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dr Alek Tarkowski	
Centrum Cyfrowe	
Creative Commons	
Koalicja Otwartej Edukacji	
How	
  to	
  develop	
  Open	
  
Educa1o...
1. What is Open?
Digital = open	
Providing a strong standard for open
licensing should be a key goal of open
educational policy.
What is Open?	
  
• The term is often used in a general
sense	
• Importance of strong standards of open	
• Free licensing ...
Open = 	
Access to Content +
Use Rights
„Open All”	
• Free / Open Software	
• Open Access … and Open Science	
• Open education (HE, K-12,
preschool)	
• Open data:...
grassroots activities and
top-down policies	
Grassroots activities:	
• We began in Poland with grassroots
activities	
• Ad...
grassroots activities and
top-down policies	
O"cial policies	
• Policies provide strong leverage for
implementation of ope...
From education to open education	
•  Resource policies are typically a blind
spot of educational (also scienti"c,
cultural...
Education and open education	
•  Looking from a broader perspective, the
open education argument can be seen as
just a foo...
Licensing debate	
Providing a strong standard for open
licensing should be a key goal of open
educational policy.
Licensing debate	
Providing a strong standard for open
licensing should be a key goal of open
educational policy.
Licensing debate	
• Strong open licensing (free
licensing) for OER and other areas,
where reuse is important	
• Public fun...
OER de#nition: Cape Town Declaration	
2. Open educational resources: Second, we call on
educators, authors, publishers and...
OER de#nition: Cape Town Declaration	
3. Open education policy: Third, governments,
school boards, colleges and universiti...
OER de#nition: UNESCO	
a. Foster awareness and use of OER.	
b. Facilitate enabling environments for use of ICT.	
c. Reinfo...
OER de#nition: UNESCO	
• UNESCO	
„teaching, learning and research
materials in any medium, digital or
otherwise, that resi...
The UNESCO Paris Declaration (2012)
does not provide a strong open
standard (due to the „limited
restrictions” language). ...
OER de#nition: Hewlett	
• Hewlett Foundation	
„OER are teaching, learning, and
research resources that reside in the
publi...
The Hewlett Foundation de#nition
provides a strong standard of openness
through its de#nition of OER.	
http://www.hewlett....
OER de#nition: FASTR (US)	
•  (4) free online public access to such "nal
peer-reviewed manuscripts or published
versions a...
The language used in the proposal for
the FASTR Bill in the United States
provides a model way of distinguishing
between a...
Opening Up Education	
•  [footnote] “OER are learning
resources that are usable,
adaptable to speci"c learning
needs, and ...
Opening Up Education	
•  “Bene"ciaries of Erasmus+ grants
producing any such materials,
documents and media in the scope
o...
The „Opening up Education” initiative
and the „Erasmus Plus” program of the
European Union includes an open
licensing requ...
Poland	
  
Poland.	
	
Poland has developed a strong, model
standard of openness for educational
resources, as part of its „Cyfrowa
sz...
Poland: grassroots	
•  2008: Coalition for Open Education
(KOED)	
•  Wolne lektury repository	
•  Digital libraries, Open ...
Poland: policies	
  
•  2010: „Włącz Polskę” – OER for Polish
schools abroad	
•  Grant programs by Ministries	
•  2012-201...
Poland: Open Textbooks	
•  Part of the broader „Digital school”
program	
•  62 e-books on 14 subjects, 2500 other
educatio...
OER de#nition: Poland	
•  Licensing: all content will be available under
the CC BY license (or comparable) – that allows
u...
Poland: Policy context	
•  “What is 100% funded by public money
should be free and accessible” 	
•  Context of the ACTA de...
Poland: Public debate	
„Pros”	
•  Educational resources shouldn’t be treated
simply as commodities	
•  Free access does no...
Poland: Public debate	
„Cons”	
•  Free licenses should not be an obligation. 	
•  “Free-license” movement supports revenue...
Poland: towards an OER policy	
Challenges	
•  The access-related advantage of OER is obvious –
the (re)use potential has s...
OER coalitions in Europe
Elements of EU OER:	
repositories	
Norway: NDLA	
	
