Personality types and styles of leadership Tatiana Indina Fulbright lecture Hawaii 2012
Personality typesand styles of management Dr. Tatiana A. Indina Fulbright visiting scholarKennan Institute, Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington DC.
• Why personality is important?• How personality helps to succeed in business?
K.Jung personality types in MBTI, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator• Introversion (E) – Extraversion (I)• Sensation (S) – Intuition (N)• Thinking (T) – Feeling (F)• Judging (J) – Perceiving (P)
Extraversion- IntroversionQ1. Which is your most natural energy orientation?Every person has two faces. One is directed towards the OUTER world of activities,excitements, people, and things. The other is directed inward to the INNER world ofthoughts, interests, ideas, and imagination.While these are two different but complementary sides of our nature, most peoplehave an innate preference towards energy from either the OUTER or the INNERworld. Thus one of their faces, either the Extraverted (E) or Introverted (I), takesthe lead in their personality development and plays a more dominant role in theirbehavior.Extraverted Characteristics Introverted Characteristics Act first, think/reflect later Think/reflect first, then Act Feel deprived when cutoff from Regularly require an amount of interaction with the outside world "private time" to recharge batteries Usually open to and motivated by Motivated internally, mind is outside world of people and things sometimes so active it is "closed" to outside world Enjoy wide variety and change in people relationships Prefer one-to-one communication and relationships
Extraversion - Introversion We are extraverting when we:Those who prefer Introversion draw their Talk to other peopleprimary energy from the inner world of Listen to whatinformation, thoughts, ideas, and other reflections. someone is sayingWhen circumstances require an excessive amount Cook dinner, orof attention spent in the "outside" world, those make a cup of coffeepreferring Introversion find the need to retreat to Work on a cara more private setting as if to recharge their We are introvertingdrained batteries. when we: Read a bookIn contrast, those who prefer Extraversion are Think about whatdrawn to the outside world as their elemental we want to say orsource of energy. Rarely, if ever, do extraverted dopreference people feel their energy batteries are Are aware of how"drained" by excessive amounts of interaction with we feel Think through athe outside world. They must engage the things, problem so that wepeople, places and activities going on in the understand itoutside world for their life force.
Sensing – IntuitiveQ2. Which way of Perceiving or understanding is most "automatic" or natural?The Sensing (S) side of our brain notices the sights, sounds, smells and all the sensory details of thePRESENT. It categorizes, organizes, records and stores the specifics from the here and now. It isREALITY based, dealing with "what is." It also provides the specific details of memory &recollections from PAST events.The Intuitive (N) side of our brain seeks to understand, interpret and form OVERALL patterns of allthe information that is collected and records these patterns and relationships. It speculates onPOSSIBILITIES, including looking into and forecasting the FUTURE. It is imaginative andconceptual.While both kinds of perceiving are necessary and used by all people, each of us instinctively tends tofavor one over the other.Sensing Characteristics Intuitive Characteristics Mentally live in the Now, attending to present Mentally live in the Future, attending to opportunities future possibilities Using common sense and creating practical Using imagination and creating/inventing solutions is automatic-instinctual new possibilities is automatic-instinctual Memory recall is rich in detail of facts and Memory recall emphasizes patterns, past events contexts, and connections Best improvise from past experience Best improvise from theoretical understanding Like clear and concrete information; dislike guessing when facts are "fuzzy" Comfortable with ambiguous, fuzzy data and with guessing its meaning.
Sensing – Intuition We are Sensing when we:Those who prefer Sensing Perception favor Taste food Notice a stoplight hasclear, tangible data and information that fits changedin well with their direct here-and-now Memorize a speechexperience. Follow steps in a plan We are Intuitive whenIn contrast, those who prefer Intuition we:Perception are drawn to information that is Come up with a newmore abstract, conceptual, big-picture, and way of doing thingsrepresents imaginative possibilities for the Think about futurefuture. implications for a current action Perceive underlying meaning in what people say or do See the big picture
Thinking - FeelingQ3. Which way of forming Judgments and making choices is most natural?The Thinking (T) side of our brain analyzes information in a DETACHED, objectivefashion. It operates from factual principles, deduces and forms conclusionssystematically. It is our logical nature.The Feeling (F) side of our brain forms conclusions in an ATTACHED and somewhatglobal manner, based on likes/dislikes, impact on others, and human and aestheticvalues. It is our subjective nature.While everyone uses both means of forming conclusions, each person has a naturalbias towards one over the other so that when they give us conflicting directions - oneside is the natural trump card or tiebreaker.Thinking Characteristics Feeling Characteristics Instinctively search for facts and logic Instinctively employ personal feelings in a decision situation. and impact on people in decision situations Naturally notices tasks and work to be accomplished. Naturally sensitive to people needs and reactions. Easily able to provide an objective and critical analysis. Naturally seek consensus and popular opinions. Accept conflict as a natural, normal part of relationships with people. Unsettled by conflict; have almost a toxic reaction to disharmony.
