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4. antibiotik

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4. antibiotik

  1. 1. ANTIBIOTIK
  2. 2. Antibiotics Agents Microorganisme, Infection, Pathogenic Mode of transmission : ● airborne-droplets ● direct contact ● direct, indirect, intermediary animal contact ● vectors ● contaminated food ● contaminated water ● soil borne spore-forming organisms ● contaminated blood ● transplacentally or via maternal membrane ● human carrier .
  3. 3. Antibiotics Are used to treat infectious diseases in plants, animal, and man, may be natural or synthetic substance that inhibit the growth of or destroy microorganisms, especially bacteria. Bacteria gram-positive, gram-negative or acid-fast Gram’s method of staining Gentian violet
  4. 4. Gonorrhea, syphilis, tuberculosis, pneumonia, chlamydia, rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, meningitis, strepthroat, and salmonellosis Classification of Antibiotics Broad spectrum / Narrow spectrum / Extended spectrum Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Proteus
  5. 5. Adverse reactions . Hypersensitivity – allergic response [urticaria, skin eruptions/rash, fever, headache, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea] – Anaphylactic shock [facial or laryngeal edema, dyspnea, cyanosis, circulatory collapse & convulsion] Organ Toxicity – liver dysfuntions and renal dysfunctions. Superinfection – resistant strain of bacteria, fungi or yeast.
  6. 6. Antibiotic Groupings 1. Penicillins amoxillin, ampicillin, penicilin G 2. Cephalosporins Penicillinase – Resistant Penicillin cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin 3 generation : a. Bacteriostatic against gram positive, negative and susceptible to being inactivated by beta lactamase enzymes produced. cefadroxil (Duricef, Ultracef), cefazolin (Ancef, Zolicef), cephalexin (Cefanex, Keflex, Keftab)
  7. 7. b. Broader spectrum against gram positive. Haemophilus influenzae is especially sensitive. cefaclor (Ceclor), cefrozil (Cefzil), cefuroxime (Ceftin, Kefurox, Zinacef c. Broader spectrum against gram negatives ; E. Coli, Klebsiella species, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, strptococcus, staphylococcus, Neisseria gonorhoeae, Haemophilus cefepime (Maxipime), cefixime (Suprax), ceftazidime (Ceptaz, Fortaz, Tazicef)
  8. 8. 3. Tetracyclines demeclocycline hdrochloride, doxycycline hyclate, tetracycline hydrochloride 4. Aminoglycosides gentamicin sulfate, kanamycin, streptomicin sulfate, amikacin sulfate 5. Macrolides erythromycin, azithromycin (Zithromax) clarithromycin 6. Quinolones ciprofloxacine, levofloxacine, norfloxacine .
  9. 9. Additional Antibiotics . Chloramphenicol, Clindamycin, Lincomycin, Metronidazole HCL, polymyxin B - neomycin, Vancomycin HCL

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