...
The Need for Mobile Web
 Voice-Only Phones are typically extremely
low-cost phones aimed at developing
markets
 Are not ...
The Need for Mobile Web
 Feature Phones lead the market by a large margin
 However the borderline between the Feature Ph...
The Need for Mobile Web
Figure: Distribution
of Mobile Handsets
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights...
The Need for Mobile Web
 The Web is a vast collection of servers linked by
TCP/IP computer networks.
 These web servers,...
The Need for Mobile Web
 In an HTTP request, the client sends a web
server the URI of the desired resource and a
collecti...
The Need for Mobile Web
 In an HTTP response, the web server sends
the client the document itself (markup, text,
or binar...
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 Wireless Application Protocol (W...
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 In 2002, the WAP Forum consolida...
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 WAP is designed with two main go...
Mobile Web History
Figure: The WAP
protocol stack
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 WAP protocol stack is a lightwei...
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 WAP tries to utilize existing In...
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 Each layer of the protocol stack...
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 To describe the capabilities of ...
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 The aim of using UAProf is to al...
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 The user agent profile of a mobi...
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 Example of UAProf: For Sony Eric...
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 To reduce transmission time, WAP...
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 HTML pages are not suitable for ...
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 WML is a tagged language.
 WML ...
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
<wml>
<card id=“Card1" title="Firs...
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
Figure: A WML deck
with two cards.
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
 WMLScript is a scripting languag...
Mobile Web History
Three elements in a WAP architecture:
 Client: the WML browser in a wireless device.
It issues WAP req...
Mobile Web History
 Gateway: provides protocol conversion
between the WWW protocol stack and the
WAP protocol stack, by u...
Mobile Web History
Figure: WAP infrastructure.
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
Mobile Web History
 When protocol conversion is performed at the
gateway, it can minimize wireless
communication overhead...
Mobile Web History
 The architecture discussed so far is the common pull
architecture based on the client - server paradi...
Mobile Web History
 Push architecture is very useful in delivering
messages like instant news, email indication,
advertis...
Mobile Web History
Figure: WAP push architecture
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
WAP is designed to meet the follow...
Mobile Web History
 Mobile Web uses the plumbing of Desktop Web
and adds new MIME types, markup languages,
document forma...
Mobile Web History
The Mobile Web introduces new components into
the web ecosystem, including:
 Markup languages and styl...
Mobile Web History
 Rich Web 2.0 features such as JavaScript
frameworks and Asynchronous JavaScript and
XML (AJAX) must b...
Mobile Web History
 Transcoding proxies often attempt to reformat
mobile markup en route to a mobile browser.
 Defensive...
Mobile Web History
 Mobile users are keenly goal-directed and
location-aware.
 Roaming in and out of coverage areas, mob...
Mobile Web History
 The mobile browser is totally new & has
unique benefits, quirks, and workarounds.
 Partial and flawe...
Mobile Web History
 Improperly formatted web pages can have
drastic effects on mobile devices, including
crashing the bro...
Mobile Web History
Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd.
2015. All Rights Reserved.
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Introduction to Mobile Internet

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Introduction to Mobile Internet

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Introduction to Mobile Internet

  1. 1. Mobile Boot Camp November 2010 Mobile Website Development Introduction to Mobile Internet Facilitated by: Michael Wakahe Tawi Commercial Services Ltd
  2. 2. Table of Contents Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  The Need for Mobile Web  Mobile Web History
  3. 3. The Need for Mobile Web Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. The Need for Mobile Web Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  Limitations of mobile phones  Limited Processor Power and Memory  Limited Battery Life  Limited Input and Output Facilities  Low Bandwidth  Unpredictable Availability and Stability
  5. 5. The Need for Mobile Web Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  TCP/IP protocol suite was not designed for a wireless environment  Bandwidth resource is expensive  HTML pages are not suitable for use in mobile devices with limited processor power and screen.
  6. 6. The Need for Mobile Web Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  Users consume mobile services differently.  They buy and pay for their mobiles and mobile software differently.
