Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Photo Voltaic Project: Cascada Mall Lebanon solar PV modelling using Helioscope

74 views

Published on

In this project, we will implement a simple PV model using Helioscope® software to predict the operation, the efficiency, and the electrical production of a proposed standalone PV system located at the rooftop of the Cascada Mall located in Taanayel area in Bekaa.

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Photo Voltaic Project: Cascada Mall Lebanon solar PV modelling using Helioscope

  1. 1. Course: EENG 622 Section:A Semester: Fall 2017/2018 Submitted by: Bilal Abu Ghouche Mohamed Abdel Wahab Tarek Kamar Supervised by: Dr. Tarek Nasab Cascada Mall PV Stand Alone system Modelling using Helioscope® Date: 26-12-2017
  2. 2. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS A. Introduction……………………………………………………………………..3 B. Problem statement………………………………………………………………8 C. Project Objectives ………………………………………………………………8 D. Cascada mall overview………………………………………………………….8 E. Helioscope overview……………………………………………………………9 F. Helioscope project methodology………………………………………………..9 G. Numerical & graphical results………………………………………………….15 H. Conclusions…………………………………………………………………......19 References………………………………………………………………………20
  3. 3. 3 LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES Figure 1: Direct-coupled PV system …………………………………………………..3 Figure 2: Stand-alone PV system with battery storage powering DC and AC loads…..4 Figure 3: Flowchart of estimating the size of a PV ……………………………………6 Figure 4: Mounting on foundation slabs ………………………………………………7 Figure 5: Subsequently sealed anchoring ……………………………………………..7 Figure 6: Cascada mall Top view ……………………………………………………...9 Figure 7: Creation of new Helioscope project…………………………………………10 Figure 8: ASP-828IS PV Module specifications……………………………………..10 Figure 9: ASP-828IS PV Module characterization…………………………………...11 Figure 10: Generation of field segment………………………………………………..11 Figure 11: Frame size & orientation of the arrays……………………………………..12 Figure 12: Generating keep out zone…………………………………………………..12 Figure 13: Electrical spec of PV inverter………………………………………………13 Figure 14: Electrical characterization of PV inverter …………………………………13 Figure 15: Wiring schedule of PV arrays………………………………………………14 Figure 16: Electrical Single line diagram of PV systems ……………………………...14 Figure 17: Environmental conditions of the PV system ……………………………….15 Figure 18: Overall PV model…………………………………………………………..15 Figure 19: Annual production of the PV system……………………………………….16 Figure 20: Sources of system losses……………………………………………………16 Figure 21: The monthly production of the PV model………………………………….16 Figure 22: Annual energy & irradiance of PV model………………………………….17 Figure 23: electrical components of the PV model…………………………………….17 Table 1: detailed estimated electrical cost of the project……………………………….18
  4. 4. 4 A. Introduction: A PV system converts sunlight into electricity. A PV system contains different components including cells, electrical connections, mechanical mounting and a way to convert the electrical output. The electricity generated can be kept in a standalone system, stored in batteries or can feed a greater electricity power grid. It is interesting to include electrical conditioning equipment. This one ensures the PV system to operate under optimum conditions [1]. Stand-alone PV systems are designed to operate independent of the electric utility grid, and are generally designed and sized to supply certain DC and/or AC electrical loads. The simplest type of stand-alone PV system is a direct-coupled system, where the DC output of a PV module is directly connected to a DC load as shown in figure 1. Figure 1: Direct-coupled PV system [1] In direct-coupled systems, the load only operates during sunlight hours. The common applications for this system are such as ventilation fans, water pumps and small circulation pumps for solar thermal water heating systems [1]. In standalone PV applications, electrical power is required from the system during night or hours of darkness. Thus the storage must be added to the system. Generally, batteries are used for energy storage. Several types of batteries can be used such as lead- acid, nickel–cadmium, lithium zinc bromide, zinc chloride, sodium sulfur, nickel-
  5. 5. 5 hydrogen, redox and vanadium batteries [2]. Different factors are considered in the selection of batteries for PV application. The inverter uses an internal frequency generator to obtain the correct output frequency. A charge controller must keep the battery at the highest possible state while protecting it from overloaded by the photovoltaic generator and from over-discharge by loads. Figure 2 shows a diagram of a typical stand-alone PV system powering DC and AC loads Figure 2: Stand-alone PV system with battery storage powering DC and AC loads [1] A load includes anything that uses electricity from the power source (televisions, radios or batteries). Then, we must determine the daily amount of sunlight in your region. And finally we will determine PV array size and battery bank size. Figure 3 will explain how to estimate the size of a PV array and battery bank [1].
