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  2. 2. MAXILLA: *Mxilla develops during 6-7wks from 5 ossification centres. *These ossification centres gives rise to alveolar,palatine,zygomatic& frontal processes of maxilla & floor of the orbit. *Ossification centre in the medial floor of the pyriform apperture forms the premaxilla. *Premaxilla gives rise to upper incisors & lower nasal spine. 2
  3. 3. ETHMOID: •Ethmoid ossifies in the cartilagenous nasal capsule from 3 centres. •One centre for each labyrinth &one for perp.plate of ethmoid. •These centres appears during 45th IUL. •Perp.plate &crista galli developed from the same centre during 1st yr of life & fuses with labyrinth during 2nd yr. 3
  4. 4. FRONTAL: Develops from 2 centres during 8th wk. Centres are present in superciliary ridge. At birth frontal bone – 2halves separated by frontal or metopic suture. Development complete by 2yrs. 4
  5. 5. SPHENOID:  Develops from presphenoidal &postsphenoidal portions. These portions fuse during 8th IUM. Central portion- body & lesser wings. Lateral portion- greater wing &pterygoid process. These portions fuse during 1st yr of life. Presphenoid portion: made of 6 ossif.centres. Lies ant. To tuberculm sella. Continous with the lesser wings of sphenoid. Postsphenoidportion: 8 ossif.c Coposed of sella tursica &dorsum sella. Gives rise to greater wings & pterygoid process. 5
  6. 6. * Frontal,maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses arise from evagination of lateral nasal wall of nasal capsule. * Sphenoid sinus arises from a posterior evagination of nasal capsule. 6
  7. 7. * At 25-28wks IUG 3 medially projections formed from lateral wall of nose from this PNS are developed. * Anterior projection;agger nasi. * Inferior projection (maxilloterbinal): inf.terbinate & max.sinus. * Superior projection(ethmo_terbinal): superior terbinate, middile.t, ant. Ethmoidal cells &corresponding drainage channels form. * Middle meatus invaginates laterally to form infundibulum &UP. * Infundibulum grows superiorly to form frontal recess. 7
  8. 8. Frontal sinus: *It develops during 4th foetal month as an outpouching, medial to most superior aspect of uncinate process. *It is very rudimentary at birth, it developes in childhood by upward continuation of embryonic infundibulum & frontal recess. *Embryologically it can also devlp from ant.ethmoidal air cells. 8
  9. 9. Mxillary sinus: •It develops from primitive ethmoidal infundibulum in to the mass of maxilla. •It enlarges by absorbtion and expantion. •At 12yrs pneumatisation reaches under lateral orbital wall at insertion of zygomatic process , inferior to the nasal floor. 9
  10. 10. * Ethmoid sinus: * Develops fromlateral wall of th nasal capsule at 9 to10th wk. * 6-7 folds appear,these folds are separated by grooves. * Folds are fuse to form 3-4 crests with anteriorly ramus ascendus and posteriorly ramus descendus. * From the main fold middle, superior ,supreme terbinates form. * From inferior fold inferior terbinate form so called maxillo-turbinal. 10
  11. 11. Sphenoid sinus: It is a evagination from sphenoethmoid recess at 3rd month of gestation. At 7thyr reaches floor of sella. Pneumatisation progress rate 0.25mm/yr frm 4yr of age. In some cases internal carotid artery and optic.n may lie naked with in the sinus cavity. 11
  12. 12. Paranasal sinuses:INTRODUCTION These are air filled cavities in relation to nasal cavities. *Classified in 2 groups anterior & posterior. Four on each side: (labyri (labyrinth ) 12 They are lined with a mucous membrane continuous with that of the corresponding nasal fossa through their ostia.
