SPARTACUS AND THESLAVE WAR 73-71 BCA gladiator rebels against Rome
ABOUT THE AUTHOR AND ILLUSTRATORD R N I C FIELDS    started his career as a biochemist before joining the RoyalMarines. Ha...
CAMPAIGN • 206SPARTACUS AND THESLAVE WAR 73-71 BCA gladiator rebels against Rome
First published in 2009 by Osprey Publishing                                  ARTISTS N O T EMidland House, West Way, Botl...
CONTENTSINTRODUCTION                                                                                        5The origins o...
INTRODUCTION                                    T h e year 7 3 BC, the 6 7 9 t h f r o m the f o u n d i n g o f R o m e ,...
Enna, a general view west-                 E x a m p l e s c o u l d b e m u l t i p l i e d o f S p a r t a c u s a s s u...
punitive force e q u a l t o t h a t w i t h w h i c h C a e s a r w a s later t o c o n q u e r G a u l t o              ...
LEFTBronze statue of Eunus,Castello di Lombardia -Scuola Regionale dArteEnna (1960). Eunus, theprincipal figure of the Fir...
d e m a n d i n g o v e r s e a s c o m m i t m e n t s elsewhere, agarrison army w a s not permanently stationedo n the i...
Lilybaeum (Marsala) started        r e c o m m e n d e d a m o n g his d u t i e s t h a t he s h o u l d h a v e n o d e ...
CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOREVENTS 146-60 BC146 BC    Romans destroy Carthage and Corinth.       121 B C        Caius Gracchus atte...
103 B C   Marius third consulship. Lucius            85 B C   Cinnas third consulship. Sulla completes          Licinius L...
Autumn: defeat of Glaber. Publius                Other events: Antonius humiliating        Varinius, as praetor, sent agai...
ROMAN SOCIAL ORDER      Order and status, as o p p o s e d to w h a t today we understand as class, were      the vital p ...
THE SLAVE SYSTEMSlavery is a n a s p e c t o f a n t i q u i t y t h a t is highly c o n t r o v e r s i a l . It r e m a ...
Agora of the Italians, Delos.     the R o m a n o r d e r o f t h i n g s . I n d e e d , in the eyes o f R o m a n l a w ...
Slaves w e r e certainly h u m a n b e i n g s , yet t o c o w t h e m into then e c e s s a r y docility of a b r u t e b...
r e c o g n i z e d b y ius gentium in w h i c h s o m e o n e is s u b j e c t t o the d o m i n i o n ofa n o t h e r p ...
S o investment f a r m i n g , a s o p p o s e d t o the p r e v a i l i n g p r a c t i c e of s u b s i s t e n c ea g r...
o f o w n i n g s u c h v a s t n u m b e r s of s l a v e s w a s p r i m a r i l y t o d e m o n s t r a t e ones       ...
h a v i n g m e t a m o r p h o s e d i n t o A u g u s t u s , V i r g i l h a s the e m p e r o r  s l e g e n d a r y  ...
Crucial to the development                The ancients thought that by this sort of spectacle they rendered a service toof...
W h a t e v e r its true o r i g i n s , the first g l a d i a t o r i a l fight t o o k p l a c e in R o m e in   Initial...
In 1 0 5 BC, for the first t i m e , the t w o c o n s u l s of                                                           ...
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
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Spartacus and the slave war
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Spartacus and the slave war
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Spartacus and the slave war
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Spartacus and the slave war
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Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
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Spartacus and the slave war
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Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
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Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
Spartacus and the slave war
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Spartacus and the slave war

  1. 1. SPARTACUS AND THESLAVE WAR 73-71 BCA gladiator rebels against Rome
  2. 2. ABOUT THE AUTHOR AND ILLUSTRATORD R N I C FIELDS started his career as a biochemist before joining the RoyalMarines. Having left the military, he went back to university and completed aBA and PhD in Ancient History at the University of Newcastle. He was AssistantDirector at the British School at Athens, Greece, and then a lecturer in AncientHistory at the University of Edinburgh. Nic is now a freelance author andresearcher based in south-west France.STEVE N O O N was born in Kent, UK, and attended art college in Cornwall.He has had a life-long passion for illustration, and since 1985 has workedas a professional artist. Steve has provided award-winning illustrations forrenowned publishers Dorling Kindersley, where his interest in historicalillustration began.
  3. 3. CAMPAIGN • 206SPARTACUS AND THESLAVE WAR 73-71 BCA gladiator rebels against Rome
  4. 4. First published in 2009 by Osprey Publishing ARTISTS N O T EMidland House, West Way, Botley, Oxford 0X2 OPH, UK443 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10016, USA Readers may care to note that the original paintings from which theE-mail: info@ospreypublishing.com colour plates in this book were prepared are available for private sale. The Publishers retain all reproduction copyright whatsoever. All enquiries should be addressed to:© 2009 Osprey Publishing Limited Steve Noon, 50 Colchester Avenue, Penylan, Cardiff CF23 9BP, UK The Publishers regret that they can enter into no correspondence uponAll rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private this matter.study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright,Designs and Patents Act, 1988, no part of this publication may bereproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form THE WOODLAND TRUSTor by any means, electronic, electrical, chemical, mechanical, optical, Osprey Publishing are supporting the Woodland Trust, the UKs leadingphotocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission woodland conservation charity, by funding the dedication of trees.of the copyright owner. Enquiries should be addressed to the Publishers.ISBN: 978 1 84603 353 7e-book ISBN: 978 1 84908 081 1Editorial by Ilios Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK (www.iliospublishing.com)Design: The Black SpotIndex by Fineline Editorial ServicesOriginated by PPS Grasmere LtdCartography: Bounford.comBirds-eye view artworks: The Black Spot09 10 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. FOR A CATALOGUE OF ALL BOOKS PUBLISHED BY OSPREY MILITARY AND AVIATION PLEASE CONTACT: Osprey Direct, c/o Random House Distribution Center, 400 Hahn Road, Westminster, MD 21157 Email: uscustomerservice@ospreypublishing.com Osprey Direct, The Book Service Ltd, Distribution Centre, Colchester Road, Frating Green, Colchester, Essex, C07 7DW E-mail: customerservice@ospreypublishing.com www.ospreypublishing.com
  5. 5. CONTENTSINTRODUCTION 5The origins of the revolt . The First Slave War (135-132 BC) . The Second Slave War (104-100 BC)CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOR EVENTS 146-60 B C 11ROMAN SOCIAL ORDER 14The slave system . Piracy and the slave trade - Gladiators - men of the sword . Oscan speakersOPPOSING COMMANDERS 27Spartacus the Thracian . Marcus Licinius CrassusOPPOSING ARMIES 34The slave army . The Roman armyOPPOSING PLANS 47The Spartacan plan . The Roman planTHE CAMPAIGN 52Defeat of the praetorian armies, 73 BC - Defeat of the consular armies, 72 BCThe war with Crassus, 71 BC - The trap closes: River Silarus, 71 BCAFTERMATH 79Crucifixion . The return to orderTHE LEGACY OF SPARTACUS 83A GUIDE TO PRIMARY SOURCES 88Appian (b. AD 95) . Plutarch (c. AD 46-120) . Sallust (86-c. 35 BC)BIBLIOGRAPHY 93GLOSSARY A N D ABBREVIATIONS 94INDEX 95
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION T h e year 7 3 BC, the 6 7 9 t h f r o m the f o u n d i n g o f R o m e , w i t n e s s e d the o u t b r e a k of a serious u p h e a v a l in Italy itself, a slave-societys w o r s t n i g h t m a r e c o m e true. T h i s w a s the g r e a t s l a v e u p r i s i n g led b y a c h a r i s m a t i c g l a d i a t o r n a m e d S p a r t a c u s . F o r the m o d e r n r e a d e r his n a m e is s y n o n y m o u s w i t h justified rebellion, the u n d e r d o g d a r i n g t o fight b a c k . N o t o n l y w a s he the p o s s e s s o r in T o m Wolfes p h r a s e of the right s t u f f for a H o l l y w o o d e p i c , S p a r t a c u s a l s oRocca di Cerere (left) and b e c a m e a n i m p o r t a n t l e i t m o t i f t o typify the m o d e r n w a g e - s l a v e w h o r e b e l sCastello di Lombardia (right),looking south-east outside the a g a i n s t e c o n o m i c e x p l o i t a t i o n a n d s o c i a l inequality. M o s t n o t e w o r t h y in thisEurospin supermarket, Enna. respect is the r a d i c a l g r o u p o f G e r m a n Socialists f o u n d e d in M a r c h 1 9 1 6 byCicero describes Enna as a R o s a L u x e m b u r g a n d K a r l L i e b k n e c h t , the Spartakusbund (Spartacus League),town built on a lofty eminence, w h o l i n k e d the S p a r t a c u s l e g e n d t o p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t the G r e a t W a r a n d thethe top of which is a table-land,watered by perennial springs, c u r r e n t e c o n o m i c order. Similarly, in m o r e r e c e n t t i m e s , the b a l a c l a v a - c l a dand bound in every direction Subcomandante M a r c o s , w h o d e s c r i b e d h i m s e l f a s the i n t e r n a t i o n a lby precipitous cliffs {Verrines s p o k e s p e r s o n for the i n d i g e n o u s rebel m o v e m e n t in C h i a p a s , s o u t h e r n M e x i c o ,2.4.107). Besieged by Roman has used Spartacus, alongside Ernesto C h e G u e v a r a , as a revolutionary iconforces, Enna remainedimpregnable and only fell for the p o p u l a r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t p o l i t i c a l , j u d i c i a l , s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i cthrough betrayal from within. i n e q u a l i t i e s , the f o u r h o r s e m e n o f a n e n t r e n c h e d s t a t u s q u o , w h a t e v e r t h a t(Fields-Carre Collection) status q u o m a y be.