  6. 6. 6 Figure 3: Flowchart of estimating the size of a PV [1] As with roof-mounted systems on pitched roofs, with roof-mounted systems on flat roofs the modules are mounted on a metal framework above the existing roof skin [3]. The modules are generally tilted at a favorable angle using a support frame. PV systems generally restrict access to the roof. It should therefore be ensured before installing the PV system that the roofs ability to function will be maintained throughout the service life of the PV array. One advantage, however, is that the module shading reduces the thermal loading on the roof and thus prolongs its ability to function. In terms of the metal components, the same corrosion protection should be ensured as described in the earlier section on 'Corrosion’ [3]. The choice of fixing depends upon the structure of the roof. Can the roof accept greater loads? This determines whether the system can be free-standing (ballast-mounted systems) or must be fixed to the roof (anchoring). With ballast-mounted systems, the flat roof mounts are anchored without penetrating the roof as shown in figure 4 [3].The major advantage of ballast-mounted systems is that it is not necessary to penetrate the roof.
  7. 7. 7 However, the PV-array and ballast must be heavy enough to ensure that the installation remains firmly fixed even with the maximum expected wind load. The necessary weight depends upon the height of the building, its location and the nature of the substructure (frictional coefficient between the frame and the roof skin) [3]. Figure 4: Mounting on foundation slabs [3] If it is not possible to use ballast-mounted systems for structural reasons, the PV array must be rigidly anchored to the roof construction. Here, the supporting frames are mounted on crossbeams that are secured either to the roof itself or to the roof parapet. Where the roofs waterproofing is penetrated, the anchorage points must be carefully sealed. When designing the layout, the number of penetration points should be reduced to a minimum. When refurbishing flat roofs, the anchoring can be particularly easily realized since the pressure points of the solar substructure can be sealed at the same time as shown in figure 5 [3]. Figure 5: Subsequently sealed anchoring [3]
  8. 8. 8 B. Problem statement: Site designing software helps to map out sites, manage complicate design limitations, optimize layouts, and provide Bill of Materials and more, while site simulation tools are important for analyzing the Return on Investment ROI of potential installations. Both of these tools were quickly adopted as indispensable by the industry since they reduce planning, decrease quotation time, and optimize sites for improved ROI. Another software solution that is becoming increasingly popular is designed for improving commissioning. These solutions help to streamline the commissioning process and eliminate any redundancies. Yet these tools are limited as they only provide solutions for the initial stages, and PV systems have a life expectancy of 25 years . C. Project Objectives: In this project, we will implement a simple PV model using Helioscope® software to predict the operation, the efficiency, and the electrical production of a proposed standalone PV system located at the rooftop of the Cascada Mall located in Taanayel area in Bekaa. D. Cascada mall overview: Cascada Mall ( as seen in figure 6) is situated on a 220,000 sqm piece of land in the heart of the Bekaa valley in Taanayel featuring several synergistic hubs like the shopping center, Arcadia Wedding Venue, Medical center, Amphitheater, Hotel and the Cascada Park that is designed to offer the ultimate leisure & outdoor experience
  9. 9. 9 combining a variety of activities such as : Outdoor Library, Urban Park , Paintball, Kids area, mountain Bikes & RC cars, Farm , Zipline & a Selfie tower in addition to an outdoor bar a picnic & food area [4]. Figure 6: Cascada mall Top view [4] E. Helioscope® overview: HelioScope® had developed to simplify the process of designing, engineering, and selling solar arrays. By combining streamlined layout tools with bankable energy simulations, HelioScope® helps solar installers improve their design speeds by 5 to 10 times. F. Helioscope® project methodology: To do a comprehensive design of our stand alone PV system. We did the following steps:  Creation of new blank project as shown in figure 7