Thinking- Feeling We are making decisions in the Thinking mode when we: Research a product via consumerThose who prefer Thinking Judgment have a reports, and buy the best one tonatural preference for making decisions in an meet our needsobjective, logical, and analytical manner with an Do "The Right Thing", whether or notemphasis on tasks and results to be accomplished. we like it Choose not to buy a blue shirt whichThose whose preference is for Feeling Judgment we like, because we have two blue shirtsmake their decisions in a somewhat global, Establish guidelines to follow forvisceral, harmony and value-oriented way, paying performing tasksparticular attention to the impact of decisions and We are making decisions in the Feelingactions on other people. mode when we: Decide to buy something because we like it Refrain from telling someone something which we feel may upset them Decide not to take a job because we dont like the work environment Decide to move somewhere to be close to someone we care about
Judging - PerceivingQ4. What is your "action orientation" towards the outside world?All people use both judging (thinking and feeling) and perceiving (sensing and intuition) processesto store information, organize our thoughts, make decisions, take actions and manage our lives. Yetone of these processes (Judging or Perceiving) tends to take the lead in our relationship with theoutside world . . . while the other governs our inner world.A Judging (J) style approaches the outside world WITH A PLAN and is oriented towards organizingones surroundings, being prepared, making decisions and reaching closure and completion.A Perceiving (P) style takes the outside world AS IT COMES and is adopting and adapting, flexible,open-ended and receptive to new opportunities and changing game plans.Judging Characteristics Perceiving Characteristics Plan many of the details in advance before Comfortable moving into action without a moving into action. plan; plan on-the-go. Focus on task-related action; complete Like to multitask, have variety, mix work and meaningful segments before moving on. play. Work best and avoid stress when able to Naturally tolerant of time pressure; work keep ahead of deadlines. best close to the deadlines. Naturally use targets, dates and standard Instinctively avoid commitments which routines to manage life. interfere with flexibility, freedom and variety
Judging - Perceiving We are using Judging whenThose who prefer Judging rely upon either their T we:or F preference to manage their outer life. This Make a list of things to dotypically leads to a style oriented towards closure, Schedule things in advanceorganization, planning, or in some fashion managing Form and expressthe things and or people found in the external judgmentsenvironment. The drive is to order the outside world. Bring closure to an issue soWhile some people employ an assertive manner, that we can move onothers "ordering touch" - with respect to people -may be light. We are using Perceiving when we:Those who prefer Perceiving rely upon either their Postpone decisions to seeS or N preference to run their outer life. This what other options aretypically results in an open, adaptable, flexible style availableof relating to the things and people found in the Act spontaneouslyoutside world. The drive is to experience the outside Decide what to do as we doworld rather than order it; in general lack of closure it, rather than forming ais easily tolerated. plan ahead of time Do things at the last minute
MBTI & Keirsey temperament sorter Isabel Myers 1950s Galen c.190AD David Keirsey 1998 SP sensing-perceiving sangine artisan SJ sensing-judging melancholic guardian NF intuitive-feeling choleric idealist NT intuitive-thinking phlegmatic rationalistthe MBTI® type table related to Four Temperaments Keirsey groupings SP - sensing SJ - sensing NF - intuitive NT - intuitive perceiving judging feeling thinking ESTP ESTJ ENFJ ENTJ ISTP ISTJ INFJ INTJ ESFP ESFJ ENFP ENTP ISFP ISFJ INFP INTP sanguine or melancholic or choleric or phlegmatic or artisan guardian idealist rationalist
Practical Application for Personality Types• Career Guidance What types of tasks are we most suited to perform?Where are we naturally most happy?• Managing Employees How can we best understand an employeesnatural capabilities, and where they will find the most satisfaction?• Inter-personal Relationships How can we improve our awareness ofanother individuals Personality Type, and therefore increase our understandingof their reactions to situations, and know how to best communicate with themon a level which they will understand?• Education How can we develop different teaching methods toeffectively educate different types of people?• Counseling How we can help individuals understand themselves better,and become better able to deal with their strengths and weaknesses?