  7. 7. Enna, a general view west- E x a m p l e s c o u l d b e m u l t i p l i e d o f S p a r t a c u s a s s u m i n g a different s h a p esouth-west from Rocca di a c c o r d i n g t o the v i e w p o i n t o f the o b s e r v e r : a s i n d i v i d u a l h e r o , a s leader of aCerere. At the time of the First s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l r e b e l l i o n , a s p o t e n t i a l d e s t r o y e r o f R o m e a n d , ofSlave War, the town was theagricultural centre of one of the c o u r s e , a s i n s p i r a t i o n for future c l a s s s t r u g g l e . A s it h a p p e n s , w e all h a v e o u rrichest grain-producing plains o w n p a r t i c u l a r v i s i o n o f S p a r t a c u s , b e it f r o m the p e r s p e c t i v e o f p o l i t i c a lof Sicily and also an important c o m m i t m e n t o r a n t i q u a r i a n interest. A c c o r d i n g t o P l u t a r c h , himself a G r e e kcult centre of Demeter (Ceres), a n d one of our three m a i n sources, S p a r t a c u s w a s much m o r e than onethe goddess of the earth,agriculture and grain. Like the w o u l d e x p e c t f r o m his c o n d i t i o n , m o s t intelligent a n d c u l t u r e d , b e i n g m o r eSyrian Atargatis, Demeter was like a G r e e k t h a n a T h r a c i a n (Crassus 8.2). T h e c o m m e n t implies that to aa manifestation of the Great G r e e k intellect l i v i n g u n d e r t h e s u p e r p o w e r o f R o m e , S p a r t a c u s c o u l d beMother. (Fields-Carre c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e o v e r c o m e the n a t u r a l inferiority p r o d u c e d by the t w i nCollection) h a n d i c a p s o f f o r e i g n n e s s a n d servile s t a t u s b y sheer f o r c e o f p e r s o n a l i t y . T h e historical S p a r t a c u s w a s r o u g h a n d heroic, a big, brave and great- h e a r t e d m a n , a n d his r e p o r t e d a c t i o n s b e a r o u t his ability t o l e a d others a n d his ingenuity in battle. B u t like s u c h a h e r o , v i e w s o n his s h o r t career a s a slave g e n e r a l o s c i l l a t e b e t w e e n the i m p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f fiction t o the p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f f a c t . S p a r t a c u s , a s M a r x f a m o u s l y w r o t e in a letter t o E n g e l s d a t e d 2 7 F e b r u a r y 1 8 6 1 , a p p e a r s t o b e the m o s t c a p i t a l fellow t h a t all of ancient h i s t o r y c a n s h o w for i t s e l f ( Correspondence 1846-95, 1 9 3 4 , p. 126). For m a n y , this will p e r h a p s s e e m like a n e x t r e m e view. T h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y rebel C h e G u e v a r a w a s a l s o a s t r o n g a d m i r e r of S p a r t a c u s . T h e H e r o i c Guerrillero r e m a i n s a w e l l - k n o w n f i g u r e , w h e t h e r a d o r e d or reviled, t o millions a r o u n d the m o d e r n w o r l d . A s a real m a n , n o t a u n i v e r s a l i c o n , he killed for a c a u s e , o r d e r e d p e o p l e t o kill for t h a t c a u s e , a d v o c a t e d w a r t o the d e a t h a g a i n s t i m p e r i a l i s m , a n d m a d e the u l t i m a t e sacrifice for his beliefs. D e a d m e n m a y tell n o t a l e s , b u t they c a n m a k e a l e g e n d . In the ancient w o r l d S p a r t a c u s w a s a real s l a v e w h o r e b e l l e d , b u t w h o u l t i m a t e l y did n o t w i n . Yet for all this, his c o n t i n u e d a p p e a r a n c e o n the battlefield s o a l a r m e d R o m e t h a t it m o b i l i z e d a6
  8. 8. punitive force e q u a l t o t h a t w i t h w h i c h C a e s a r w a s later t o c o n q u e r G a u l t o Temple of Demeter (Tempiohunt h i m d o w n a n d kill h i m . di Cerere), looking north-east from Torre Pisana, Castello di Lombardia. It was here that Eunus and his followers fromTHE ORIGINS OF THE REVOLT the eastern Mediterranean worshipped the Great Mother in her local form as Demeter.T h e r e b e l l i o n o f s l a v e s in I t a l y u n d e r S p a r t a c u s m a y h a v e b e e n the b e s t Also it was from here, accordingo r g a n i z e d , b u t it w a s n o t the first o f its k i n d . T h e r e h a d b e e n o t h e r r e b e l l i o n s to Cicero (Verrines 2.4.112), thatof s l a v e s t h a t afflicted R o m e , a n d w e m a y a s s u m e t h a t S p a r t a c u s w a s w i s e Verres, the infamous Romane n o u g h t o p r o f i t by their m i s t a k e s . All the s a m e , t h o u g h his r e b e l l i o n is easily governor of Sicily, dared to take away her cult statue.the m o s t f a m o u s , it is i m p o r t a n t for u s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t s t e a l i n g , p e t t y (Fields-Carre Collection)s a b o t a g e , or s i m p l y r u n n i n g a w a y , w e r e the m o r e u s u a l m o d e s o f r e s i s t a n c ee m p l o y e d by s l a v e s . F u l l - b l o w n w a r s w e r e highly u n u s u a l . N e i g h b o u r i n g Sicily, a l a n d o f v a r i o u s p e o p l e s , b u t chiefly G r e e k s , h a db e c o m e R o m e s first o v e r s e a s p r o v i n c e in the w a k e o f the first l o n g s t r u g g l ea g a i n s t C a r t h a g e (First P u n i c War, 2 6 4 - 2 4 1 BC). B u t the s u b s e q u e n t r e v i v a lof C a r t h a g e t h a t led t o the s e c o n d s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t R o m e ( S e c o n d P u n i c War,2 1 8 - 2 0 1 BC) b r o u g h t a l o g i c a l C a r t h a g i n i a n a m b i t i o n t o r e c o v e r its f o r m e rinterests in Sicily a n d R o m e in effect w a s f o r c e d t o c o n q u e r the i s l a n d a n e w .It w a s Sicilys e n o r m o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o s p e r i t y , e a r n i n g it by C i c e r o s d a y then i c k n a m e R o m e s g r a n a r y (Verrines 2 . 2 . 5 ) , t h a t w a s t o p r o v e the p r o v i n c e sgreatest material asset to plundering R o m e . Slavery of c o u r s e w a s n o t n e w to Sicily, b u t after the R o m a n r e c o n q u e s t thescale of slave o w n i n g o n the i s l a n d h a d i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y , a p h e n o m e n o nD i o d o r o s , a Sicilian himself, m a k e s clear in his r e m a r k s ( 3 5 . 2 . 1 - 2 , 2 7 , 3 4 ) o nthe c o n d i t i o n of the p r o v i n c e just p r i o r t o the first g r e a t s l a v e rebellion - theFirst Slave War. 7
  9. 9. LEFTBronze statue of Eunus,Castello di Lombardia -Scuola Regionale dArteEnna (1960). Eunus, theprincipal figure of the FirstSlave War, was a domesticslave who belonged to acertain Antigenes of Enna.The rebel slaves of Enna MARCO TULLIO CICERONEdeclared Eunus their king, D I F E N S O R E DI ENNA E D E L I . A SICILIAwho then took a diadem C 0 N T R 0 IL DEPREDATORE DI T E M P I !and regal dress, called his CA10 I J C I N I O V E R R Efemale companion queen, C 0 V E R N A T O R E ROMANO D E L L I S O L Aand conferred on himselfthe Seleucid dynastic nameof Antiochos.(Fields-Carre Collection) OUESTO R1C0RD0RIGHTVia Roma 528, the site ofCiceros residence in Enna.This commemorative plaque makes mentionof his prosecution of Verres,the former governor of Sicily.It is significant that early inhis life Cicero had discoveredthe profound differencebetween justice and morality.Justice was the tool of the THE FIRST SLAVE WAR (135-132 B C )strong, morality the illusionof the weak. Thus, for him, D i o d o r o s w r i t e s ( 3 5 . 2 . 4 , 1 0 ) t h a t t h e s l a v e s , w h o h a d their o r i g i n s in theslavery was just.(Fields-Carre Collection) e a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n , m o t i v a t e d b y their m i s e r a b l e living c o n d i t i o n s a n d the b r u t a l i t y w i t h w h i c h there w e r e t r e a t e d , h a d d i s c u s s e d rebellion before the v i o l e n c e a c t u a l l y e r u p t e d . C o n v e n i e n t l y w e c a n d i v i d e it i n t o t w o t h e a t r e s of o p e r a t i o n , w e s t e r n a n d e a s t e r n , w h i c h reflect the b a s i c g e o g r a p h i c a l d i v i s i o n o f the i s l a n d . O n e R o m a n q u a e s t o r w a s in c h a r g e of the w e s t e r n p a r t of the island, stationed at L i l y b a e u m , a n d another w a s stationed at Syracuse, on the e a s t c o a s t . S l a v e h e r d s m e n d o m i n a t e d the w e s t e r n r e g i o n a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l s l a v e s d o m i n a t e d the g r a i n - p r o d u c i n g p l a i n s o f the e a s t . T h e s l a v e s in the t w o h a l v e s of the i s l a n d a p p e a r t o h a v e risen u p separately - t h o s e in the e a s t u n d e r a s l a v e n a m e d E u n u s , by birth a S y r i a n f r o m A p a m e a , a n d t h o s e in the w e s t u n d e r a h e r d e r of h o r s e s n a m e d K l e o n , a Cilician f r o m the T a u r u s M o u n t a i n s . E u n u s w a s a m a g i c i a n a n d w o n d e r w o r k e r with a deep d e v o t i o n t o the S y r i a n m o t h e r g o d d e s s A t a r g a t i s ( A s t a r t e ) , while K l e o n h a d b e e n a c c u s t o m e d t o a life o f b a n d i t r y f r o m the t i m e he w a s a s m a l l c h i l d ( D i o d o r o s 3 5 . 2 . 5 , 3 . 2 ) . It w a s h o p e d by the a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t the t w o g r o u p s of rebels w o u l d c o m e into conflict a n d tear e a c h other t o p i e c e s . C o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n s , however, the rebellion g a t h e r e d m o m e n t u m w h e n K l e o n a c k n o w l e d g e d the s u p e r i o r a u t h o r i t y o f E u n u s , a c t i n g a s g e n e r a l t o his k i n g , a n d their f o l l o w e r s c o m b i n e d t o f o r m a single c o h e r e n t f o r c e . T h e r a p i d e s c a l a t i o n o f their s t r e n g t h s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n a b e t t e d by the s l a v e o w n e r s t h e m s e l v e s , w h o h a d e n c o u r a g e d violent b e h a v i o u r by a l l o w i n g their s l a v e h e r d s m e n t o feed a n d c l o t h e t h e m s e l v e s by s t e a l i n g w h a t they n e e d e d f r o m o t h e r p e o p l e o n the i s l a n d . In a d d i t i o n , the r e s p o n s e of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s w a s l e t h a r g i c , a p p a r e n t l y b e c a u s e they g r e a t l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d the s l a v e s ability t o o r g a n i z e a large-scale military c a m p a i g n . M o r e o v e r , with m o r e8