  10. 10. 10 Figure 7: Creation of new Helioscope project  Selection of PV modules: We have selected ASP-828IS module manufactured by Advanced Solar Photonics Company which have the specifications as shown in figure 8 and the default characterization as Paneau PV (PAN ) as shown in figure 9 Figure 8: ASP-828IS PV Module specifications
  11. 11. 11 Figure 9: ASP-828IS PV Module characterization  Create the mechanical layout: A Mechanical Layout is based on Field Segments that define the areas to be filled with modules, and Keep out Zones which define the areas to be excluded. Racking type indicates whether modules are mounted in fixed-tilt racking on a flat plane, or are mounted flush to a roof in the same plane. This effects the row-to-row shading (zero for flush-mount), and the thermal coefficients (thermal losses will be higher in flush-mount) [6]. Figure 10: Generation of field segment
  12. 12. 12 We had defined module layout & racking assumptions as a fixed tilt racking as shown in figure 10. We have defined the azimuth angle as 55 ◦ which is the orientation angle of the modules, following a compass: 90 degrees is east, 180 degrees is south; then the tilt angle which is an angle of inclination of the modules as 45 ◦. Then we had chosen the orientation as landscape, the row spacing which is the distance (in meters) from the back of one bank of modules to the front of the next bank as 2 m, the frame size which is the number of modules in each frame, including the vertical (“up”) and horizontal (“wide”) size as two as seen in figure 11. Figure 11: Frame size & orientation of the arrays  Generating a keep out zone : We had defined setback distance for buffer around the perimeter of Keep out object for future maintenances ability as shown in figure 12 Figure 12: Generating keep out zone
  13. 13. 13  Creating the electrical layout: We have chosen 45 inverters which is”TRIO-27.6-TL-OUTD-S-US-480 A” produced by ABB® which each one has the electrical specifications as shown in figure 13 and the electrical performance and characterizations as shown in figure 14. Figure 13: Electrical spec of PV inverter Figure 14: Electrical characterization of PV inverter We did the wiring requirements by using 12 combiners poles which are the number of strings connected to each combiner box. The home runs which are the conductor size between each combiner box and the inverter, the string which is the size of the conductor
  14. 14. 14 for the source circuits from the modules. All these wirings accessories specifications are shown in figure 15. Figure 15: Wiring schedule of PV arrays The detailed single Line diagram is shown in figure 16. Figure 16: Electrical Single line diagram of PV systems  Set the environmental conditions: We had set the environmental conditions as shown in figure 17.
  15. 15. 15 Figure 17: Environmental conditions of the PV system G. Numerical & Graphical Results: After we finish all the procedures of the design, we get an overall PV model for the mall as shown in figure 18. Figure 18: Overall PV model As we can see in figure 19. The modules itself had produced 1.52 MW of electric DC power due to the system losses, we got 1.24 MW with a 60.6% overall efficiency of the model. The sources of system losses are shown in figure 20.
  16. 16. 16 Figure 19: Annual production of the PV system Figure 20: Sources of system losses The monthly production of the PV system is shown in figure 21. We have realized that the month of May reach the peaks at almost 160 KWh. Figure 21: The monthly production of the PV model The annual global horizontal irradiance is 1,771.9 KWh/m2.However the total collector irradiance is 959 KWh/m2. The energy to grid is 1,194,110 KWh as shown in figure 22.