Autocratic management style Autocratic style of management This type of management style allows businesses to keep a blueprint if you will, in how the company operates. This is because the foundation of a autocratic style of management comes from the idea of a country that is run by a king or dictator. If you havent guessed you can run this type of management style the best if your employees are followers and dont normally form their own thoughts or ideas. They pretty much run the business like they are supposed to because it is the blueprint that they were given for success. The leader of a business that prefers an autocratic style of managing, most likely enjoys the feeling of authority this style brings. Of course just like a King, or Dictator, this management style allows the person to make final decisions about the business without the employees having any input but normally bases the decision with the employees in mind and what he or she feels is best for them. With some businesses this works, for example Papa Johns wants their employees to make their pizza exactly as specify. For one, this provides continuity, so you know no matter where you go in the world, Papa Johns pizza will have that same quality taste. “KING” Order, power, dictate, one person decision making
Paternalistic management stylePaternalistic Management Style Taking care, what is better for employees, pedagogic, Attention to feedback “FATHER”Paternalistic leaders look for the input of their employees but take the final credit for ideas.
Democratic management style Democratic management The Democratic management style is the style grafted from the government system of the United States. This management style works well because normally there will be several leaders of the same business that are lending their ears to the employees in order to provide good two way communication. The Democratic management style is successful because they allow employees below them to make decisions on their own much like the different States that make up the U.S. as well as their cities, are able to make their own laws. This type of management style is mostly found in businesses where efficiency is a joint operation. Much like you would see in a hospital setting, where all the different jobs such as a Nurse, M.D., Radiologist, and Social service representativeDemocratic Management style would work to together with the same goal, heal the patient, but from different perspectives. “PARTNER” Giving voice to people, delegating power and responsibility, Letting employees to participate in DM,Democratic leaders listen to the people.
Laissez-faire style Laissez-faire (tolerant, lenient, liberal) management This management style by itself would be an extremely bad choice, because by definition it says refusal to interfere. This type of business management only works if the people involved are self motivated and task oriented. Much like when a business first starts, each person knows what they need to get done each day. Nobody has rule over the other and the job still gets done. Like Doctors working together this is because they are highly trained, self-motivated, and professional that they dont require direction or oversight. The main thing to keep in mind is to know yourself and the type of manager that you are, some of the best mangers are able to incorporate all of the different management styles. These are normally the Type B personalities. The basics of these four management styles describe how youLaissez-faire management style allow your employees to function, whether that be on a short leash or a long one. how much you control your employees and how much you allow them to control the working environment. For self-motivated and task oriented employees, freedom, independence) (project management, expertise, art, high qualified specialists)The Laissez-faire type of management is not good in some situations.
Types of managers1. Social manager – communication management, negotiation skills, presentation skills, charismatic, networking skills - ESFP, ESFJ, ISFP, ISFJ.2. Task manager - organizer, resource coordinator, good at planning, controlling, organization skills, flexibility - ESTP, ISTJ, ESTJ, ISTP.3. Humanistic manager – teacher, supervisor, human resource manager, good at motivation, inspiration, stimulation, ENFJ, INFP, ENFP, INFJ.4. Analytic manager — strategic thinking, prognoses, modeling, change management skills - ENTP, INTP, INTJ, ENTJ.
Management skillsSkills with Data Skills with People Skills with Things
Leadership styles and personality traitsDifferent situations require the use of different leadership styles. A good leader will be able to: develop flexibility to be able to use any of the styles recognise the different demands of each situation adapt appropriately, by using the style(s) that will give optimum success ensure ones own personality needs are met
Leadership styles and personality traits Balancing your own needs with the changing demands of the situation is one of the main challenges of modern leadership. This involves asking two questions. The first question is what is your natural leadership style? What are you good at? What strengths and weaknesses do you have? The second question is what leadership style does your job demand? What are the needs of the situation? What do you have to do to be a successful leader? Modern leadership demands finding the right balance between both.
