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Renewable Energy:Engineering Master Thesis Dissertation :Impact of wind energy integration on Lebanese power grid (A)

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There is an individual agreement about the limitations of fossil fuels on earth. In addition, the power demand is growing causing the fuel prices to be increased proportionally. These problems make Renewable Energy resources a green alternative for energy production, since they are emitting zero carbons and friendly respecting environment cycles.
The Lebanese government targets to produce 12 percent of its total energy needs from renewable energy sources by 2020 mainly from solar and wind energy. Energy and Water Minister signed on February 2018 a contract with three Lebanese companies to install wind turbines farms in Akkar region with overall capacity of 200 MW ‎[13].
However, the connection of wind turbines to the electrical grid has a complicated effect on power quality, voltage fluctuation, and flicker. For that, this project proposes theoretical modelling of a Lebanese wind farm using MATLAB/Simulink software; this model will be used to study the amount of generated power over a year, also to cover the wind farm integration effects on power system quality. We have studied three layouts: THD ratio of voltages & current at stator and PCC (Point of Common Connection), Voltage Sag at PCC and short term flicker severity for different theoretical and actual wind speed and we have obtained numerical simulation results of all mentioned scenarios.

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Renewable Energy:Engineering Master Thesis Dissertation :Impact of wind energy integration on Lebanese power grid (A)