  13. 13. Anterior group: I.Frontal sinus. II.Anterior ethmoidal cells. III.Maxillary sinus. Posterior group: I.Posterior ethmoidal sinuses. II.Sphenoid sinus. 13
  14. 14. Maxillary sinus: *It is the largest of the sinuses, with an average capacity of about 10-20 ml in the adult. * Is pyramidal in shape and occupies the body of the maxilla. * The base lies medially, the apex is in the zygomatic portion of the maxilla. * Medial wall is the wall between the sinus and the nasal fossa. * Dimensions : height)3.3cm( width)2-3cm( 14
  15. 15. * Floor :is formed by the alveolar process and hard palate: Œ- In children the floor lies at, or above, the level of the floor of the nasal fossa. Œ- In adults it lies about 1.25cm below the floor of the fossa. 1,25cm Œ- The roots of several teeth may project into, or even perforate, the floor. 15
  16. 16. The ostia of maxillary sinus: *Main ostium is situated high up between the medial wall and roof of the cavity. It opens into the hiatus semilunaris. *Accessory ostia are sometimes present, behind the main one. Both main and accessory ostia are surrounded by a wide area of mucous membrane unsupported by bone. 16
  17. 17. Relations of maxillary sinus: 1*Orbit: is separated from the antrum by the thin roof of the sinus which contains the infraorbital nerve. 2*Teeth: may produce elevations in the floor of the sinus and the number of related teeth depends on the size of the antrum. The second premolar and first molar are usually related. 17
  18. 18. 3* Middle meatus of nose: is related to the upper part of the antrum. 4* Inferior meatus of nose: is separated from the middle part of its medial wall by bone, which is usually thick in front and below,but thinner above and behind. 18
  19. 19. 5* maxillary artery : is related to the posterior wall, where it occupies the pterygopalatine fossa. It may be approached through the antrum for ligature. 6* Maxillary division of the Vth cranial nerve: also traverses the pterygopalatine fossa. 19
  20. 20. 7* Nasolacrimal duct: passes downwards, medial to the antrum, to open into the inferior meatus. maxillary sinus 20
  21. 21. ARTERIAL: oBy facial artery branch of ECA. oBy infra orbital & greater palatine arteries branch of max. art which is branch of ECA. Infraorbital artery VENOUS: oTo anterior facial vein& pterygoid plexus. superior dental arteries 21
  22. 22. o Maxillary division of trigeminal.n gives sensory supply via. o o Infraorbital.n ,sup.alveolar.n , greater palatine.n. o Also supply-pulps of canine, incisors teeth, ant.inf.quadrant of lat.wall of nose,floor of nose,ant. Part of nasal septum. o o o o Middle sup. Alveolar.n- o o o Adjacent mucosa,molar teeth. Ant superior alveolar.n- ant. Wall of antrum passing through canalis sinosus. Lateral wall of sinus, upper pre molar teeth. Posterior.sup.alveolar.n Through pterygo palatine fossa supply posterior sinus wall. Greater palatine.n – posterio medial wall of sinus. Perforating branches of infra orbital.n –roof of sinus. 22
  23. 23. Ethmoid means sieve like Ethmoid is trapezoid box narrow/taller anteriorly wide posteriorly. Multiple air containing cells situated in ethmoidal labyrinth(318) 23
  24. 24. Anterior group-(drains –middle meatus) Middle group(drains-middle meatus) Posterior group(drainssuperior meatus) Haller cell..ant ethmoidal cells seen anteriorly & below the orbit Onadi cells… posterior ethmoidal cells seen just in front of sphenoid 24
  25. 25. Type I: depth of olfactory fossa 1-3mm (26.3%) Type II: 4-7mm(73.3%). TypeIII:8-16MM(0.5%). 25
  26. 26. Anterior ethmoidal artery(ophthalmic artery) Post. Ethmoidal artery Sphenoidal artery(maxillary artery) Anterior ethmoid artery Venous drainage Nasal veins Ant. Ethmoidal vein Post. Ethmoidal vein 26 posterior ethmoidal artery
  27. 27. Ethmoidal aircells recieves innervation from anterior &posterior ethmoidal.n & orbital branches of pterygopalatine ganglion. Postganglionic parasympathetic fibres for mucous secreton from facial .n 27
  28. 28. Frontal sinus: *Should be regarded as an upward extension of an anterior ethmoidal cell. *It occupies a very variable extent of the frontal bone and may be partly loculated. *Its average capacity is about 5-10ML in the adult. * The right and left sinuses are often asymmetrical. * Dimensions…height(28-32mm) width(24-26mm) depth(18-20mm) 28
