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  1. 1. SMART CARD Namrata Pinjarkar, Arti mahaduleMCA Department, Nagpur University, G.H.Raisoni Institutute Of Information Technology,, Memory), which can have its content updated, and which retains currentAbstract - Smart Cards are plastic credit cards devices withan integrated circuit chip with microprocessor. Thesesmarts cards have the techanism for storing and/orprocessing information. Intelligent Tokens (iButton) arehigh capacity general-purpose electronic data carriers, eachwith a unique registration number. They have the samecomponents as smart cards but are shielded by a steel case. I. INTRODUCTIONThe smart card is one of the latest additions to the world ofinformation technology. Similar in size to todays plasticpayment card, the smart card has a microprocessor ormemory chip embedded in it that, when coupled with areader, has the processing power to serve many differentapplications. As an access- control device, smart cardsmake personal and business data available only to theappropriate users. Another application provides users withthe ability to make a purchase or exchange value. Smartcards provide data portability, security and convenience. Asmart card is a piece of plastic, the same size as a credit ordebit card, with a silicon chip embedded in it. The chipcontains a microprocessor, which is miniature computerwhich can perform calculation and store data in itsmemory. Smart cards today achieve much more than theiroriginal application of replacing cash and coins.Smart cards grant access to secure areas, confirm aperson’s identity via biometrics, and retain large quantitiesof personal data (such as medical records.) More importantthan these specific applications are the recent trends inhow the smart cards are used – to facilitate the exchange ofinformation between customer and proprietor, which ismuch broader than the concluding financial transaction. II. SMART CARDSmart cards are plastic cards that contain a computerchip. Smart cards store larger amounts of informationthan Magnetic stripe cards. They can also update thisinformation and secure it at a higher level than amagnetic stripe.The main storage area in this cards is normally EEPROM(Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only
  2. 2. contents when external power is removed. Newer SmartCard chips, sometimes, also have math co-processorsintegrated into the microprocessor chip, which is able to Fig1 smartcardperform quite complex encryption routines relatively subsystemquickly. The chip connection is either through directphysical contact or remotely via a contact lesselectromagnetic interface. A. Types of smart card- Smart cards are tamper resistant, credit card size devices that include an integrated circuit chip to provide data storage and processing. Most smart cards require an external interface to provide communications, power, and clock cycles. There are many different types of cards and card characteristics by which they can be distinguished. In this paper, the cards will be broken up into two major categories: contact smart cards and contactless smart cards.
  3. 3. The combicard (also known as the dual-interface card) is a card with both contact and contactless interfaces. With this card, it becomes possible to access the same chip via a contact or contactless interface, with a very high level of security. It may incorporate two non- communicating chips - one for each interface - but preferably has a single, dual -interface chip providing the many advantages of a single e-purse, single operating architecture, etc. The mass transportation and banking industries are expected to be the first to take advantage of this technology. Memory cards are ICCs designed to store and protect information on the card. The cards can hold considerably more data than the magnetic stripes currently on credit cards and provide enough logic to protect that data from unauthorized read and/or write access. Microprocessor Cards contain a true CPU and RAM to allow for data processing other than just the protection of the data from unauthorized access. Some of these cards specialize in the math calculationsA contactless Smart Card looks just like a plastic “credit card” with a required for cryptography functions, others are made to supportcomputer chip and an antenna coil embedded within the card. This antenna specific programming languages such as Java cards, and others areallows it to communicate with an external antenna at the transaction point made to doto transfer information. The antenna is typically 3 - 5 turns of very thin both.wire (or conductive ink), connected to the contactless chip. This aerial coilof the antenna is laminated into the card and allows communication evenwhilst the card is retained within a wallet or handbag. The same activation B. Smart Card Interfaces:method applies to watches, pendants, baggage tags and buttons. Thus noelectrical contacts are needed and it is therefore called as "contactless" A smart card interface consists of a predefined set of servicesISO/IEC 14443 is the standard for contactless smart card communications. available within a smart card, the protocols necessary to invoke theIt defines two types of contactless cards (A and B). services, and any assumptions regarding the context of the services. With respect to smart cards, the term "interface" is similar to how it is used in COM, which in turn is similar in concept to the ISO 7816/5 application identifier but with a different scope. Each smart card interface is identified by a globally unique identifier (GUID). For example, an interface might be defined that provides biorhythm information to its holder. If a given smart card supports this service, then it may claim to support that interface GUID. Using the interface GUIDs, an application may search for a particular set of interfaces, locating any card that supports that set, to complete a task. Although an interface has one GUID, it might be implemented differently on different cards. For example, the biorhythm interface mentioned above can have several different implementations, yet all are referenced using the same GUID. The different implementationsTwo new categories, derived from the contact and contactless cards are would not change the interaction between the application and thecombi cards and hybrid cards. smart card; however, the interaction between the service provider and the smart cards may differ depending on the interfacesA hybrid Smart Card has two chips, each with its respective contact andimplementation.contactless interface. The two chips are not connected, but for manyapplications, this Hybrid serves the needs of consumers and card issuers.