  7. 7. The Need for Mobile Web Mobile devices available today can be broken down in to a few broad classes: 1. Feature Phones 2. Smart Phones 3. PDAs 4. Voice-Only Phones Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. The Need for Mobile Web  Feature Phones are the most common device type.  They usually come in candy bar, clamshell or slider form.  They have a 12-key layout and typically come with voice, messaging and data capabilities. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. The Need for Mobile Web Figures: Feature Phones Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. The Need for Mobile Web  Smart phones share the same features as a feature phone with two primary differences:  its ability to run additional third-party applications  a slightly larger screen. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. The Need for Mobile Web  Smart phones typically use a more full featured operating system  Companies market them as them as advanced multimedia devices to consumers or as productivity devices to the business sector. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. The Need for Mobile Web Figure: Smartphone - iPhone Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. The Need for Mobile Web  PDAs evolved from the PDAs of the ‘90s  Now often include voice, messaging, and data capabilities.  PDAs have much in common with smart phone  But differ in that much of their functionality is oriented towards organizational tasks rather then voice communications. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. The Need for Mobile Web Figure: Personal Digital Assistants Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. The Need for Mobile Web  Voice-Only Phones are typically extremely low-cost phones aimed at developing markets  Are not relevant in the context of the Mobile Web. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. The Need for Mobile Web  Feature Phones lead the market by a large margin  However the borderline between the Feature Phones and Smart Phones is constantly shifting towards the Smart Phone category  The newest Feature Phones are often equal in functionality to yesterday’s Smart Phones. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. The Need for Mobile Web Figure: Distribution of Mobile Handsets Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. The Need for Mobile Web  The Web is a vast collection of servers linked by TCP/IP computer networks.  These web servers, implement the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to share documents and files.  Web servers provide access by Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) to text files, markup documents, and binary resources. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. The Need for Mobile Web  In an HTTP request, the client sends a web server the URI of the desired resource and a collection of request headers  One of the request headers contains a list of MIME types that advertise the content types supported on the client. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. The Need for Mobile Web  In an HTTP response, the web server sends the client the document itself (markup, text, or binary) and another set of headers  One of the response headers contains the MIME type describing the file type of the document transmitted to the client. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Forum was founded in 1997 by Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, and Phone.com.  WAP 1.1 was published in 1999  WAP 2.0 was published in 2001
  23. 23. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  In 2002, the WAP Forum consolidated into the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) and the specification work from WAP continues within OMA
  24. 24. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  WAP is designed with two main goals  to minimize bandwidth requirement  to maximize the number of supported network types (e.g., 9.6 Kbps in GSM).
  25. 25. Mobile Web History Figure: The WAP protocol stack Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  WAP protocol stack is a lightweight protocol stack that is designed to address the limitations of wireless devices and the wireless network.  To access ordinary web servers, WAP-enabled mobile devices can rely on a WAP gateway to provide protocol conversion between WWW protocol stack and WAP protocol stack.
  27. 27. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  WAP tries to utilize existing Internet protocols and standards as much as possible  For example XML, HTML, HTTP & TLS
  28. 28. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  Each layer of the protocol stack is designed to be scalable and efficient.  For example, in Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP), there is no explicit connection setup or teardown
  29. 29. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  To describe the capabilities of a mobile device, WAP has defined a user agent profile (UAProf)  The capabilities of a mobile device are related to software and hardware  This includes things like processor type, memory capacity, display size, browser type and version, network type, etc.
  30. 30. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  The aim of using UAProf is to allow all elements of the WAP infrastructure (i.e., content servers, application servers, gateways, etc.) to provide mobile devices with device-specific contents.  A user agent profile is basically an XML document containing information about hardware and software characteristics of a mobile device and network to which it will be connected.
  31. 31. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  The user agent profile of a mobile device is stored in its manufacturer's server, called the profile repository.  In order to provide mobile devices with device- specific contents, when a mobile device performs a request to a server, the URL of its user agent profile will be included in the header of the request message.
