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Netnography - Kozinets [Resenha]

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KOZINETS, Robert. Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online. Sage, 2009, pp 1-40 (cap. 1 e 2).

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Netnography - Kozinets [Resenha]

  1. 1. Resenha por Tarcízio Silva - @tarushijioKOZINETS, Robert. Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online. Sage, 2009,pp 1-40 (cap. 1 e 2).Os dois primeiros capítulos do livro de Robert Kozinets são dedicados a apresentar osconceitos de cultura e comunidade online e a história da etnografia. Na introdução doprimeiro capítulo, trata das demandas e configurações que possibilitaram o surgimentoda netnografia. Desde a criação e disseminação da internet, pesquisadores acadêmicos epesquisadores profissionais, analistas de mercados, procuram entender como as pessoasinteragem e se apresentam em ambientes online.Netnografia é necessária? Antes de ir para esta pergunta, Kozinets responde outra: oneologismo é necessário? Para tanto, cita Jerry Lombardi que fez um resgate históricoda própria palavra etnografia que, no contexto do século XIX, quando passou a serpraticada, tinha um teor etnocêntrico e era conhecida por termos como “comparativemoral philosophy”.A etnografia digital tem três características definidoras e distintas. A primeiracaracterística compreende as diferenças que a comunicação online possui em relação àcomunicação face-a-face em termos de acessibilidade, aproximação e possiblidades deinclusão. A segunda se refere ao modo de coleta e análise de dados. No caso daetnografia digital, a maior parte dos dados já estão no formato digital, o que geradesafios e facilidades específicas. Por fim, os problemas e padrões éticos da etnografiaoffline não correspondem aos presentes no ambiente online. Apesar das diferenças e dasua opção pelo termo netnografia, Kozinets deixa claro que “etnografia é etnografia”,seja ciber-, net- ou qualquer outro prefixo.As páginas seguintes são dedicadas a discutir e definir os termos “comunidade online” e“cultura”. Para o primeiro, cita Howard Rheingold, que definiu comunidade onlinecomo “social aggregations that emerge from the net when enough people carry on . . .public discussions long enough, with sufficient human feeling, to form webs of personalrelationships in cyberspace”. Kozinets decompose cada parte dessa definição paramostrar como as comunidades online são entendidas pela netnografia e desdobra-se pormais linhas nos conceitos de “pertencimento” e “permanência”.Para falar de cultura e cibercultura, Kozinets cita Raymond Williams que explicoucomo o conceito é utilizado em vários âmbitos e ciências e utiliza a definição de ClydeResenha por Tarcízio Silva - @tarushijio
  2. 2. Resenha por Tarcízio Silva - @tarushijioKluckhohn, de 1949, para mostrar os inúmeros significados possíveis, que incluem: “apeople’s total lifeways; a social legacy; a way of thinking, feeling, and believing; astorehouse of learning; a set of orientations to problems or learned behaviours;mechanisms for the regulation of people’s behaviours; techniques for adjusting to theexternal environment; behavioural maps; and others.” Em relação a cibercultura,Kozinets parece acreditar que é um termo efêmero. O prefixo “ciber” se refere a práticase tecnologias de informação e comunicação que são parte de um fluxo contínuo e, porisso, este prefixo não seria mais apropriado do que temos como “cultura da escrita”.Padrões e números das comunidades online possuem semelhanças e dessemelhanças portodo o mundo. Robert Kozinets exibe uma tabela com números absolutos e percentuaisda população conectada por regiões do mundo e elenca algumas característicasregionais, como o maior uso de dispositivos móveis por japoneses e o uso mais intensopor alemães, noruegueses e austríacos.O segundo capítulo procura entender a cultura online. A discussão inicial é sobre aexistência ou inexistência de um determinismo na relação cultura x tecnologia. Kozinetsexplica que esta relação é complexa e entrelaçada.A primeira fase da pesquisa acadêmica sobre interações online foi baseada em estudosexperimentais de psicologia social e concluiu, de modo geral, que o ambiente onlineseria um suporte limitante para expressões culturais e sociais. Em ambientesexperimentais “frios”, como sugere Kozinets, foi natural que este tipo de pesquisa, nestafase, encontrasse interações fracas. Os pesquisadores dessa época argumentavam que asinterações online eram menos interessantes por não possuírem, por exemplo, elementoscomo gestualidade e presença física.Essas conclusões foram logo postas em cheque por pesquisas subseqüentes queanalisaram, por exemplo, como o ambiente de comunicação textual foi apropriado ereconfigurado para abarcar informações sobre estados emocionais, como os“emoticons”. Outros estudos descobriram que a expectativa de interações continuadasleva os usuários a se engajar mais nas interações e participar com mais intensidade. Aalegação de que na internet todos seriam “equalizados” também foi contestada, ao seperceber melhor os sinais de hierarquia e diferenciação.O mundo social online é visto por diversas disciplinas e métodos de jeitos e ângulosdiferentes. “Survey approaches inform us about the relative population, demographicResenha por Tarcízio Silva - @tarushijio
  3. 3. Resenha por Tarcízio Silva - @tarushijioconstitution, and frequencies of behaviours of online community members. Socialpsychological and experimental approaches hypothesize about and test suggested causalrelations between important individual and group level variables such as attitudes,memory, and beliefs.[…] Netnography, the ethnography of online groups, studiescomplex cultural practices in action, drawing our attention to a multitude of groundedand abstract ideas, meanings, social practices, relationships, languages, and symbolsystems.” Todas essas disciplinas se complementam, segundo Kozinets. O autor fazuma rica descrição de uma hipotética imersão de uma usuária de internet em umacomunidade online de troca de informações sobre viagens e turismo. De uma buscainicial por informação até a participação comprometida em uma comunidade online, apersonagem descrita aprende a dinâmica das interações, normas, referências, práticas,hierarquias e discursos do grupo. Kozinets chama a atenção, citando vários estudos,para os benefícios das comunidades online em participantes que podem conhecer outraspessoas com interesses, problemas e estigmas semelhantes.A preocupação em classificar as comunidades e participações em categorias é abordadaem seguida e Kozinets cita alguns trabalhos que propuseram categorizações. Ascomunidades online, segundo o autor, seriam compostas de dois elementos básicos. Oprimeiro é a relação entre o usuário ou participantes com o “consumo” ou “atividade”básica. O segundo refere-se aos relacionamentos efetivados nas comunidades online esua intensidade, significação, profundidade e duração. Em relação à participação,Kozinets apresenta um infográfico que mostra oito tipos de participantes e do tipo deinteração de acordo com centralidade da atividade de consumo e da força dos laços.Kozinets fecha o capítulo falando do desenvolvimento da pesquisa sobre comunidades ecultura online. Pesquisadores da área de estudos culturais e antropólogos tem percebidoque as comunidades online moldam e são conseqüência de novas condições, “pós-modernas”, da sociedade. Citando um trabalho de Whitty sobre “paquera online”, falasobre a representação, apresentação do corpo no ambiente online. Outros trabalhosanalisam a relação das corporações e das comunidades fomentadas por estas, muitasvezes multifacetadas: ao mesmo tempo de reforço e conflito. O autor encerra falandodas apropriações das ferramentas e comunidades online nas ações de “mudança” demundo e ambientes políticos.Resenha por Tarcízio Silva - @tarushijio

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