  10. 10. d e m a n d i n g o v e r s e a s c o m m i t m e n t s elsewhere, agarrison army w a s not permanently stationedo n the island. In t e r m s o f m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s t h e m o s ti m p o r t a n t officials w e r e t w o c o n s u l s of R o m e ,a n d , b e n e a t h t h e m , the s i x p r a e t o r s . T h e s echief m a g i s t r a t e s w e r e u s u a l l y p u t in c h a r g e o fR o m a n armies that battled formidable foreignenemies. Repressing rebellious slaves w a scertainly c o n s i d e r e d b e n e a t h the d i g n i t y o fthese m e n a n d n o t w o r t h y o f the talents o f thel e g i o n a r i e s they c o m m a n d e d . S u c h a s o r d i dt a s k w a s n o r m a l l y left to the slave o w n e r s or t olocal m i l i t i a s , w h i c h w e r e often v e n a l , w e a k ,a n d p r o v i s i o n a l . A s the p e r m a n e n t g o v e r n i n gb o d y of R o m e , the S e n a t e did h a v e a l o n g - t e r mperspective o n events, b u t it h a d t o be m o v e dby the r e c o g n i t i o n o f a m a n i f e s t t h r e a t o fm a j o r p r o p o r t i o n s for it t o direct the c o n s u l s orthe p r a e t o r s t o u s e R o m a n l e g i o n s t o d e a l w i t ha slave rebellion. R o m a n provincial governors, such as thosew h o a d m i n i s t e r e d Sicily, w e r e n o r m a l l y f o r m e rp r a e t o r s w h o u s u a l l y h e l d their p r o v i n c i a lc o m m a n d s for o n e - y e a r t e r m s . B e c a u s e they w e r e t e m p o r a r y a n d they w e r e During the First Slave War,severely u n d e r s t a f f e d by m o d e r n s t a n d a r d s , these g o v e r n o r s w e r e d e p e n d e n t Kleon, having risen in rebellion on the western, more pastoral,o n the g r e a t a n d the g o o d t h a t r a n l o c a l t o w n s a n d cities t o help a d m i n i s t e r side of Sicily, immediatelytheir p r o v i n c e s . T h e s e local l a n d o w n i n g elites often g a v e their o w n interests overran Agrigentump r i o r i t y o v e r the rule o f l a w a n d o r d e r t h a t w a s s u p p o s e d t o b e e n f o r c e d (Agrigento), whose walls hadby the g o v e r n o r s . T h e R o m a n g o v e r n o r s o f Sicily, a s D i o d o r o s e x p l a i n s , probably fallen into disrepair, and the neighbouring regiontried t o p r e v e n t the g r o w t h of these g a n g s , b u t they d i d n o t d a r e t o p u n i s h with a force said by Diodorost h e m b e c a u s e o f the p o w e r a n d influence o f the l a n d o w n e r s w h o w e r e the (35.2.17) to have numberedb r i g a n d s slave m a s t e r s ( 3 5 . 2 . 2 ) . 5,000. Most of his followers G i v e n the f a i l u r e o f the l o c a l f o r c e s t o d e a l w i t h t h e s l a v e r e b e l l i o n in were slave herdsmen, pastores. View of the south circuit ofSicily, the S e n a t e finally d e c i d e d t o d i s p a t c h R o m a n a r m y u n i t s t o the i s l a n d , the city, looking west fromfirst u n d e r the p r a e t o r L u c i u s H y p s a e u s a n d t h e n u n d e r t w o s u c c e s s i v e the temple of Hera.c o n s u l s , L u c i u s C a l p u r n i u s P i s o ( cos. 1 3 3 BC) a n d P u b l i u s R u p i l i u s P e r p e r n a (Fields-Carre Collection)( c o s . 1 3 2 B C ) . A s a result, the w a r w a s finally b r o u g h t t o a n e n d .THE SECOND SLAVE WAR (104-100 B C )T o a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent, the s e c o n d g r e a t s l a v e rebellion, w h i c h a g a i n e r u p t e do n Sicily, w a s a l m o s t a c a r b o n c o p y of the first. O u t l a w r y o u t s i d e the cities a n dt o w n s c o n t i n u e d l a r g e l y u n a l t e r e d , n o t l e a s t b e c a u s e o f the t r a d i t i o n a la s s o c i a t i o n of b r i g a n d a g e w i t h p a s t o r a l i s m . R e s i s t a n c e in the e a s t e r n p a r t o fthe i s l a n d w a s led by S a l v i u s , w h o h a d the gift o f p r o p h e c y , a n d in the w e s tw a s o r g a n i z e d by A t h e n i o n , a C i l i c i a n f a m o u s for his bravery. A t h e n i o n w a sn o t only the overseer of a l a r g e f a r m i n g o p e r a t i o n b u t , like S a l v i u s , he w a sa l s o r e p u t e d t o p o s s e s s s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r s , i n c l u d i n g the a b i l i t y t o utterp r o p h e c i e s b a s e d o n his a s t r o l o g i c a l skills ( D i o d o r o s 3 6 . 5 . 1 ) . H e w a s certainlyn o t the ideal bailiff, c a l l e d the vilicus, e n v i s i o n e d b y C a t o the Elder, w h o 9
  11. 11. Lilybaeum (Marsala) started r e c o m m e n d e d a m o n g his d u t i e s t h a t he s h o u l d h a v e n o d e s i r e t o c o n s u l tlife as a Punic city, but at its d i v i n e r s , a u g u r s , fortune-tellers or a s t r o l o g e r s (On Agriculture 5 . 4 ) , a rulingzenith it was a Roman naval C o l u m e l l a later r e p e a t s in his a g r i c u l t u r a l t r e a t i s e , a d d i n g t h a t these types ofbase and the seat of thequaestor in charge of the silly s u p e r s t i t i o n c a u s e u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d p e o p l e t o s p e n d m o n e y a n d result inwestern part of Sicily. w r o n g d o i n g (On Agriculture 1 . 8 . 6 ) . O f c o u r s e b o t h he a n d Salvius h a d theCicero would call it civitas capacity, in v i e w of their ability t o c a s t spells over their f o l l o w e r s , t o e n c o u r a g esplendidissima. During the the k i n d o f r e s i s t a n c e t o a u t h o r i t y all s l a v e o w n e r s f e a r e d .Second Slave War, the rebelsunder Athenion felt strong B u t there w a s m o r e t o l e a d i n g a r e b e l l i o n t h a n the a l l u r e of m y s t i c i s m .enough to lay siege to S a l v i u s , like E u n u s b e f o r e h i m , w a s d e c l a r e d k i n g by his f o l l o w e r s , a n d heLilybaeum. This is a view a s s u m e d the r o y a l n a m e o f T r y p h o n . Intriguingly, the o r i g i n a l T r y p h o n h a dof Marsala looking south- b e e n a b a r b a r o u s , f r e e - b o o t i n g e n t r e p r e n e u r of violence f r o m Cilicia, a p l a c ewest from Isola di Mozia. w h i c h b e c a m e f a m o u s for its p i r a t e s , w h o u s u r p e d the S e l e u c i d t h r o n e(Fields-Carre Collection) (r. 1 4 2 - 1 3 9 / 8 BC). M e a n w h i l e in the w e s t a n o t h e r slave k i n g w a s p r o c l a i m e d , A t h e n i o n a d o p t i n g all the e x t e r n a l t r a p p i n g s of m o n a r c h y , a p u r p l e r o b e , silver s c e p t r e , a n d a r o y a l d i a d e m , a n d p r o c l a i m i n g t o his f o l l o w e r s t h a t the g o d s i n t e n d e d h i m t o rule all Sicily ( D i o d o r o s 3 6 . 4 . 4 , 7 . 1 , F l o r u s Epitome 3 . 1 9 . 1 0 ) . S o the slave k i n g s c o n s c i o u s l y i m i t a t e d the c o n v e n t i o n s of Hellenistic k i n g s h i p , the i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t h a d d o m i n a t e d the p o l i t i c a l m e n t a l i t y o f the e a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n w o r l d since the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the A n t i g o n i d , Seleucid, a n d P t o l e m a i c d y n a s t i e s . N o n e of this s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d u n u s u a l w h e n w e recall the fact t h a t m a n y o f the rebels w e r e first-generation s l a v e s w h o s e p l a c e s of birth w e r e in the e a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n . D e s p i t e t h e l e s s o n s o f t h e first w a r , the r e s p o n s e by the S e n a t e w a s s i m i l a r l y s l o w . Its i n a d e q u a t e r e a c t i o n , d u e in p a r t t o the n e e d for R o m a n f o r c e s t o f a c e G e r m a n i c t r i b e s t h r e a t e n i n g n o r t h e r n Italy, a l l o w e d the slaves t o a c q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e m o m e n t u m in the c r u c i a l early s t a g e s o f the rebellion a n d then t o c o a l e s c e in n u m b e r s t h a t o v e r w h e l m e d the l o c a l f o r c e s trying to s u b d u e t h e m . O n c e a g a i n , the t w o rebel l e a d e r s c a m e t o a n a g r e e m e n t a n d j o i n e d f o r c e s , w i t h A t h e n i o n d e f e r r i n g t o S a l v i u s , a n d o n c e a g a i n , only the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the larger, b e t t e r - t r a i n e d a n d d i s c i p l i n e d c o n s u l a r f o r c e s of the R o m a n a r m y finally b r o u g h t the w a r t o a n e n d .10
  12. 12. CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOREVENTS 146-60 BC146 BC Romans destroy Carthage and Corinth. 121 B C Caius Gracchus attempts to secure further term - outlawed and suicide.138 B C Birth of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. 119 B C Marius tribune of the people.135 BC First Slave War begins - Lucius (?) Cornelius Lentulus, governor in 116 B C Marius praetor. Sicily, defeated. C. 115 B C Birth of Marcus Licinius Crassus.134 BC Caius Fulvius Flaccus, as consul, sent against slaves. Uprising of 114 B C Marius, as propraetor, governor 4,000 slaves crushed at Sinuessa, in Hispania Ulterior - suppresses Campania. Slave uprisings repressed local bandits. in Attic silver mines and on the island of Delos. 113 B C Cnaeus Papirius Carbo, consul, routed by Cimbri at Noreia.133 B C Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus tribune of the people - land reform 111 B C Lucius Calpurnius Bestia, as consul, and assassination. Lucius Calpurnius sent against Iugurtha of Numidia. Piso Frugi, as consul, sent against slaves. Caius Marius serves under 109 B C Marius legate under his patron, consul Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Quintus Caecilius Metellus, in Numidia. at Numantia. 107 B C Marius consul - enlists capite censi132 BC Publius Rupilius Perperna, as consul, and returns to Numidia. winds up First Slave War. 106 B C Sulla serves Marius as quaestor in129 B C Marius military tribune. Numidia - battle of the Muluccha. Births of Cnaeus Pompeius (Pompey)125 BC Abortive bill to enfranchise Latins and Marcus Tullius Cicero. and Italians of Fulvius Flaccus. 105 B C Iugurtha captured. Consular armies123 B C Caius Sempronius Gracchus tribune routed and destroyed at Arausio. of the people - socio-political reforms. Marius quaestor. 104 B C Marius second consulship - army reforms. Insurrection of Titus Vettius122 BC Caius Gracchus re-elected as tribune - Minucius, a Roman eques - leads an bill to enfranchise Latins and Italians. army of 3,500 slaves. Second Slave War begins. 11