  17. 17. 17 Figure 22: Annual energy & irradiance of PV model Figure 23: electrical components of the PV model Figure 23 shows the electrical components, and the wiring accessories used in this model. The overall estimated cost of the project is shown in Table 1:
  18. 18. 18 Item # Item type Quantity/m eter Unit price Overall price 1 TRIO-27.6-TL-OUTD-S- US-480 A (inverter) [5] 45 $9,187.00 $413,415.00 2 1 input combiner [9] 70 $50.00 $3500 3 2 input combiner [8] 25 $89.95 $2248.75 4 4 input combiner [7] 25 $151.39 $3784.75 5 6 input combiner [6] 20 $265.82 $5316.4 6 Renogy 800 Watt 12 Volt Solar Premium Kit [10] 1840 $2,499.99 $4.59816M 7 35 mm2 PVC INSULATED S/C [11] 903 m $5.712 $5140.40 8 10 AWG Silicon Coated Wire (Black) [12] 8642 m $5.09 $43987.78 9 500' Spool 500 MCM THHN Black Wire AWG [13] 25 spool(each spool length =152.44 m) $24.97 $624.25 Overall estimated cost $5,076,177.33 Table 1: detailed estimated electrical cost of the project
  19. 19. 19 As shown in table 1, the overall estimated electrical cost of the project based on the available mentioned components prices references is $5,076,177.33. This cost amount is not ideal, and given by students’ weak experience in the solar market. So, in the future the overall cost should be made by an expert solar consultant which he/ she can give a huge discount in the amount with better quality of the items. The electricity cost in ($/Kwh) = Cost (System + O&M)/ (Yield × Installed power × Payback period). The Payback period is assumed to be 30 years. The annual yields of the module is 783.8kWh/ (year × kWp). The cost of the system excluding the operation & maintenance cost is $5,076,177.33 /136.31 KWp =37239.948$/kWp. The estimated electricity cost is 1.584 $/Kwh.
  20. 20. 20 H. Conclusions: Helioscope is valid as an advanced solar design software that can improve the quality of the standalone PV systems and saving the time of engineers for doing heavy research on the electrical components and the recommended mechanical assumptions so we recommend this software to be used by electrical consultants engineers, PV contractors and students which is a powerful tool for reliable, efficient, and detailed solar design.
  21. 21. 21 References [1] D. Rekioua, E. Matagne.Optimization of Photovoltaic Power Systems Modelization, Simulation and Control.1st edition. Springer-Verlag London Limited; 2012. ISBN 978-1- 4471-2348-4.DOI 10.1007/978-1-4471-2403-0 [2] S.Wenham,M.Green,M.Watt,R.Corkish.Applied Photovoltaics.2nd edition. 22883 Quicksilver Drive, Sterling, VA 20166-2012, USA. ARC Centre for Advanced Silicon Photovoltaics and Photonics; 2007. ISBN-13: 978-1-84407-401-3 [3] Planning and Installing Photovoltaic Systems A guide for installers, architects and engineers. 2nd edition. Deutsche Gesellshaft fur Sonnenenergie (DGS LV Berlin BRB). The German Energy Society; 2008. ISBN-13: 978-1-84407-442-6 [4] Cascada mall. September 2016.Lebanon. URL:https://www.cascadavillage.com/ [5] Solaris shop. Solaris Technology Industry, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1501 W Tufts Ave Suite 208 Englewood, CO 80110 720-474-6050.URL: https://www.solaris- shop.com/abb-trio-27-6-tl-outd-s-us-480-a-27-6kw-inverter/ [6] Ecodirect. 2018. URL: http://www.ecodirect.com/SMA-SBCBTL6-106-6-Input- Combiner-Box-Enclosure-p/sma-combiner-box-sbcbtl6-106.htm [7] Aliexpress. 2018. URL: https://www.aliexpress.com/item/Photovoltaic-Array-Solar- PV-Combiner-Box-4-String-PV-solar-input-array-1-PV-solar-output/32813930748.html [8] Ebay.2018.URL https://www.ebay.com/itm/Solar-Panel-Combiner-Box-2-String- Fused-PV-Solar-Power-Combiner-/142528578667
  22. 22. 22 [9] Global Sources. 2018. URL:http://www.globalsources.com/gsol/I/Solar- junction/p/sm/1148833742.htm#1148833742 [10] Amazon URL: https://www.amazon.com/Renogy-Watt-Volt-Solar- Premium/dp/B00E8WC48C/ref=sr_1_18?s=lawn- garden&ie=UTF8&qid=1514718759&sr=1-18&keywords=800+watt+solar+panel [11] Metsec cables limited. Cables Product list.URL: http://www.metsec.co.ke/images/docs/cables.pdf [12] Aeromodelindia.URL: https://www.aeromodelindia.com/product/10-awg-silicon- coated-wire-black-price-per-meter/ [13] Fastenal.URL: https://www.fastenal.com/products/details/0700410

×