	
	
Slovakia: e-Aktovka	
	
	
	
Belgium: KlasCement	
	
	
	
Netherlands: ...
Elements of EU OER:	
textbooks	
Poland: e-textbooks	
	
	
	
Slovenia: Opening 	
Up Slovenia	
	
	
	
France: Sesamath, Livres...
Elements of EU OER:	
City policies	
Leicester: OER capital of	
The World
Leicester OER Policy	
  
• Permission for teachers to create and
share OER	
• 84 schools across the city school district	
...
Open policy: a template	
• Legal / licensing standards	
• Author / publisher /
intermediary compliance	
• Content type	
• ...
point of reference: OA	
•  Advantages:	
•  Mature content production and distribution
model (also from an economic perspec...
point of reference: OA	
•  Legal / licensing standards: CC BY	
•  Author / publisher / intermediary
compliance: Green and ...
point of reference: OER	
•  Advantages:	
•  Clear arguments about importance of reuse	
•  Greater potential for grassroots...
point of reference: OER 	
	
•  Legal / licensing standards: CC BY / CC BY SA	
•  Author / publisher / intermediary
complia...
Beyond the licensing debate
Beyond the licensing debate
Beyond the licensing debate
Open	
  
Lesson	
  
oerpolicy.eu	
  
openpolicynetwork.org	
  
Thank you!	
And please stay in touch:	
@atarkowski	
alek@creativecommons.pl	
http://oerpolicy.eu	
	
All icons and the OER ...
How to develop Open Educational Resources policies at national and institutional level: The primary and secondary school s...
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How to develop Open Educational Resources policies at national and institutional level: The primary and secondary school sector

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Slides from a workshop conducted during the "Open Educational Ideas" conference, Berlin, 7th September 2015.

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How to develop Open Educational Resources policies at national and institutional level: The primary and secondary school sector