  13. 13. 103 B C Marius third consulship. Lucius 85 B C Cinnas third consulship. Sulla completes Licinius Lucullus, as propraetor, sent settlement of Asia. Sertorius praetor. against slaves. 84 B C Cinnas fourth consulship - lynched102 B C Marius fourth consulship - Teutones during mutiny. Peace of Dardanus. and Ambrones defeated at Aquae Sextiae. Salvius (Tryphon) killed - 83 B C Sulla lands in Italy. Pompey and Athenion assumes leadership of Crassus join Sulla. slave army. 82 B C Battle of Porta Collina. Sulla dictator101 B C Marius fifth consulship - Cimbri - proscription lists. defeated at Vercellae. Manius Aquilius, as consul, sent against slaves. 81 BC Sullas second dictatorship. Pompey sent against Marians100 B C Marius sixth consulship. Birth of in Sicily and Africa. Sertorius Caius Iulius Caesar. Aquilius, as expelled as (pro-Marian) governor proconsul, ends Second Slave War f Hispania Ulterior. - kills Athenion in duel. 80 B C Sullas second consulship. Pompeys99 B C Marius in Asia. first triumph. Sertorius re-enters Iberia - establishes a Marian98 B C Mithridates VI Eupator of Pontus government in exile. invades Cappadocia. 79 B C Sulla retires.97 BC Quintus Sertorius military tribune in Iberia. 78 B C Marcus Aemilius Lepidus consul. Publius Servilius Vatia, as proconsul,96 B C Sulla propraetor of Cilicia - installs begins war against Mediterranean Ariobarzanes as king of Cappadocia. pirates. Death of Sulla.91 BC Social War begins. Mithridates invades 77 BC Insurrection and death of Lepidus. Cappadocia for second time. Pompey, with propraetorian command, sent against Sertorius.90 B C Enfranchisement of Italy south of the Po. 76 BC Successes for Sertorius in Iberia.89 B C Destruction of Asculum Picenum. 75 BC Sertorius-Mithridates pact. Caesar Rome provokes Mithridates to war. captured by pirates.88 B C Sulla consul. Mithridates overruns 74 B C Lucius Licinius Lucullus, as consul, province of Asia. Social War ends. sent against Mithridates. Marcus Sulla marches on Rome - Marius Antonius, a praetor, given wide- flees to Africa. ranging powers to fight pirates.87 B C Lucius Cornelius Cinna consul. 73 B C Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus and Marius returns - Marians take Rome. Caius Cassius Longinus consuls.86 B C Cinnas second consulship. Marius Spring: gladiators escape from Capua. seventh consulship - dies soon after. Occupation of Mount Vesuvius. Sullas victories at Chaironeia and Orchomenos. Birth of Caius Sallustius Summer: Caius Claudius Glaber, Crispus (Sallust). as praetor, sent against slaves.12
  14. 14. Autumn: defeat of Glaber. Publius Other events: Antonius humiliating Varinius, as praetor, sent against peace - Senate later rejects. slave army. Defeats of Varinius and his subordinates. 70 BC Crassus and Pompey consuls. Cicero prosecutes Verres. Winter: slave army moves to Lucania. Crixus splits from Spartacus. 69 BC Lucullus invades Armenia - battle and sack of Tigranocerta. Caesar quaestor Other events: Sertorius assassinated; in Hispania Ulterior. Caius Verres governor in Sicily; Crassus praetor. 68 BC Lucullus soldiers mutiny.72 BC Lucius Gellius Publicola and Cnaeus 6 7 BC Pompey, as proconsul, sent against Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus consuls. pirates. Mithridates defeats Romans at Zela. Spring: Spartacus treks northward. Defeat and death of Crixus in Apulia. 66 BC Pompey, as proconsul, replaces Lucullus in east. Summer: Spartacus defeats consular armies. Spartacus defeats army of 65 B C Crassus censor. Caesar curule aedile. Cassius. Spartacus treks southward. 64 B C Pompey establishes Syria as province. Autumn: Crassus, as propraetor, sent against Spartacus. Spartacus 63 BC Cicero consul. Conspiracy of Lucius withdraws to Bruttium. Sergius Catilina (Catiline). Caesar elected pontifex maximus - speaks Winter: Crassus traps Spartacus in against execution of Catilinarian toe of Italy. Spartacus escapes trap. conspirators. Death of Mithridates. Birth of Octavianus (Augustus). Other events: Pompey ends Sertorian War; Antonius defeated by pirates 62 BC Defeat and death of Catiline at Pistoia. on Crete; Caesar military tribune. Pompey returns to Rome from east. Caesar praetor.71 BC Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura and Cnaeus Aufidius Orestes consuls. 61 BC Pompeys third triumph. Caesar, as propraetor, governor in Hispania Spring: Pompey returns to Italy from Ulterior - victory against Lusitani. Iberia. Defeat and death of Spartacus Caius Octavius mopping-up in Lucania. operation in southern Italy. Summer: Crassus triumph along 60 BC The first triumvirate. Via Appia. Winter: Pompeys second triumph. Crassus ovation. 13
  15. 15. ROMAN SOCIAL ORDER Order and status, as o p p o s e d to w h a t today we understand as class, were the vital p i g e o n h o l e s for the w o r l d of R o m e . C i c e r o , w h e n he claims that the Senate w a s o p e n to all citizens, t a l k s of the highest o r d e r (Pro Sestio 6 5 . 1 3 7 ) . T h u s the R o m a n s t h e m s e l v e s t a l k e d in the l a n g u a g e of s t a t u s g r o u p s , which entitled t h e m t o certain privileges, a n d if a n outsider a s k e d o n e of them to w h a t class (classis) he or she b e l o n g e d , he or she w o u l d p r o b a b l y refer to one of the five p r o p e r t y c l a s s e s in the o l d e s t of the three citizen a s s e m b l i e s , the comitia centuriata. T h e R o m a n s defined themselves in terms of a n order (ordo) legally defined by the state t h r o u g h s t a t u t o r y or c u s t o m a r y rules a n d in s t a n d i n g in a hierarchical relation t o other o r d e r s (Finley 1 9 9 9 : 4 5 - 5 1 ) . F o r instance Tacitus, albeit w r i t i n g u n d e r the e m p e r o r s , s a y s : S e n a t o r s a n d equites h a v e special p r o p e r t y qualifications, n o t b e c a u s e they differ in nature f r o m other m e n , but just a s they enjoy p r e c e d e n c e in p l a c e , r a n k a n d dignity, s o they s h o u l d enjoy it a l s o in these things that m a k e for mental p e a c e a n d well-being (Annates 2 . 3 3 . 2 ) . E v e n under the e m p e r o r s , w h e n R o m e w a s n o longer a n oligarchic republic, the s e n a t o r i a l a n d e q u e s t r i a n o r d e r s r e m a i n e d p r e s t i g i o u s , a tight-knit g r o u p of families perceived t o be w o r t h y by the traditional s t a n d a r d s of birth, wealth a n d m o r a l excellence. W h e n C i c e r o c l a i m s t h a t the highest order, t o w h i c h s e n a t o r s b e l o n g , is a n o p e n o n e , the last thing he h a d in m i n d w a s o p e n i n g the d o o r s of the Senate t o t h o s e at the other e n d of the social scale. In Ciceros R o m e m o n e y t a l k s a n d all m e n h a v e a price. Indeed O v i d , o n e of the A u g u s t a n p o e t s , laments the fact t h a t the S e n a t e is b a r r e d t o the p o o r (Amores 3 . 8 . 5 5 ) . In a similar vein H o r a c e (Epistulae 1 . 1 . 5 8 ) , a c o n t e m p o r a r y of O v i d , w r o t e u n h a p p i l y that 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 sestertii, the a p p r o p r i a t e a m o u n t o f p r o p e r t y to be registered a s a n eques at the c e n s u s , o p e n s the w a y t o the h o n o u r s of R o m e . In the m e a n t i m e the l o w e r o r d e r s in R o m e w e r e a v a s t a m o e b i c body, v a g u e a n d m u r m u r i n g . T o m o s t o f u s w h a t is m o r e i n v i d i o u s a r e the v i e w s held by t h a t d a r l i n g o f classicists t h r o u g h the a g e s , C i c e r o . H e w r o t e in a p u n g e n t style a n d never failed t o flay the city-dwelling c o m m o n e r s , the R o m a n proletarii w h o h u d d l e d together in tottering tenements built n o t for p e o p l e but for m o l e s , often referring t o t h e m , a m o n g s t other t h i n g s , a s the city s c u m (e.g. Epistulae ad Atticum 1 . 1 9 . 4 ) . H e a c k n o w l e d g e s the g r i n d i n g p o v e r t y a n d s o c i a l misery they h a v e t o e n d u r e , b u t , t o a d d insult t o injury, a s it w e r e , he sees it a s their o w n fault, blithely u s i n g the w o r d egens, d e s t i t u t e , for the p o o r a n d even g o e s s o far a s t o m e n t i o n the destitute a n d f e l o n i o u s (egens et improbus, De domo sua 8 9 ) in the s a m e b r e a t h . Little d i d C i c e r o a p p r e c i a t e t h a t for the p r o l e t a r i a t o f R o m e , b u r i e d in a m o n o c h r o m e life w i t h o u t p r o s p e c t s , the furthest h o r i z o n h a d a l w a y s b e e n t o m o r r o w . B u t w h a t o f t h o s e b e n e a t h the s o c i a l pile, that is, t h o s e of servile s t a t u s ?14