Gender differences in management stylesKathleen Cavallo, PsyD Corporate Consulting Group
PERSONALITY & LEADERSHIP STYLE Description When to use When not to usePARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIPESFJ/ENFJ, Extraverted FeelingPeople-oriented, motivator, builds personal Commitment from Decisions need to berelationships, likeable, interpersonal skills, cares for others is critical, or forced through, conflictothers sensitive situations is being avoided IDEOLOGICAL LEADERSHIP ISFP/INFP, Introverted Feeling Value-driven, has passion The group has lost its There is a problem that for key issues, focuses on sense of identity, or it is needs to be solved with important themes, doing too many dispassionate objectivity champions the cause unimportant things (eg: technical issues) CHANGE-ORIENTED LEADERSHIP ENTP/ENFP, Extraverted Intuition Tries things that are new, The group is stuck in a There are already too prototypes, introduces rut, or the status quo many initiatives under change, looks for needs to be challenged way and some stability is unexpected outcomes, needed creates new opportunities, experiments
PERSONALITY & LEADERSHIP STYLE Description When to use When not to useVISIONARY LEADERSHIPINTJ/INFJ, Introverted IntuitionDevelops long term vision, produces radical ideas, foresees Radical change is needed, change is a There are immediate dangers,the future, anticipates what is outside current knowledge long term activity the group may not survive in the short termACTION-ORIENTED LEADERSHIPESTP/ESFP, Extraverted SensingTakes action, produces results, leads from the front, sets There is some inertia, or lack of The group is being tooan example, does what is asked of others achievement has destroyed expedient, current success motivation may ebb in the futureGOAL-ORIENTED LEADERSHIPISTJ/ISFJ, Introverted SensingObserves, listens, clarifies goals, establishes realistic The direction is vague or expectations There are already too manyexpectations, makes aims crystal clear have not been articulated goals or too much information
PERSONALITY & LEADERSHIP STYLE Description When to use When not to useEXECUTIVE LEADERSHIPESTJ/ENTJ, Extraverted Thinking Organises, makes plans, sets There is chaos/lack of There are so many processes measurable goals, coordinates organization, or there are no that creativity has been stifled work of different people, measures of achievement manages resourcesLEADERSHIP THEORISTISTP/INTP, Introverted Thinking Analyses, uses models, The situation is complex or Peoples feelings are produces explanations, driven by technical solutions paramount, or the group go compares other situations, round in circular arguments engages in intellectual debate
Personality types of managers with high and low rationality of DM (Indina, 2009) Personality types in high emotionality group Champion other types 13% 24% Healer Crafter 11% 6% Promoter 5% Teacher 15% Composer Performer Councelor 8% 10% 8% NF Idealist (Intuitively -feeling) 29% SP -Artists (Sensory-percepting) 47% Keirsy personality types in high rationality group other types Inventor Architector 26% 9% 11% FieldMarshall 4% Mastermind 7% Inspector Provider 11% 5% Supervisor Protector 16% 12% NT- Rationals (Intuitively thinking) 31% SJ -Guardian (Sensory-judging) 44%
Personality profiles for effective and not effective managers in extreme (emergency) professions (Indina, 2010-2011) 9 8 6,45 7 6,2 7,2 5,67 7,81 6,78 6 6,45 5 Effective DM 4 Not effective DM 3 4,55 4,73 4,45 2 2,91 3,11 3,09 2,89 1 0 ion lity ss ss ss ism ss e ne na rs ine ne nn i sc ve ble t io us ad e ot tra Op Ra ea io re urEx nt re Ne sk cie Ag Ri ns Co
Regulation profiles in effective and not effective decision making in emergency situations (Indina, 2010) 8 7 6,52 7,26 6 5,26 6,29 5 5,81 5,27 Effective DM 4 4,9 4,3 Not effective DM 3 3,85 3,6 2 2,65 2,67 1 0 ty y g g ng n om in in tio i li ni m el ib a on an od ex am lu tPl va Fl M Au gr te o Pr ul es R