  1. 1. dr Alek Tarkowski Centrum Cyfrowe Creative Commons Koalicja Otwartej Edukacji How  to  develop  Open   Educa1onal  Resources  policies   at  na1onal  and  ins1tu1onal   level:  The  primary  and   secondary  school  sector
  2. 2. 1. What is Open?
  3. 3. Digital = open Providing a strong standard for open licensing should be a key goal of open educational policy.
  4. 4. What is Open?   • The term is often used in a general sense • Importance of strong standards of open • Free licensing as the basic standard
  5. 5. Open = Access to Content + Use Rights
  6. 6. „Open All” • Free / Open Software • Open Access … and Open Science • Open education (HE, K-12, preschool) • Open data: Public Sector Information, Public Data • Open GLAM: heritage, cultural sector content
  7. 7. grassroots activities and top-down policies Grassroots activities: • We began in Poland with grassroots activities • Advantage of personal engagement • Activists from beyond the educational system
  8. 8. grassroots activities and top-down policies O"cial policies • Policies provide strong leverage for implementation of open standards • Public character (funding) of content a strong argument for openness: the commons / public infrastructure
  9. 9. From education to open education •  Resource policies are typically a blind spot of educational (also scienti"c, cultural) policy – not addressed by the education system •  Stakeholders do not see this as crucial issue •  But: importance of OER model as an enabler of change •  Quality and equality of education
  10. 10. Education and open education •  Looking from a broader perspective, the open education argument can be seen as just a footnote for more important debates. •  Resource policies are typically a blind spot of educational (also scienti"c, cultural) policy •  But: the importance of OER model as an enabler of change
  11. 11. Licensing debate Providing a strong standard for open licensing should be a key goal of open educational policy.
  12. 12. Licensing debate Providing a strong standard for open licensing should be a key goal of open educational policy.
  13. 13. Licensing debate • Strong open licensing (free licensing) for OER and other areas, where reuse is important • Public funding – strong argument for fully open licensing • Open Knowledge De#nition as a underlying / uni"ying mechanism for standards negotiation • CC BY / CC BY SA / CC0
  14. 14. OER de#nition: Cape Town Declaration 2. Open educational resources: Second, we call on educators, authors, publishers and institutions to release their resources openly. These open educational resources should be freely shared through open licences which facilitate use, revision, translation, improvement and sharing by anyone. Resources should be published in formats that facilitate both use and editing, and that accommodate a diversity of technical platforms. Whenever possible, they should also be available in formats that are accessible to people with disabilities and people who do not yet have access to the Internet.
  15. 15. OER de#nition: Cape Town Declaration 3. Open education policy: Third, governments, school boards, colleges and universities should make open education a high priority. Ideally, taxpayer-funded educational resources should be open educational resources. Accreditation and adoption processes should give preference to open educational resources. Educational resource repositories should actively include and highlight open educational resources within their collections.
  16. 16. OER de#nition: UNESCO a. Foster awareness and use of OER. b. Facilitate enabling environments for use of ICT. c. Reinforce development of OER strategies and policies. d. Promote understanding and use of open licensing. e. Support capacity building for the sustainable development of quality learning materials. f. Foster strategic alliances for OER. g. Encourage development and adaptation of OER in a variety of languages and cultural contexts. h. Encourage research on OER. i. Facilitate "nding, retrieving and sharing of OER. j. Encourage the open licensing of educational materials produced with public funds.
  17. 17. OER de#nition: UNESCO • UNESCO „teaching, learning and research materials in any medium, digital or otherwise, that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions.”
  18. 18. The UNESCO Paris Declaration (2012) does not provide a strong open standard (due to the „limited restrictions” language). Still, it provides a baseline, used as point of refence in later policy making e$orts. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/access-to-knowledge/ open-educational-resources/what-is-the-paris-oer-declaration/
  19. 19. OER de#nition: Hewlett • Hewlett Foundation „OER are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re- purposing by others.”
  20. 20. The Hewlett Foundation de#nition provides a strong standard of openness through its de#nition of OER. http://www.hewlett.org/programs/education/open-educational-resources
  21. 21. OER de#nition: FASTR (US) •  (4) free online public access to such "nal peer-reviewed manuscripts or published versions as soon as practicable, but not later than 6 months after publication in peer- reviewed journals; •  (5) providing research papers as described in paragraph (4) in formats and under terms that enable productive reuse, including computational analysis by state-of-the-art technologies;
  22. 22. The language used in the proposal for the FASTR Bill in the United States provides a model way of distinguishing between access and reuse, and securing both outcomes of openness. http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Fair_Access_to_Science_and_Technology_Research_Act_ %28FASTR%29
  23. 23. Opening Up Education •  [footnote] “OER are learning resources that are usable, adaptable to speci"c learning needs, and shareable freely”. •  “Ensure that all educational materials supported by Erasmus+ are available to the public under open licenses and promote similar practices under EU programmes”.