  32. 32. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  Example of UAProf: For Sony Ericsson K750i, found at: http://wap.sonyericsson.com/UAprof/K750iR101.xml  Open example XML
  33. 33. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  To reduce transmission time, WAP uses binary-coded WML (wireless markup language) pages.  Also WAP specifies a caching model and user agent profile (UAProf) for efficient delivery of device- specific content.
  34. 34. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  HTML pages are not suitable for use in mobile devices with limited processor power and screen.  Wireless Markup Language (WML) is designed to describe data and the format that data should be presented on mobile devices
  35. 35. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  WML is a tagged language.  WML adopts a deck and card metaphor.  Each WML document is made up of multiple cards, and cards are grouped into a deck.  WML pages can be encoded in a binary format before transmission.
  36. 36. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved. <wml> <card id=“Card1" title="First Card"> <p> Hello World! </p> </card> <card id="Card2" title="Second Card"> <p> WAP is fun! </p > </card> </wml>
  37. 37. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved. Figure: A WML deck with two cards.
  38. 38. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.  WMLScript is a scripting language which complements WML.  Similar to JavaScript for HTML  WMLScript bytecode interpreter is compact in size, which allows efficient execution of scripts will less memory and processor requirements
  39. 39. Mobile Web History Three elements in a WAP architecture:  Client: the WML browser in a wireless device. It issues WAP requests to a server.  Server: the entity which provides services and where resources are located. This can be an ordinary Internet-based server or a WAP- capable server. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  40. 40. Mobile Web History  Gateway: provides protocol conversion between the WWW protocol stack and the WAP protocol stack, by using content encoders and decoders  Thus a gateway acts as a proxy server Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  41. 41. Mobile Web History Figure: WAP infrastructure. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  42. 42. Mobile Web History  When protocol conversion is performed at the gateway, it can minimize wireless communication overhead at the client side.  The gateway can also cache frequently requested contents so as to reduce the request - response time. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  43. 43. Mobile Web History  The architecture discussed so far is the common pull architecture based on the client - server paradigm  WAP system architecture also specifies a push architecture to enhance the WAP services  Here the server sends messages to the client without explicit request from the client. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  44. 44. Mobile Web History  Push architecture is very useful in delivering messages like instant news, email indication, advertising etc  In the push architecture, the server and the gateway are called the push initiator (PI) and the push proxy gateway (PPG), respectively. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  45. 45. Mobile Web History Figure: WAP push architecture Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  46. 46. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved. WAP is designed to meet the following requirements  Interoperability  Scalability  Efficiency  Reliability  Security
  47. 47. Mobile Web History  Mobile Web uses the plumbing of Desktop Web and adds new MIME types, markup languages, document formats, and best practices  Web content provided is optimized for the small screens, resource constraints, and usability challenges of web browsers on mobile devices. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  48. 48. Mobile Web History The Mobile Web introduces new components into the web ecosystem, including:  Markup languages and styles optimized for mobile devices  MIME types that differentiate mobile markup from desktop HTML  Browser clients with a wide variety of capabilities  Network proxies that further adapt your content to cater for those clients Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  49. 49. Mobile Web History  Rich Web 2.0 features such as JavaScript frameworks and Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) must be used judiciously, or you risk draining battery power.  Operators frequently control and block traffic to Mobile Web sites. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  50. 50. Mobile Web History  Transcoding proxies often attempt to reformat mobile markup en route to a mobile browser.  Defensive programming is essential to reduce exposure to transcoders and mobile network problems. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  51. 51. Mobile Web History  Mobile users are keenly goal-directed and location-aware.  Roaming in and out of coverage areas, mobile users count network access problems among the top factors affecting the Mobile Web browsing experience. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  52. 52. Mobile Web History  The mobile browser is totally new & has unique benefits, quirks, and workarounds.  Partial and flawed implementations of web standards are commonplace. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  53. 53. Mobile Web History  Improperly formatted web pages can have drastic effects on mobile devices, including crashing the browser or resetting the device.  Advanced web features such as JavaScript and AJAX are highly desirable but drain battery life. Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.
  54. 54. Mobile Web History Copyright © Tawi Commercial Services Ltd. 2015. All Rights Reserved.

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