  16. 16. THE SLAVE SYSTEMSlavery is a n a s p e c t o f a n t i q u i t y t h a t is highly c o n t r o v e r s i a l . It r e m a i n s a nemotive subject even in the 2 1 s t century, especially a s slavery w a s a facet ofwestern civilization that h a s raised a m a s s i v e a m o u n t of d e b a t e b u t neverthelessh a s p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t , albeit g r i e v o u s , p a r t in o u r o w n e c o n o m i c a l a n dsocial history. In the literature o f R o m e s l a v e s a r e ever p r e s e n t , a n d , for i n s t a n c e , theagricultural writers M a r c u s Porcius C a t o ( 2 3 7 - 1 4 9 BC), k n o w n also asthe Elder t o d i s t i n g u i s h h i m f r o m his g r e a t - g r a n d s o n , a n d M a r c u s T e r e n t i u sV a r r o ( 1 1 6 - 2 7 BC) b o t h p r e s u m e t h a t the m a i n l a b o u r e l e m e n t w a s the aliens l a v e . We a l s o find s l a v e s in w o r k s h o p s a n d c o m m e r c i a l o p e r a t i o n s , b u t itw o u l d be w r o n g o f u s t o a s s u m e t h a t the l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s e r v i l el a b o u r w a s i n v o l v e d in p r o d u c t i v e w o r k , e s p e c i a l l y o n l a n d e d e s t a t e s . A s am a t t e r of fact, the b i g g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s l a v e s w a s in h o u s e h o l d s , w h e r ethey p e r f o r m e d n o n - p r o d u c t i v e duties a s d o m e s t i c s . R o m a n l a w m a d e a cleardistinction b e t w e e n mancipia rustica a n d mancipia urbana ( i n c l u d i n g t h o s ein the villa rustica or f a r m h o u s e ) , the latter s l a v e s b e i n g t h o s e w i t h w h i c h theh e a d of the h o u s e h o l d s u r r o u n d s h i m s e l f for the s o l e p u r p o s e o f his lifestyle,sua cultus causa. A l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s : w a s R o m a n s o c i e t y a s l a v esociety? Statistically, s l a v e r y w a s n o t t h a t p r e v a l e n t in the R o m a n w o r l d a n dl a r g e t r a c t s of the e m p i r e w e r e left u n t o u c h e d by servile l a b o u r . H o w e v e r , w ec a n n o t a n s w e r this q u e s t i o n by statistics a l o n e . R o m a n s o c i e t y w a s a s l a v es o c i e t y s i m p l y b e c a u s e s l a v e r y a s a n i n s t i t u t i o n d o m i n a t e d the R o m a nmentality. After all, libertas, f r e e d o m , w a s d e f i n e d a s n o t b e i n g e n s l a v e d . T h o s e w h o w o r k e d in the f i e l d s , m i l l s a n d m i n e s w e r e s u b j e c t t o a ne x i s t e n c e of h a r d , b a c k b r e a k i n g l a b o u r . In his n o v e l , The Golden A s s , theAfrican A p u l e i u s offers a n u n c o m p r o m i s i n g g l i m p s e o f the c r u s h i n g c o n d i t i o nof slaves w o r k i n g in a flour mill: Their skins were seamed all over with the marks of old floggings, as you could see through the holes in their ragged shirts that shaded rather than covered their scarred backs; but some wore only loin-cloths. They had letters marked on their foreheads, and half-shaved heads and irons on their leg. (The Golden Ass, 9.12)T h e s e h a p l e s s s o u l s h a d t o t r u d g e r o u n d a n d r o u n d the m i l l s t o n e in u n e n d i n gcircles, their feet w e i g h e d d o w n in i r o n s . T o m a k e t h e m w a l k their circlesquicker, their b a c k s w o u l d be s t u n g w i t h a l a s h . G r a d u a l l y their eyes w o u l dg r o w sightless w i t h all the d u s t a n d d a r k . T h e o w n e r o f s l a v e s e n j o y e d c o m p l e t e p o w e r o v e r t h e m , even t h a t o f lifea n d d e a t h . A horrifying i n s c r i p t i o n (AE 1 9 7 1 . 8 8 ) f r o m the s e a p o r t o f P u t e o l ia p p e a r s a t first t o be n o t h i n g m o r e i n i q u i t o u s t h a n a l a b o u r c o n t r a c t(manceps) for the p u b l i c u n d e r t a k e r o f t h a t s a i d t o w n , l a y i n g d o w n his h o u r sof w o r k a n d r a t e s o f p a y . H o w e v e r , o n c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n the r e a d e r will seethat o n e of the u n d e r t a k e r s d u t i e s is t h a t o f friendly n e i g h b o u r h o o d s l a v et o r t u r e r ; a list o f p r i c e s is g i v e n for v a r i o u s n a s t y d e e d s r a n g i n g f r o ms c o u r g i n g t o c r u c i f i x i o n ( c o l u m n II, lines 8 - 1 4 ) . T h e r e w e r e g o o d a n d b a d s l a v e o w n e r s , b u t this w a s a m a t t e r o f p u r ec h a n c e . R o m a n society h a d a n i n g r a i n e d m e n t a l a t t i t u d e t o s l a v e s , a societyw h e r e m a n c o m m a n d e d , w o m a n b o r e , a n d the s l a v e l a b o u r e d , for s u c h w a s
  17. 17. Agora of the Italians, Delos. the R o m a n o r d e r o f t h i n g s . I n d e e d , in the eyes o f R o m a n l a w a s l a v e w a s n o tIt is possible that this was a a p e r s o n b u t res, a thing s u b j e c t t o the d o m i n i o n of his or her master. We m u s tslave market, built as a result b e c a r e f u l h e r e , h o w e v e r , a s t h e r e w a s n o s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the R o m a n sof the First Slave War. Ageneration before the Romans t h e m s e l v e s c o n s i d e r e d a s l a v e m o r e a s a thing t h a n a p e r s o n , a n d the conditionhad made Apollos sacred t h a t p u t s o n e i n d i v i d u a l a t the m e r c y o f a n o t h e r h a d t o b e r e g u l a t e d , theisland into a free port exempt c e n s o r s , for i n s t a n c e , b e i n g e m p o w e r e d t o c h e c k u n w a r r a n t e d acts of violencefrom taxes and soon Delos u p o n s l a v e s . T h e t e r m res i m p l i e s t h a t a s l a v e h a d n o r i g h t s , pronullo, butacquired the grim reputationof being the slave market d u t i e s , a n d this l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n s e p a r a t e d h i m o r her f r o m o t h e r f o r m s ofpar excellence, boasting that s u b o r d i n a t i o n . In his h a n d b o o k o n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s V a r r o , S p a r t a c u s it could handle 10,000 slaves R o m a n c o n t e m p o r a r y , e m p h a s i z e s t h a t the bailiff, the vilicus, s h o u l d n o ta day. (Ancient Art e m p l o y w h i p s w h e n w o r d s will suffice (On Agriculture 1.17.5). Athenaios& Architecture) p e r h a p s e x p r e s s e s it b e s t w h e n he e x p l a i n s the principle of servile divide a n d r u l e , e x p l o r i n g the t e n s i o n b e t w e e n a n o w n e r s r i g h t s o v e r a s l a v e a n d the u n e a s i n e s s o v e r a n o w n e r w h o w a s e x c e s s i v e l y cruel: There are two safeguards that one may take: first, those who are going to be slaves must not come from the same country of origin, and in so far as it can be arranged they must not speak the same language; and secondly, they must be properly looked after - and not just for their sakes; anyone who wishes to pay proper regard to his own interests should never behave arrogantly towards his slaves. (Athenaios 6.265a)16
  18. 18. Slaves w e r e certainly h u m a n b e i n g s , yet t o c o w t h e m into then e c e s s a r y docility of a b r u t e b e a s t n e c e s s i t a t e d a r e g i m e o fcalculated brutality and terrorism, especially so on f a r m s ,w h e r e vilici e x p l o i t e d the s t r e n g t h o f s l a v e s . M o r e t h a n ah u n d r e d years after the S p a r t a c a n rebellion h a d been c r u s h e d ,the s e n a t o r a n d p h i l o s o p h e r S e n e c a f o r m u l a t e d the m o s tliberal set of d o c t r i n e s o n slavery t h a t h a d been a r t i c u l a t e d a tR o m e . A d v o c a t i n g t h a t m a s t e r s s h o u l d treat their s l a v e s w i t hlenience, Seneca b r o k e d o w n the artificial distinction b e t w e e ns l a v e a n d free a n d i n s i s t e d t h a t all m e n s h a r e d a c o m m o norigin a n d a c o m m o n m o r a l i t y , a s p i r i t u a l b r o t h e r h o o d o fm a n k i n d if y o u will. In De beneficiis ( 3 . 1 8 - 2 8 ) he p o s e s the q u e s t i o n whether ornot it w a s p o s s i b l e for a slave t o benefit his master. B e f o r ea n s w e r i n g , Seneca m a k e s a n interesting distinction a b o u tterms: a) beneficum, a g o o d deed or favour p e r f o r m e d a s a freea n d v o l u n t a r y g e s t u r e by a n individual u n d e r n o o b l i g a t i o nt o the recipient; b) officium, a d u t y p e r f o r m e d by a s o n ,daughter, wife, etcetera, t o w a r d s a father, h u s b a n d , h e a d o fhousehold, p a t r o n , etcetera, n a m e l y a n o b l i g a t i o n of duty; a n d c)ministerium, a n action expected f r o m a slave a s he or she h a s n o otherchoice but to p e r f o r m this action. Seneca then cuts to the c h a s e by saying that it Relief (Mainz, Mittelrheinischesis not the social standing, which w a s simply a n accident of birth, but the intention Landesmuseum) decorating a column base from theof that individual b e s t o w i n g the favour, d u t y or whatever. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a principia of Mainz-Mogontiacumc o u n t e r a r g u m e n t runs a s follows: a slave c a n n o t be a c c o u n t a b l e to the m a s t e r if showing two naked captiveshe or she gives m o n e y or tends h i m w h e n ill, but Seneca immediately ripostes by chained together at the neck.saying he w a s thinking of the slave w h o fights for the m a s t e r or refuses t o reveal It is conceivable that they are Gauls, since their horseshis secrets even under torture. It is a m i s t a k e , e x p l a i n s Seneca, t o believe that a mane hairstyle indicates theslaves m i n d is not free even if his or her b o d y is o w n e d . Celtic practice of washing it in A n o t h e r fascinating p a s s a g e is t o be f o u n d in o n e of Senecas Moral Letters chalky water and then combing(Epistulae Morales 4 7 ) , written after his r e t i r e m e n t f r o m p u b l i c life. H e r e the it back from the forehead to the nape. This was probably donep h i l o s o p h e r a s k s a friend if he is o n g o o d t e r m s w i t h his s l a v e s , a n d n a t u r a l l y to enhance fearsomeness onthe friend replies in the a f f i r m a t i v e . S e n e c a then p o i n t s o u t t h a t they a r e still the battlefield. (Ancient Arts l a v e s , to w h i c h the friend replies y e s , b u t h u m a n b e i n g s all the s a m e . A g a i n & Architecture)Seneca p o i n t s o u t they are still s l a v e s , a n d s o o n a n d s o forth. A n d then S e n e c am a k e s a lunge w i t h the R o m a n p r o v e r b s o m a n y s l a v e s , s o m a n y e n e m i e s (quot servi, tot hostes, 4 7 . 