  1. 1. 1 Impact of Wind Energy Integration on Power Grids Prepared by: Tarek Kamar,20830351 Mohamed Basha, 21330191 Supervised by: Dr. Ziad Noon • Date: 18 January 2018
  2. 2. 2 Outlines A. Problem statement B. Project objectives C. Global wind power capacity overview D. Grid integration basics and power quality E. Similar wind turbine modeling works F. Structure of Grid- Connected wind turbine model G. Conclusions H. Next phase I. Questions and discussion
  3. 3. 3 A. Problem statement • Limitations of the earth’s fossil fuels Search for RE alternatives , such as wind energy • The wind power generation is incorporated into the grid directly Affecting Power quality , voltage fluctuation, and flicker. • Studying the previous problems of grid-connected wind turbines with Double Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) Enhance wind power generation Quality
  4. 4. 4 Outlines A. Problem statement B. Project objectives C. Global wind power capacity overview D. Grid integration basics and power quality E. Similar wind turbine modeling works F. Structure of Grid- Connected wind turbine model G. Conclusions H. Next phase I. Questions and discussion
  5. 5. 5 B. Project objectives • Implement an equivalent model for a virtual wind farm using MATLAB/Simulink ® software Different layouts Impacts on power systems. • Study the effect of wind energy integration on the Lebanese power grid.
  6. 6. 6 Outlines A. Problem statement B. Project objectives C. Global wind power capacity overview D. Grid integration basics and power quality E. Similar wind turbine modeling works F. Structure of Grid- Connected wind turbine model G. Conclusions H. Next phase I. Questions and discussion
  7. 7. 7 C. Global wind power capacity
  8. 8. 8 C. Global wind power capacity The Case in Lebanon: • In Lebanon , the government intends to produce 12 % of its total energy from RE sources by 2020 • The targeted objective for wind energy capacity is 200 MW by 2020.
  9. 9. 9 Outlines A. Problem statement B. Project objectives C. Global wind power capacity overview D. Grid integration basics and power quality E. Similar wind turbine modeling works F. Structure of Grid- Connected wind turbine model G. Conclusions H. Next phase I. Questions and discussion
  10. 10. 10 D. Grid integration basics and power quality Typical concepts for generating electrical power Wound rotor slip ring induction generator DFIG
  11. 11. 11 D. Grid integration basics and power quality The overall electrical system is subjected to: 1) Switching operations 2) Flicker: 3) Harmonics caused by inverters 4) Reactive power
  12. 12. 12 Periodic and non-periodic voltage distortions (1)Oscillatory transient (2) voltage sag (3) voltage swell (4) Momentary interruption (5) voltage flicker (6) harmonic distortion (7) Voltage with interharmonics (8) voltage with notches
  13. 13. 13 Outlines A. Problem statement B. Project objectives C. Global wind power capacity overview D. Grid integration basics and power quality E. Similar wind turbine modeling works F. Structure of Grid- Connected wind turbine model G. Conclusions H. Next phase I. Questions and discussion
  14. 14. 14 E. Similar wind turbine modeling works • In that study, a simulation model of a MW level variable speed wind turbine with a Double Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) had presented. • Wind characteristics : Turbulence intensity & mean speed • Grid connections: Grid impedance angle & short circuit capacity
  15. 15. 15 E. Similar wind turbine modeling works Flicker severity P 𝑠𝑡 variation with turbulence intensity
  16. 16. 16 E. Similar wind turbine modeling works P 𝑠𝑡 variation with SCR
  17. 17. 17 E. Similar wind turbine modeling works Lillgrund wind farm modeling project: • Objectives: • To develop an accurate model for one turbine. • The wind turbine response to the voltage sag has been investigated for one, two, and three turbines. • Results: After applying a 100 ms voltage sag • In reactive power control, the turbine voltage differs from the substation voltage by 4% • In voltage control, the turbine voltage differs from the substation voltage by 0.5 %
  18. 18. 18 Outlines A. Problem statement B. Project objectives C. Global wind power capacity overview D. Grid integration basics and power quality E. Similar wind turbine modeling works F. Structure of Grid- Connected wind turbine model G. Conclusions H. Next phase I. Questions and discussion
  19. 19. 19 F. Structure of Grid-Connected wind turbine model
  20. 20. 20 F. Structure of Grid-Connected wind turbine model The whole field of wind speeds in the rotor plane of the wind turbine is represented by 𝑣𝑒𝑞 The turbine rotor position 𝜃 𝑊𝑇𝑅 The turbine rotor speed 𝑤 𝑊𝑇𝑅 the blade pitch angle θ the aerodynamic torque 𝑇 𝑊
  21. 21. 21 F. Structure of Grid-Connected wind turbine model generator electromagnetic torque 𝑇𝐺 generator speed 𝑤𝑔𝑒𝑛 voltage 𝑈 𝑊𝑇 and current 𝐼 𝑊𝑇 active power 𝑃 𝑀𝑆 and reactive power 𝑄 𝑀𝑆 representing the measured voltages and currents of the control system 𝛼 𝑓 were control signals to the PWM converters
  22. 22. 22 F. Structure of Grid-Connected wind turbine model • The rotor subtracts power from the grid when the generator had operated in sub-synchronous mode. • Alternatively, in super-synchronous mode, the rotor had supplied power to the grid
  23. 23. 23 Outlines A. Problem statement B. Project objectives C. Global wind power capacity overview D. Grid integration basics and power quality E. Similar wind turbine modeling works F. Structure of Grid- Connected wind turbine model G. Conclusions H. Next phase I. Questions and discussion
  24. 24. 24 G. Conclusions • The exponential growth of global wind power capacity encourage engineers on advanced wind power system modeling researches. • It is powerful to cover the technical impact of wind energy integration affect power quality of the grid • The Double Fed Induction Generator is the famous generator used in wind turbine worldwide superiority on other types. • Lebanon spends “no less than $6 billion” on a yearly basis to import energy be cutted by 10-20 percent with the use of wind farms.
  25. 25. 25 Outlines A. Problem statement B. Project objectives C. Global wind power capacity overview D. Grid integration basics and power quality E. Similar wind turbine modeling works F. Structure of Grid- Connected wind turbine model G. Conclusions H. Next phase I. Questions and discussion
  26. 26. 26 H. Next phase • To develop an equivalent model for a proposed wind farm in Lebanon using MATLAB/Simulink. • To study the amount of power generation of this farm over one year. • To study the effect of the flicker produced by the wind turbines included in this farm on Power systems. • To study the Voltage quality of the grid connected wind farm at the connection point.
  27. 27. 27 Extra:Structure of Grid-Connected wind turbine model • The 3 axes, which constituted the three-phase abc were projected on two axes, respectively the d- and q-axis. • 𝑃𝑠 = 3 2 𝑢 𝑑𝑠 𝑖 𝑑𝑠 + 𝑢 𝑞𝑠 𝑖 𝑞𝑠 𝑄𝑠 = 3 2 (𝑢 𝑑𝑠 𝑖 𝑑𝑠 − 𝑢 𝑞𝑠 𝑖 𝑞𝑠 ) • 𝑃𝑟 = 3 2 (𝑢 𝑑𝑟 𝑖 𝑑𝑟 + 𝑢 𝑞𝑟 𝑖 𝑞𝑟 ) 𝑄 𝑟 = 3 2 (𝑢 𝑞𝑟 𝑖 𝑑𝑟 − 𝑢 𝑑𝑟 𝑖 𝑞𝑟 )
  28. 28. 28 Extra: Structure of Grid-Connected wind turbine model • The mutual flux between rotor and stator produces magnetic energy electromagnetic torque 𝑇𝐺 = 3 2 𝑝𝐿 𝑚 𝑖 𝑞𝑠 𝑖 𝑑𝑟 − 𝑖 𝑑𝑠 𝑖 𝑞𝑟 Where p was the number of pole pairs
  29. 29. 29 I. Questions and discussion

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