  29. 29. *They are separated by a thin bony septum, which may be deficient in part. * The sinus may invade the orbital plate of the frontal bone and occasionally it extends to the optic foramen. 29
  30. 30. Relations of frontal sinuses: Anterior cranial fossa: separated from the sinus by the compact bone of its posterior wall. Orbit: lies below the floor of the sinus. This is also compact bone which may rarely be deficient. Skin and periosteum of forehead: cover the anterior wall, which is of diploic bone and is related To supratrochlear and supraorbital nerves. 30
  31. 31. *Type1…single frontal recess cell above the agger nasi cell, but below the frontal sinus *Type11…A tire of more than one cell in frontal recess above the agger nasi cell, but below the frontal sinus *Type111…large single cell pneumatizing cephaloid into frontal sinus *Type1V…single isolated cell within the frontal sinus 31
  32. 32. The frontonasal duct: *It passes through the anterior part of the ethmoidal labyrinth. * Its length and curvature vary considerably. * Its lower end (ostium) usually opens in to the infundibulum, less often independently above this level. 32
  33. 33. * Drainage into frontal recess anterior to the infundibulum(55%) * Drainage above but not into the infundibulum(30%) * Drainage into infundibulum(15%) * Drainage above the bulla(1%) 33
  34. 34. Blood supply of frontal sinus *Supraorbital artery *Supratrochlear artery Venous drainage *Small vein that unites the Supraorbital and Superior ophthalmic veins. Nerve supply *Supraorbital nerve(ophthalmic nerve) *Supratrochlear nerve(ophthalmic nerve) Lymphatic drainage *Submandibular nodes 34
  35. 35. Sphenoidal sinus: *Lies behind the upper part of the nasal fossa. * It occupies the body, and some­times the wings and pterygoid processes, of the sphenoid bone. * The average capacity is about 7 ml in the adult. * The right and left sinuses are rarely symmetrical. * They are separated by a septum which may be deficient in part and is often oblique. * Dimensions … (L..4­44mm) W(25­34mm)h(5­33) 35
  36. 36. 1. conchal…(3%) 2. Presellar(11%) 36
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  38. 38. The ostium of sphenoid sinus: *situated in the upper part of the anterior wall of the sinus. *It communicates with the superior meatus indirectly through the sphenoethmoidal recess. 38
  39. 39. Relations: *Cavernous sinus lies laterally containing the: IIIrd, IVth, Vth (ophthalmic and maxillary­ divisions) and VIth cranial nerves, internal carotid artery optic nerve 39
  40. 40. *Above the sinus there are: Pituitary gland, optic chiasm, frontal lobe of brain olfactory tract The pituitary gland may be approached surgically through the sinus. 40
  41. 41. *Posterior ethmoidal artery(roof of sinus) *Sphenopalatine artery(floor of sinus) Nerve supply *Trigeminal (I/II div) Lymphatics *Retropharyngeal nodes to upper deep cervical nodes. 41
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  44. 44. * Lined by mucus membrane * Ciliated columnar epithelium * goblet cells secretes mucus * Cilia are more marked near ostia. 44
  45. 45. *Plain sinus radiography *Computed tomography *Magnetic resonance imaging 45
  46. 46. * Radiographic positions to study the paranasal sinuses are standardised around three positions: * 1. Two anatomical - namely coronal and sagittal * 2. One radiographic - termed as radiographic base line.. * The various radiographic positions used to study paranasal sinuses are: 1. Occipito-mental view (Water's view) 2. Occipital-frontal view (Caldwell view) 3. Submento-vertical position (Hirtz position/jug handle) 4. Lateral view 5. Oblique view 39 Degrees oblique (Rhese position) 46
  47. 47. Fronta.s orbit ethmoids ns Infra orbital margin Max.sinus 47
  48. 48. Frontal.s Ethmoid air.c orbit Sphenoid.b ns Hard palate Max.s Inferior.t 48 mandible
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  53. 53. MAXILLARY.S 53
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