5 ) , t h a t is t o say, y o u r e n e m i e s a r e the p e o p l ew o r k i n g for y o u . T h e rule of fear m a y h a v e b e e n the b a s i s o f the m a s t e r - s l a v er e l a t i o n s h i p , b u t o n e m i g h t r i p o s t e , a s S e n e c a d o e s h e r e , t h a t s u c h fear b r e d as a v a g e cruelty in the m a s t e r s a n d t h u s w e t u r n t h e m into e n e m i e s . O f c o u r s e all this m o r a l p o s t u r i n g c a m e o u t o f a S t o i c , a n d n o w h e r e in hisv a s t c o r p u s o f w r i t i n g s d o e s S e n e c a a c t u a l l y call for a n a b o l i t i o n o f slavery.O n the c o n t r a r y , S t o i c i s m , the d o m i n a n t s c h o o l o f p h i l o s o p h y since the lateR e p u b l i c , p r o m o t e d the belief t h a t w h a t d i d n o t affect the inner m a n w a s a nirrelevance. S o w a r , w h i c h w a s a d i s t u r b a n c e o f c o s m i c h a r m o n y , c a u s e d b ym a n s w i c k e d n e s s or w r o n g j u d g e m e n t , a n d its h o r r o r s , s u c h a s d e a t h a n de n s l a v e m e n t , w e r e irrelevant t o a g o o d m a n . T h u s w a s the S t o i c a free m a n ,h a v i n g c h o s e n t o be free. It w a s a r g u e d t h a t it w a s i m p o s s i b l e t o e n s l a v e am a n a g a i n s t his will - he h a d t o c o n s e n t t o be a s l a v e , o t h e r w i s e he m i g h tc h o o s e t o die a free m a n . T h e g o a l w a s p r o g r e s s , n o t p e r f e c t i o n . In C a i u s Institutiones, an introduction to R o m a n jurisprudence writtena r o u n d AD 1 6 1 , w e find a l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n o f s l a v e r y : t h e s t a t e t h a t is 17
  19. 19. r e c o g n i z e d b y ius gentium in w h i c h s o m e o n e is s u b j e c t t o the d o m i n i o n ofa n o t h e r p e r s o n c o n t r a r y t o n a t u r e ( 1 . 3 . 2 ) . T h e ius gentium w a s a l a w o n thec u s t o m s a n d p r a c t i c e s f o u n d in all k n o w n p e o p l e s a n d n o t a n i n t e r n a t i o n a llegal c o d e a s s u c h . B u t w h y c o n t r a r y t o n a t u r e ? B e c a u s e , a s C a i u s r e a s o n s , thes t a t e o f f r e e d o m is w h a t is n a t u r a l even if p e o p l e a r e b o r n s l a v e s . In otherw o r d s , s l a v e r y is a h u m a n i n v e n t i o n a n d n o t f o u n d in n a t u r e . I n d e e d , it w a st h a t o t h e r h u m a n i n v e n t i o n , w a r , w h i c h p r o v i d e d the b u l k o f s l a v e s , b u t theyw e r e a l s o the b o u n t y o f p i r a c y (e.g. S t r a b o 1 4 . 5 ) or the p r o d u c t of b r e e d i n g(e.g. C o l u m e l l a On Agriculture 1.8.19). It h a s a l w a y s b e e n a s s u m e d t h a t the s t u r d y p e a s a n t - f a r m e r w o r k e d thel a n d for h i m s e l f a n d his family. T h e G r e e k p o e t H e s i o d , a s m a l l - s c a l e f a r m e rhimself, tells u s t h a t the three vital t h i n g s n e e d e d by a f a r m e r a r e a h o u s e ,a w i f e a n d a p l o u g h i n g - o x (Works and Days 4 0 5 ) . N a t u r a l l y , in the h o m e l yp a r s i m o n y o f H e s i o d , the w i f e s e r v e s a s a n o t h e r s o u r c e of l a b o u r p o w e r , b u tat w h a t point d o w e witness landowners resorting to slave labour? U n d e n i a b l y , there w a s a h u g e i n f l u x o f s l a v e s into the Italian p e n i n s u l af o l l o w i n g R o m e s s u c c e s s f u l e x p a n s i o n i s t w a r s . E q u a l l y , s o m e o f the figuresin the t a b l e b e l o w o f t h o s e c a r r i e d off t o the R o m a n s l a v e m a r k e t , given bythe a n c i e n t a u t h o r s for the s e c o n d c e n t u r y BC, a r e i m p r e s s i v e a n d d a u n t i n g : Date Ethnicity Source 177 BC 5,632 Istrians Livy 41.11.8 167 BC 150,000 Epeirotes Livy 45.34.5 146 BC 55,000 Carthaginians Orosius 4.23.3 142 BC 9,500 Iberians Appian Iberica 68 101 BC 60,000 Cimbri Plutarch Marius 27.5 O f c o u r s e , c l i o m e t r i c s h a v e l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n for antiquity, a s ancienta u t h o r s cited n u m b e r s s y m b o l i c a l l y n o t statistically. N e v e r t h e l e s s , it h a s beene s t i m a t e d t h a t a t the e n d o f first c e n t u r y BC the b o d y o f s l a v e s in Italya m o u n t e d t o b e t w e e n t w o a n d three m i l l i o n p e o p l e o u t o f a t o t a l of six tos e v e n - a n d - a - h a l f m i l l i o n (including G a l l i a C i s a l p i n a ) , or r o u g h l y one-third ofthe p o p u l a t i o n (Brunt 1 9 7 1 : 1 2 4 , H o p k i n s 1 9 7 8 : 1 0 2 ) . B u t did this m a s s i v ei m p o r t of s l a v e s h a v e s e r i o u s r e p e r c u s s i o n s o n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of agriculturall a b o u r in the p e n i n s u l a ? S t r a n g e a s it m a y a p p e a r , it c a n be a r g u e d t h a t slavery is n o t the o b v i o u sm e t h o d w i t h w h i c h t o e x p l o i t the l a n d . A g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k is s e a s o n a l w o r k ,b u t s l a v e l a b o u r h a s t o b e k e p t a n d fed all y e a r r o u n d . It h a s n o w beenr e c o g n i z e d t h a t a lot m o r e free l a b o u r w a s w o r k i n g the l a n d in Italy ( G a r n s e y -Saller 1 9 8 7 : 75-77). A r i s t o c r a t i c l a n d o w n e r s c o u l d , a n d d i d , divide their l a n dinto p l o t s a n d rent t h e m o u t t o t e n a n t p e a s a n t - f a r m e r s , w h o in turn m a n a g e dthe t e n a n c y w i t h the h e l p o f their o w n f a m i l i e s or even t h a t of s e a s o n a lhired l a b o u r . In fact, the t e n a n t p e a s a n t - f a r m e r h a d a l w a y s been p a r t of thea g r i c u l t u r a l s c e n e a n d he w a s a v i a b l e alternative t o s l a v e l a b o u r even in thes e c o n d a n d first centuries BC. A s a l r e a d y n o t e d , b o t h C a t o a n d V a r r o a s s u m ein their a g r i c u l t u r a l treatises t h a t s l a v e s will f o r m the c o r e o f the p e r m a n e n t ,b r u t e l a b o u r f o r c e o n the f a r m (e.g. C a t o On Agriculture 2.2-7, 5.1-5).H o w e v e r , they w e r e w r i t i n g for a p a r t i c u l a r m i l i e u , the s e n a t o r i a l l a n d o w n e rw i t h a l a n d e d e s t a t e t h a t w a s p l u g g e d i n t o a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a r k e t ofs u r p l u s e s , a m a n like C i c e r o (De officiis 1 . 1 5 1 ) , w h o p r a i s e s a g r i c u l t u r e b o t ha s a s o u r c e o f w e a l t h a n d o n m o r a l g r o u n d s . F o r these big m e n of v a s t m e a n sw a s there a n y l a n d , in the r h e t o r i c a l w o r d s o f V a r r o , m o r e fully cultivatedt h a n I t a l y ? (On Agriculture 1.2.3).
  20. 20. S o investment f a r m i n g , a s o p p o s e d t o the p r e v a i l i n g p r a c t i c e of s u b s i s t e n c ea g r i c u l t u r e , w a s only really a p p l i c a b l e t o the n a r r o w c o a s t a l l a n d s o f centrala n d s o u t h e r n Italy a n d the i s l a n d o f Sicily. H e r e a f e w w e a l t h y l a n d o w n e r sheld l a n d in the f o r m of h u g e t r a c t s o f a r a b l e - c u m - p a s t u r e - l a n d , the latifundiaor w i d e fields of R o m a n literature, w h e r e l a r g e s l a v e p o p u l a t i o n s w e r e f o u n din three a r e a s : a) viticulture a n d olive g r o w i n g ; b) l i v e s t o c k r a i s i n g ; a n d c)cereal p r o d u c t i o n . This leads us on to a discussion of R o m e as a slave e c o n o m y . There area n u m b e r o f w a y s o f l o o k i n g a t this i s s u e . W e c o u l d a r g u e t h a t a s l a v ee c o n o m y o n l y e x i s t e d w h e n the m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d in t h a t societyse c o n o m y w e r e s l a v e s , b u t in t h a t c a s e there h a s never b e e n s u c h a n e c o n o m y .E v e n the D e e p S o u t h o f the p r e - C i v i l W a r U n i t e d S t a t e s d i d n o t m e e t thiscriterion. M u c h m o r e p r o d u c t i v e is the n o t i o n t h a t a s l a v e e c o n o m y is o n e inw h i c h the d o m i n a n t m o d e o f p r o d u c t i o n sets the p a c e for the r e s t , t h a t is,slave p r o d u c t i o n or n o t . T h u s s l a v e s w e r e a m a j o r e n g i n e o f the e c o n o m y o fthe D e e p S o u t h , a s they w e r e o f t h o s e o f c l a s s i c a l G r e e c e , the H e l l e n i s t i c e a s ta n d R o m e . In other w o r d s , n o t e v e r y b o d y o w n e d s l a v e s b u t if the m o n e y w a sa v a i l a b l e e v e r y b o d y w o u l d b u y s l a v e s , w i t h the s l a v e - r u n e s t a t e b e i n g seen a sthe ideal. O f c o u r s e a n e c o n o m y c o u l d e x i s t w i t h o u t the institution o f slavery.If w e l o o k f o r w a r d into the late R o m a n w o r l d w e w i t n e s s a n o t h e r f o r m o fs u b o r d i n a t e l a b o u r a r i s i n g in w h i c h free m e n w e r e tied t o the l a n d , t h a t is t osay, the institution of f e u d a l i s m , w h i c h s e r v e d t o p r o d u c e a s u r p l u s s o a s t oa l l o w a n elite g r o u p t o e x i s t . We s h o u l d a l s o c o n s i d e r the a c t u a l c o s t o f a s l a v e . A c c o r d i n g t o P l u t a r c h ,the elder C a t o never o n c e b o u g h t a s l a v e for m o r e t h a n 1 , 5 0 0 drachmae,since he d i d n o t w a n t l u x u r i o u s o r b e a u t i f u l o n e s , b u t h a r d w o r k e r s , likeh e r d s m e n (Cato major 4 . 4 , cf. 2 1 . 