  4. 4. C. Advantages- Flexibilit III. FUTURE o y o More Reliable The important thing about Smart Cards is that they are everyday objects that people can carry in their pockets, yet they have the o Disposable or reusable capacity to retain and protect critical information stored in electronic o Perform multiple functions form. The “smartness” of Smart Cards comes from the integrated Portabilit circuit embedded in the plastic card. Embedding similar circuits in o y other everyday objects, such as key rings, watches, glasses, rings or o Increase data storage capacity earrings, could perform the same electronic function. The development of contactless card technology was the catalyst for what is known as o Cannot be copied tags. Tags function like contactless Smart Cards but are in the form of o Has wide range of application a coin, a ring or even a baggage label. They are generally attached to semi objects such as gas bottles, cars or animals and can hold and protect o Evolves rapidly applying - information concerning that object. This allows the object to be conductor technology managed by an information system without any manual data handling. The use of Biometrics will soon mean that his/her hand, fingerprint o It is a encryption device and the retina of the eye or the sound of the voice can reliably identify 15 Secure token to authenticate a person. Soon it will be possible to authorize the use of electronic 15 Low running cost information in Smart Cards by using a spoken word or the touch of a hand. 15 Faster When you put your clothes on in the morning there will be no coins 4. Uses- Smart Cards have many different uses, a few examples being: rolling on the floor, you don’t hav to search for the car keys, your wallet will not make your pockets or purse heavy. You just have your 15 For banking (credit card) Personal Universal Smart Card(PUSC) in your pocket. A gizmo on the door will radio-check that you have it while going out, and unlock the o For public telephone operation (phone card) door when youll come back. 15 For cell phone operation and purchasing of pre-paid air time (SIM card and Vodacom or MTN air time card) Also, Smart Card readers will be appearing on the PC and o For paying TV licenses (Super Card) will enable the user to pay for goods purchased over the Internet. This o For shopping at chain stores (Clicks, will be especially useful for small value purchases, which are not Edgar’s, Woolworths, etc.) really appropriate for credit card transactions. If you have products o For use at filling stations (Petrol Cards) o that have relatively low value - for example a few pages of information about your product that customers may pay 50c for - they For health care card may well pay you in the future using a Smart Card. o Government card As a smart infrastructure for mobile computing, Smart Card o Automatic public transport fare collection o technologies will prove to be the killer application for the networked Customer loyalty card economy. The Smart Card will be "charged up" with money and you will use it as you do cash or a phone card. In the near future, theE. Security- traditional magnetic strip card will be replaced and integrated together into a single card by using the multi-application Smart Card, which isWhen software and PC hardware are hacked, the keys remain safe in the known as an electronic purse or wallet in the Smart Card industry. Itdigitally and physically secure iButton chip. If the iButton is physically will be used to carry a lot of sensitive and critical data about theattacked, it triggers a tamper response that quickly "zeroes" to erase the consumers ever more than before when compared with the magneticcontents of the memory rather than reveal private keys and other sensitive strip card.information to the intruder. The Buttons cryptographic services includesecure private key storage and secure message digest ("hashing") fordigital signatures and certificates. Users can sign electronic documents andgenerate certificates to access restricted Web sites without ever revealingtheir private keys.”
  5. 5. REFERENCES o o ication/smart-cards-secure-they_131 o o Smart card wikipedia-the free encyclopedia. o o o art-card Fig 4: Smart Cards are a relatively new technology that already affects the everyday lives of millions of people.This is just the beginning; soon it will influence the way we shop, see the doctor, use the telephone and even enjoy leisure!!! IV. CONCLUSIONSmart cards were designed from the inside out to be a securecomponent of systems with split functionality. As with anysecurity component, the better they are integrated with the overallsystem, the more effective they will be. This is why closedsystems, with a real time feedback loop, will always be moreresistant to attacks than open systems, but smart cards have shownthat they can reduce the risk in either case. I think the use of smartcards will increase in the future especially the contact-less typeand also the use of intelligent token.The use of smart cards willincrease in the future especially the contact-less type and also theuse of intelligent tokens. ACKNOWLEDGMENTWe are thankful to Prof. Sasankar H.O.D, M.C.A department,GHRIIT and Dr. Mamta Muthal, Principle, GHRIIT to give us anopportunity to express our views about the current topic SMARTCARD. We are thankful to Vaishali Borkar, lecturer, GHRIIT, ourmentor and all other staff members of GHRIIT who guided us for thesuccessful completion of our paper presentation.