  24. 24. Opening Up Education •  “Bene"ciaries of Erasmus+ grants producing any such materials, documents and media in the scope of any funded project should make them available for the public, in digital form, freely accessible through the Internet under open licences” (Program guide)
  25. 25. The „Opening up Education” initiative and the „Erasmus Plus” program of the European Union includes an open licensing requirement. What is missing is a de#nition of open licensing that would set a standard of openness for grantees. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-13-813_en.htm
  26. 26. Poland  
  27. 27. Poland. Poland has developed a strong, model standard of openness for educational resources, as part of its „Cyfrowa szkoła” (Digital School) program. http://centrumcyfrowe.pl/english/digital-school-e-textbooks-program-a-year-and-a-half- later/
  28. 28. Poland: grassroots •  2008: Coalition for Open Education (KOED) •  Wolne lektury repository •  Digital libraries, Open Access as related activities •  Relatively little involvement of educators
  29. 29. Poland: policies   •  2010: „Włącz Polskę” – OER for Polish schools abroad •  Grant programs by Ministries •  2012-2015: Open e-Textbooks project •  2014: Open Primer project Key themes: •  IT and education and provision of IT equipment •  Availability of digital resources for new curriculum
  30. 30. Poland: Open Textbooks •  Part of the broader „Digital school” program •  62 e-books on 14 subjects, 2500 other educational resources, •  Target: use by 40% of teachers •  Modern, innovative, modular, mobile platform (HTML5) •  Design of innovative pedagogies •  under a free license (CC-BY) •  Focus on (transforming) textbooks
  31. 31. OER de#nition: Poland •  Licensing: all content will be available under the CC BY license (or comparable) – that allows use of resources and their derivatives without fees, in an unlimited, nonexclusive manner; •  Formats: all content will be available in at least one open format – for example, web content will be available as HTML5 documents; •  Accessibility: all content that is accessed online  will be made available in accordance with the current W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG). •  + open web platform
  32. 32. Poland: Policy context •  “What is 100% funded by public money should be free and accessible” •  Context of the ACTA debate •  Social expectations are egalitarian with regard to education •  The importance of publishers in public debate + overlap between education and culture (i.e. reading policy)
  33. 33. Poland: Public debate „Pros” •  Educational resources shouldn’t be treated simply as commodities •  Free access does not preclude commercial exploitation - if true value is added •  Public intervention provides innovation in a sti&ed, oligopolic market •  Reversed moral hazards!
  34. 34. Poland: Public debate „Cons” •  Free licenses should not be an obligation. •  “Free-license” movement supports revenues from network tra'c over revenues from creative work •  Open textbooks will lead to destruction of Polish creative / educational industries •  Commercial use rights are the fundamental problem
  35. 35. Poland: towards an OER policy Challenges •  The access-related advantage of OER is obvious – the (re)use potential has still not be proven •  E-textbook vs. primer •  Textbook: a pivot for change or a ball and chain? •  Is worrying only about textbook market shortsighted? •  How to build policies and practices that reinforce each other? •  Who do teachers trust? Publishers •  Business models?
  36. 36. OER coalitions in Europe
  37. 37. Elements of EU OER: repositories Norway: NDLA Slovakia: e-Aktovka Belgium: KlasCement Netherlands: Wikiwijs Czech Republic: RVP.cz
  38. 38. Elements of EU OER: textbooks Poland: e-textbooks Slovenia: Opening Up Slovenia France: Sesamath, Livres Ouverts
  39. 39. Elements of EU OER: City policies Leicester: OER capital of The World
  40. 40. Leicester OER Policy   • Permission for teachers to create and share OER • 84 schools across the city school district • Tightly alligned with digital literacy agenda
  41. 41. Open policy: a template • Legal / licensing standards • Author / publisher / intermediary compliance • Content type • Repositories • Embargo • Metadata • Use / reuse practices (by users)
  42. 42. point of reference: OA •  Advantages: •  Mature content production and distribution model (also from an economic perspective) •  20+ years of experience w/ implementation •  Precise goals / tools / theory of change – „modest” in a good sense •  Clear institutional policy model •  Challenges: •  (relatively) low attention paid to licensing •  Low content reuse •  Still not there!
  43. 43. point of reference: OA •  Legal / licensing standards: CC BY •  Author / publisher / intermediary compliance: Green and Gold OA model •  Content type : peer reviewed journal articles, data •  Repositories: standard, open source tools •  Embargo: 6 / 12 months •  Metadata: Dublin Core •  Use / reuse practices (by users): few
  44. 44. point of reference: OER •  Advantages: •  Clear arguments about importance of reuse •  Greater potential for grassroots involvement •  Challenges: •  Less mature implementation model •  Tools / standards for OER •  Ongoing licensing debate •  More varied content makes developing a theory of change di'cult •  Reuse: high potential / still little proof
  45. 45. point of reference: OER •  Legal / licensing standards: CC BY / CC BY SA •  Author / publisher / intermediary compliance: ??? •  Content type : textbooks, ??? •  Repositories: ??? •  Embargo: none •  Metadata: ??? •  Use / reuse practices (by users): many (?)
  46. 46. Beyond the licensing debate
  47. 47. Beyond the licensing debate
  48. 48. Beyond the licensing debate
  49. 49. Open   Lesson  
  50. 50. oerpolicy.eu  
  51. 51. openpolicynetwork.org  
  52. 52. Thank you! And please stay in touch: @atarkowski alek@creativecommons.pl http://oerpolicy.eu All icons and the OER pipe graphic: Piotr Chuchla, CC BY

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