1 ) . T h e drachma w a s the G r e e k e q u i v a l e n tof the R o m a n denarius, w h i c h m u s t h a v e b e e n the t e r m C a t o h i m s e l f u s e d .Since at this t i m e (it w a s t o be retariffed at 1 6 t o the denarius a t the t i m e o fG r a c c h i ) there w e r e 1 0 asses t o the denarius, the s u m o f 1 , 5 0 0 drachmae wase q u i v a l e n t t o 1 5 , 0 0 0 asses. C o m p a r e this w i t h t h e l e g i o n a r y stipendium,a l l o w a n c e , w h i c h in C a t o s d a y w a s five asses p e r d a y (to c o v e r r a t i o n s ,c l o t h i n g , a n d r e p a i r s t o a r m s a n d e q u i p m e n t ) . S o the c o s t o f a n a g r i c u l t u r a lslave m i g h t e q u a l 3 , 0 0 0 d a y s w o r t h o f stipendium. So slaves were not cheap,even at the height o f the w a r s o f c o n q u e s t . A c c o r d i n g t o his o w n t e s t i m o n y C a t o (On Agriculture 1 0 . 1 , 11.1)reckoned a n olive g r o v e of 2 4 0 iugera (c. 6 0 h a ) s h o u l d be w o r k e d by 13 s l a v e s ,a n d a v i n e y a r d o f 1 0 0 iugera (c. 2 5 h a ) w o r k e d by 1 6 s l a v e s , a n d V a r r o (OnAgriculture 1 . 1 8 ) , after d i s c u s s i n g the l i m i t a t i o n s o f C a t o s m a t h e m a t i c s ,basically agrees with h i m . O n e slave a l o n e m u s t h a v e been a c o n s i d e r a b l e prizefor a l e g i o n a r y in war. T h u s the fact t h a t s l a v e n u m b e r s w e r e h u g e d o e s n o ta l l o w valid d e d u c t i o n s t o be m a d e a b o u t the g r e a t e r o r lesser a v a i l a b i l i t y o fslaves in the p o p u l a t i o n a s a result o f w a r f a r e , a b o u t the p r o p o r t i o n o f s l a v e sin the p o p u l a t i o n a s a w h o l e , or a b o u t the p r o p o r t i o n o f citizens w h o o w n e dslaves - they are rather a sign of the i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f w e a l t h in asmall n u m b e r o f p a r t i c u l a r h o u s e h o l d s . In The Banqueting Sophists (Deipnosophistae), an enormous compendiumof the conversations of p h i l o s o p h e r s at a b a n q u e t s u p p o s e d l y held in A l e x a n d r i aa r o u n d the year AD 2 0 0 , A t h e n a i o s u p h o l d s the m y t h t h a t the v i r t u o u s R o m a n sof o l d , n o b l e s s u c h a s S c i p i o a n d C a e s a r , o w n e d a m e r e h a n d f u l o f s l a v e s( 6 . 2 7 3 a - b ) . H o w e v e r , he d o e s a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t s o m e R o m a n s l a v e - h o l d i n g sw e r e e x t r a v a g a n t l y l a r g e . Yet clearly A t h e n a i o s t h o u g h t t h a t the p u r p o s e
  21. 21. o f o w n i n g s u c h v a s t n u m b e r s of s l a v e s w a s p r i m a r i l y t o d e m o n s t r a t e ones w e a l t h , a n d since w e a l t h w a s linked to s t a t u s , it c o u l d be advertised t h r o u g h c o n s p i c u o u s c o n s u m p t i o n ( 6 . 2 7 2 e , 2 7 3 c ) . T h i s w a s not only true of R o m a n s . A n t i o c h o s IV, for i n s t a n c e , s o u g h t t o i m p r e s s his s u b j e c t s by o r g a n i z i n g a p r o c e s s i o n involving h u n d r e d s if n o t t h o u s a n d s of slaves (Polybios 3 0 . 2 5 . 1 7 ) , a n d it w a s a m a r k of e x t r e m e indignity for the exiled Ptolemy V I to arrive at R o m e a c c o m p a n i e d by just four slaves ( D i o d o r o s 3 1 . 1 8 . 1 - 3 ) . B u t then a g a i n , these m e n w e r e k i n g s . C a i u s C a e c i l i u s I s i d o r u s , a R o m a n l a n d o w n e r w h o flourished in the g e n e r a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the S p a r t a c a n rebellion a n d w h o himself w a s a f o r m e r s l a v e , h a d c o m e t o o w n 3 , 6 0 0 p a i r s of o x e n , 2 5 7 , 0 0 0 otherRelief (Rome, MNR Palazzo l i v e s t o c k a n d 4 , 1 1 6 s l a v e s a t the t i m e o f his d e a t h in 8 BC (Pliny HistoriaMassimo Alle Terme, inv. Naturalis 33.135).126119) depicting Samnitesin the arena, dated c. 30-10 BCEach is armed with a gladiusand carries a scutum, and PIRACY AND THE SLAVE TRADEappears to wear one greaveon the left or leading leg. W h e n s t r o n g k i n g d o m s w i t h p o w e r f u l n a v i e s e x i s t e d , s u c h a s t h o s e of theA triangular loincloth is tiedabout the waist, pulled up Hellenistic kings, piracy w a s usually reduced to a m i n i m u m . Yet the last hundredbetween the legs and tucked years of the R o m a n R e p u b l i c s a w o n e of the m o s t r e m a r k a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t s ofunder the knot at the front p i r a c y t h a t the M e d i t e r r a n e a n h a s k n o w n , w h e n f r o m m e r e f r e e b o o t e r s theand secured by a broad belt. p i r a t e s o r g a n i z e d t h e m s e l v e s into a p i r a t e - s t a t e w i t h h e a d q u a r t e r s in Cilicia(Fields-Carre Collection) a n d C r e t e . It w a s the m o r e r e m a r k a b l e that the sea w a s controlled by a single p o w e r , w h i c h , w h e n it p u t f o r t h its s t r e n g t h u n d e r a c a p a b l e leader, h a d n o difficulty in p u t t i n g a n end t o a m a l i g n a n c y in such a short s p a c e of time. T h e e a s e with w h i c h P o m p e y finally achieved its s u p p r e s s i o n h a s naturally led to a severe c o n d e m n a t i o n of R o m e s negligence a n d a p a t h y in permitting piracy to f l o u r i s h for s o l o n g a p e r i o d . T h i s is especially s o w h e n the alliance f o r m e d b e t w e e n M i t h r i d a t e s a n d the p i r a t e s o f Cilicia h a d given the Pontic king c o m m a n d of the A e g e a n , w h i c h h a d been nearly fatal to Sulla (First Mithridatic War, 8 9 - 8 5 BC). T h i s w a s p a r t l y d u e t o the t u r m o i l o f the t i m e s , w h i c h h i n d e r e d policing of the s e a s , a n d p a r t l y d u e t o the influence of R o m a n slave d e a l e r s w h o tolerated the p i r a t e s a s w h o l e s a l e p u r v e y o r s o f s l a v e s . T h e m o r e t h a t the e c o n o m y w a s g l u t t e d w i t h s l a v e s , the m o r e d e p e n d e n t it b e c a m e o n t h e m . W h e t h e r c o n v e y i n g v i c t i m s o f w a r or t h o s e o f k i d n a p p i n g , there c a n be n o d o u b t a b o u t the i m p o r t a n t r o l e p l a y e d b y p i r a t e s in m a i n t a i n i n g the level of the R o m a n s l a v e supply, directing their h u m a n c a r g o e s t o d e s t i n a t i o n s such a s Sicily where t h e y w e r e n e e d e d . T h e p i r a t e s w e r e the m o s t c o n s i s t e n t s u p p l i e r s . A p p i a n w r i t e s t h a t the p i r a t e s o p e r a t e d in s q u a d r o n s u n d e r p i r a t e chiefs, w h o w e r e like g e n e r a l s o f a n a r m y (Mithridatica 9 2 ) . A t this level of o r g a n i z a t i o n they w e r e c a p a b l e o f r a i d i n g r o a d s a n d b e s i e g i n g t o w n s a l o n g the c o a s t s of Italy. T h e y even s t a g e d p r e d a t o r y r a i d s into the w e s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n , w h e r e they w e r e r e p u t e d t o b e in c o n t a c t w i t h v a r i o u s i n s u r g e n t m o v e m e n t s , including S e r t o r i u s in Iberia a n d , a s w e shall see later, S p a r t a c u s in Italy. GLADIATORS - MEN OF THE SWORD W h e n P e r u s i a ( P e r u g i a ) c a p i t u l a t e d t o O c t a v i a n u s a n d the s u r v i v o r s w e r e r o u n d e d u p , he allegedly t o o k 3 0 0 rebel s e n a t o r s a n d equites a n d , in the w o r d s o f S u e t o n i u s , offered t h e m o n the Ides o f M a r c h a t the altar of D i v u s Iulius, a s h u m a n s a c r i f i c e s ( Divus Augustus 15.1). N o t long afterwards, Octavianus20
  22. 22. h a v i n g m e t a m o r p h o s e d i n t o A u g u s t u s , V i r g i l h a s the e m p e r o r s l e g e n d a r y Funerary painting froma n c e s t o r , the p i o u s A e n e a s , p e r f o r m h u m a n s a c r i f i c e a t the f u n e r a l o f the Paestum (Gaudo Tomb 7 North Slab, c. 340 BC) depicting a duel.y o u n g prince P a l l a s : Such paintings were not mere decorative elements, as they Then came the captives, whose hands he had bound behind their backs to send reflect the values and ideals them as offerings to the shades of the dead and sprinkle the funeral pyre with of the Lucanians who now controlled Paestum. This scene the blood of their sacrifice. (Virgil, Aeneid 1 1 . 8 1 - 8 4 West) represents the final moments of a competition, with a judgeH i s t o r i c a l l y it w a s the E t r u s c a n s , a p e o p l e r e g u l a t e d b y a h i g h l y r i t u a l i z e d standing behind the winnerreligion, w h o m a d e it their c u s t o m t o sacrifice p r i s o n e r s o f w a r t o the s h a d e s about to place a wreath on his head. These duels wereof their o w n fallen w a r r i o r s . L i v y s a y s t h a t in 3 5 8 bc a t o t a l o f 3 0 7 R o m a n not to the death. (Fields-Carresoldiers w e r e t a k e n p r i s o n e r a n d s l a u g h t e r e d a s h u m a n sacrifice in the f o r u m Collection)of the E t r u s c a n city of T a r q u i n i i ( T a r q u i n i a ) ; in r e v e n g e 3 5 8 c a p t i v e s , c h o s e nf r o m the n o b l e s t families o f T a r q u i n i i , w e r e d i s p a t c h e d t o R o m e three y e a r slater a n d publicly f l o g g e d in the F o r u m a n d then b e h e a d e d ( 7 . 1 5 . 1 0 , 1 9 . 2 - 3 ) .T h e T a r q u i n i e n s e s m a y h a v e b e e n e n a c t i n g a f o r m o f h u m a n sacrifice, b u t theR o m a n r e s p o n s e - if historical - w a s a n a c t of v e n g e a n c e , n o t cultic o b l i g a t i o n . S o g l a d i a t o r s p e r h a p s o r i g i n a t e d f r o m s u c h E t r u s c a n h o l o c a u s t s in h o n o u rof the d e a d : they w e r e s o m e t i m e s k n o w n a s bustuarii, funeral m e n , a n d thec o n t e s t w a s c a l l e d a munus f r o m b e i n g a d u t y p a i d t o the d e c e a s e d b y hisdescendants. T h e African Christian Tertullian, writing a r o u n d AD 2 0 0 , describesthese c o m b a t s of the a m p h i t h e a t r e a s the m o s t f a m o u s , the m o s t p o p u l a rspectacle of all: 21
