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  1. 1. - What do you understand by ‘creativity’ and to why is itneeded?It is the process needed for problem solving.. not a special gift enjoyed by afew but a common ability possesed by most people.Creativity results from the interaction of a system composed of threeelements: a culture that contains symbolic rules, a person who brings noveltyinto the symbolic domain, and a field of experts who recognise and validatethe innovation.Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas,alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems,communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others.Three reasons why people are motivated to be creative:1. need for novel, varied, and complex stimulation2. need to communicate ideas and values3. need to solve problemsIn order to be creative, you need to be able to view things in new ways orfrom a different perspective. Among other things, you need to be able togenerate new possibilities or new alternatives. Tests of creativity measurenot only the number of alternatives that people can generate but theuniqueness of those alternatives. the ability to generate alternatives or to seethings uniquely does not occur by change; it is linked to other, morefundamental qualities of thinking, such as flexibility, tolerance of ambiguityor unpredictability, and the enjoyment of things heretofore unknown.The word creative has many meanings- the most democratic meaningwould really suggest that any act of making something (even making anidea) might be seen as a creative act. In more elitist versions of the term, it isreserved for those who are seen as highly skilled or original (famous artists,musicians, film-makers etc). an interesting third alternative is to think abouthow creativity can be an unconscious, random or collaborative act thatbecomes more than the sum of its parts.CREATIVITY - THEORYAnthony Storr ‘creativity has been defined as the ability to bring somethingnew into existence’.’the making of the new and the rearranging of the old.’ (Bentley 1997)Ken Robinson has identified some Creative Habits of mind • Creativity - enquiring mind
  2. 2. • Flexibility - lateral thinking and connection making • Willingness - to think the impossible • Confidence - to try things out • Ability - to handle uncertainty - perseverance in adversity • Self-reflective awareness Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi wrote that the creative process normally takes five steps (Creativity, 1996, p.79):o Preparation - becoming immersed in problematic issues that are interesting and arouses curiosity.o Incubation - ideas churn around below the threshold of consciousness.o Insight - the "Aha!" moment when the puzzle starts to fall together.o Evaluation - deciding if the insight is valuable and worth pursuing.o Elaboration - translating the insight into its final work. Spontaneity takes practice Csikszentmihalyi says that it typically takes someone 10 years of acquiring technical knowledge by immersing themselves in a discipline before they create anything significant. Malcolm Gladwell makes a similar argument in his new book, Outliers – according to Gladwell, the magic number is 10,000 hours of practice. Csikszentmihalyi : ‘Creative people combine playfulness and discipline, or responsibility and irresponsibility.’ Csikszentmihalyi Divergent thinking involves fluency, or the ability to generate a great quantity of ideas; flexibility, or the ability to switch from one perspective to another; and originality in picking unusual associations of ideas. …Divergent thinking is not much use without the ability to tell a good idea from a bad one, and this selectivity involves convergent thinking. David Gauntlett has written extensively about creativity and the idea that ‘making is connecting’. His main argument is that ‘through making things, and sharing them with others, we feel a greater connection with the world, and more engaged with being more active in the environment rather than sitting back and watching.’ Banaji, Burn & Buckingham have researched into the extent to which technology makes us more creative. They conclude that ‘creativity is not an inevitable consequence of using technology’. George Steigler (an economist) : In innovation, you have to play a less safe game, if its going to be interesting. Its not predictable that itll go well."
  3. 3. Mihaly CsikszentmihalyiLearning – pushing yourself, taking on challenges – creates a feeling he calls‘flow’. Flow is a fancy name for being so engrossed, absorbed, rapt bysomething that time flies and you forget your worries.Ken Robinson‘Individual creativity is stimulated by the work, ideas and achievements ofother people. We stand on the shoulders of others to see further.’ (11)‘To promote creativity it is essential to understand the main elements andphases of the creative process including: - the importance of the medium; - the need to be in control of the medium; - the need to play and take risks; and - the need for critical judgment‘Creativity is not only a matter of control; it’s about speculating, exploringnew horizons and using imagination.’ (133)‘As Carl Jung puts it, the creation of something new is not accomplished bythe intellect alone but by the play instinct. The creative mind plays with theobjects it loves.Creative activity involves playing with ideas and trying out possibilities. Butcreative achievement does not always require freedom from constraints or ablank page. Great work often comes from working within formalconstraints….The creative achievement and the aesthetic pleasure lie in usingstandard forms to achieve unique effects and original insights.’ (133)‘Creativity is not only a process of generating ideas. It involves makingjudgments about them….creativity is not just a matter of being original, butof producing outcomes that are of value.’ (133)‘creativity can be inhibited by trying to do too much too soon or at the sametime.’ (136)‘Our best ideas may come to us when we’re not thinking about them…As thewriter E.M. Forster said, in the creative state we are taken out of ourselves.We let down a bucket into out subconscious and draw up something that isnormally beyond our reach.’ (154)‘Creativity is incremental. New ideas do not necessarily come from nowhere.They draw from the ideas and achievements of those that have gone beforeus or are working in different fields….conceiving new ideas is often promotedby knowledge of the achievements of others – by cultural literacy.’ (182)
  4. 4. ‘Creativity often comes about by making unusual connections, seeinganalogies, identifying relationships between ideas and processes that werepreviously not related.’ (188)‘Creativity relies on the flow of ideas. This happens best in an atmospherewhere risk is encouraged, playfulness with ideas is accepted and wherefailure is not punished but seen as part of the process of success.’ (190)