  23. 23. Crucial to the development The ancients thought that by this sort of spectacle they rendered a service toof the spectacle of gladiatorial the dead, after they had tempered it with a more cultured form of cruelty. Forcombat were the lanistae. They of old, in the belief that the souls of the dead are propitiated with humanwere indispensable operatorswho functioned as slave traders, blood, they used at funerals to sacrifice captives or slaves of poor quality.managers, trainers, and Afterwards, it seemed good to obscure their impiety by making it a pleasure.impresarios all in one. However, So after the persons procured had been trained in such arms as they then hadthey were seen by their fellow and as best they might - their training was to learn to be killed! - they then didcitizens as utterly contemptible,some think like an unpleasant them to death on the appointed day at the tombs. So they found comfort forcross between a butcher and death in murder. (Tertullian De spectaculis 12)a pimp. Sculptural relief (Selcuk,Arkeoloji Muzesi) showing a S o R o m e t u r n e d munus, in the fiery a n t i - p a g a n e l o q u e n c e of T e r t u l l i a n , intolanista armed with baton andshield. (Fields-Carre Collection) a p l e a s u r e a n d a m o r e c u l t u r e d f o r m o f cruelty. A s well a s p u n i s h m e n t a n d s a c r i f i c e s , munera b e c a m e p u b l i c e n t e r t a i n m e n t . Alternatively, 4th-century t o m b paintings a n d v a s e paintings f r o m C a m p a n i a s e e m m o r e o b v i o u s l y t o d e p i c t a r m e d single c o m b a t s , a n d literary s o u r c e s d o refer t o C a m p a n i a n c o m b a t s a t b a n q u e t s (e.g. S t r a b o 5 . 4 . 1 3 , A t h e n a i o s 4 . 1 5 3 f - 1 5 4 a ) . In these C a m p a n i a n c o m b a t s elite volunteers c o m p e t e d for prizes, fighting only to the p o i n t of first b l o o d s h e d . T h e R o m a n s b e c a m e familiar with C a m p a n i a n g l a d i a t o r i a l c o m b a t s at the tail end of the s a m e century. Livy s p e a k s of a battle in 3 0 8 BC of R o m a n s a n d C a m p a n i a n s a g a i n s t the S a m n i t e s , w h o f o u g h t w i t h inlaid shields, p l u m e d helmets, a n d g r e a v e s o n the left leg. A s they a d v a n c e d into battle, the S a m n i t e s dedicated themselves in the Samnite m a n n e r while the R o m a n c o m m a n d e r , w h o w a s p o s t e d o n the left w i n g , m e t them head- o n declaring that he offered these m e n a s a sacrifice to O r c u s (Livy 9 . 4 0 . 1 2 ) . C e l e b r a t i n g the victory, the R o m a n s a d o r n e d the F o r u m with c a p t u r e d a r m s : T h u s the R o m a n s m a d e use of the splendid a r m s of their enemies to d o h o n o u r t o the g o d s ; while the C a m p a n i a n s in their p r i d e , o u t of h a t r e d to the Samnites, e q u i p p e d the g l a d i a t o r s w h o p r o v i d e d e n t e r t a i n m e n t at their b a n q u e t s with similar a r m o u r a n d g a v e t h e m the n a m e of S a m n i t e s (ibid. 9 . 4 0 . 1 7 ) .22
  24. 24. W h a t e v e r its true o r i g i n s , the first g l a d i a t o r i a l fight t o o k p l a c e in R o m e in Initially, gladiator duels took2 6 4 BC, the year w h e n the first w a r w i t h C a r t h a g e b e g a n . A t the funeral o f place in whatever public spaces a town might possess. UnderD e c i m u s I u n i u s B r u t u s S c a e v a his t w o s o n s , M a r c u s a n d D e c i m u s B r u t u s , the emperors, however, thefor the first t i m e e x h i b i t e d , in the m a r k e t c a l l e d F o r u m B o a r i u m , t h r e e characteristic scene for suchs i m u l t a n e o u s g l a d i a t o r i a l fights. It m a y h a v e b e e n a m o d e s t affair by later displays was the amphitheatre.s t a n d a r d s , b u t half of R o m e a p p a r e n t l y t u r n e d o u t t o w a t c h the fight. T h e The first known permanent amphitheatre is not in Romef o l l o w i n g statistics s h o w h o w fast the i d e a c a u g h t o n but Pompeii (c. 70 BC), an enormous structure for Date Numbers Source a provincial town with its 264 BC 3 pairs of gladiators Valerius Maximus 2.4.7 seating capacity of 20,000 216 BC 22 pairs of gladiators Livy 23.30.15 places. A view of the 200 BC 25 pairs of gladiators Livy 31.50.4 amphitheatre looking 60 pairs of gladiators Livy 39.46.2 north-west with Vesuvius 183 BC in the distance. (Fields-Carre 174 BC 74 pairs of gladiators Livy 41.28.11 Collection) Beginning a s a grandiosity o c c a s i o n a l l y a d d e d t o a n aristocratic funeral, theg l a d i a t o r s themselves being t a k e n f r o m a m o n g s t the p e r s o n a l s l a v e s o f thed e c e a s e d a n d e q u i p p e d in m a k e s h i f t f a s h i o n , over t i m e the c o m b a t s w e r eextended to public celebrations. A n d s o it w a s by Ciceros d a y the m a s s e s , a s hesays (Pro Sestio 1 0 6 , 1 2 4 ) , c o u l d e x p r e s s themselves at a s s e m b l i e s , elections,g a m e s (ludi) a n d gladiatorial contests (munera). 23
  25. 25. In 1 0 5 BC, for the first t i m e , the t w o c o n s u l s of t h e y e a r g a v e a g l a d i a t o r i a l s p e c t a c l e officially. Indeed, one of them, Publius Rutilius Rufus, began the practice of e m p l o y i n g gladiatorial trainers to instruct n e w a r m y recruits (Valerius M a x i m u s 2 . 3 . 2 ) . It s o o n b e c a m e c u s t o m a r y for g l a d i a t o r i a l d i s p l a y s t o be p u t o n n o t only by v i c t o r i o u s g e n e r a l s , a s a f e a t u r e o f their t r i u m p h s , b u t a l s o by officials of every r a n k . S u c h s p e c t a c l e s , o b v i o u s l y b u t n o t solely, w e r e p o l i t i c a l d e v i c e s u s e d by R o m a n a r i s t o c r a t s to gain support. T h e functionaries k n o w n as aediles, for e x a m p l e , s o u g h t t o a t t r a c t p o p u l a r i t y by giving ludi honorarii, supplementary g a m e s attached to theatre a n d circus performances. It w a s a s o n e o f the a e d i l e s of 6 5 BC t h a t C a e s a r , in m e m o r y o f his l o n g - d e a d father, g a v e a m a g n i f i c e n t g l a d i a t o r i a l spectacle. H o w e v e r , at a time w h e n the m e m o r y o f the S p a r t a c a n r e b e l l i o n m u s t h a v e b e e n still f r e s h in p e o p l e s m i n d , he h a d c o l l e c t e d s o i m m e n s e a t r o o p o f c o m b a t a n t s that his terrified political o p p o n e n t s r u s h e d a bill t h r o u g h the S e n a t e , limiting the n u m b e r t h a t a n y o n e m i g h t k e e p in R o m e ; c o n s e q u e n t l y far fewer p a i r s f o u g h t t h a n h a d b e e n a d v e r t i s e d ( S u e t o n i u s Divus lulius 1 0 . 2 ) . C a e s a r w a s u n d a u n t e d . H e m a d e certain everyone in R o m e k n e w t h a t it w a s the S e n a t e t h a t h a d r o b b e d t h e m o f the m o s t s p e c t a c u l a r g a m e s of all t i m e . All the s a m e his d i m i n i s h e d t r o u p e o f g l a d i a t o r s still a m o u n t e d to 3 2 0 pairs, and each m a n w a s equippedIn 1874 Raffaello Giovagnoli w i t h a r m o u r specially m a d e f r o m s o l i d silver.(1838-1915), who had fought It w a s f r o m s u c c e s s i v e w a v e s o f p r i s o n e r s o f w a r c o n s c r i p t e d a s g l a d i a t o r swith Garibaldi, published his t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n w a s t o inherit its b i z a r r e , e x o t i c u n i f o r m s , w h i c h w a s o n eepic novel Spartaco. Thecomparison between ancient o f the s o u r c e s o f p u b l i c e n j o y m e n t . F r o m R o m e s b r u t a l w a r s of e x p a n s i o nand modern is made explicit d u r i n g the s e c o n d a n d first c e n t u r i e s BC, w h i c h e l i m i n a t e d m o s t o f its s e r i o u sby the author, and Garibaldi c o m p e t i t o r s for power, there w a s a ready supply of foreigners w h o hadhimself wrote the preface. The s u f f e r e d the f a t e o f s l a v e r y t h r o u g h c a p t u r e in w a r f a r e . T h e s e w e r e t r i b a lillustrations were executedby Nicola Sanesi, and here w a r r i o r s o r t r a i n e d s o l d i e r s w h o c o u l d b e p u s h e d i n t o the a r e n a w i t h littlewe see Spartacus, brave yet n e e d for p r e p a r a t i o n , b e i n g m a d e t o fight w i t h their n a t i v e w e a p o n s a n d incompassionate, sparing the their e t h n i c s t y l e s . M a n y o f t h e s e m e n , it is t r u e , w e r e s i m p l y w r e t c h e dlife of his friend Crixus in c a p t i v e s h e r d e d b e f o r e the b a y i n g , b l o o d - m a d d e n e d s p e c t a t o r s , b u t v a r i o u sthe arena. (Reproducedfrom R. Giovagnoli, Spartaco, c l a s s e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l g l a d i a t o r l i k e w i s e c a m e f r o m this c a t e g o r y , especiallyRome, 1874) t h e w a r h a r d e n e d . T h e s e e a r l i e s t t r a i n e d killers a p p e a r e d in the a r e n a a s p r i s o n e r s t a k e n d u r i n g the w a r w i t h the I t a l i a n allies, the S o c i a l War, a s it is g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d , o f 9 1 - 8 8 B C , a n d w e r e chiefly f r o m the S a m n i t e s o f central e a s t e r n Italy, d r e s s e d in the heavy, r e s p l e n d e n t a r m o u r of the S a m n i t e warrior. S o o n after the S a m n i t e s , G a u l s s t a r t e d t o a p p e a r in the a r e n a . A g a i n these w e r e o r i g i n a l l y p r i s o n e r s o f w a r t a k e n f r o m the tribes o f G a u l . By a b o u t the early seventies BC these t w o h a d b e e n j o i n e d by a third type of g l a d i a t o r b a s e d o n a n o t h e r f o r e i g n f o e , the T h r a c i a n . C i c e r o s m e t a p h o r i c a l u s e o f g l a d i a t o r i a l r e t i r e m e n t in the Second Philippic ( 2 9 ) is the first k n o w n reference t o a w a r d i n g the rudis or w o o d e n s w o r d o f f r e e d o m , the c l e a r i m p l i c a t i o n b e i n g t h a t by his d a y g l a d i a t o r s w e r e24

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