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- 1. 1 School of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering Towards the Design of a Smart Energy Meter: Feature Extraction and Classification EENG 495 – Senior Project Spring 2011-2012 Mohammad Tfaily Tarek kamar Supervisor: Dr. Khaled Chahine
- 2. 2 Abstract Improving energy efficiency by monitoring household electrical consumption is of significant importance with the climate change concerns of the present time. In this project, it is proposed to implement a non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system (NIALM). This system captures the signals from the aggregate consumption, extracts the features from these signals and classifies the extracted features in order to identify the switched on appliances .We use ESPRIT as a feature extraction method; ESPRIT extracts the complex poles and the residues of the individual load. We build a database of current signature of nine different appliances. By comparing its poles and residues with those obtained from the theoretical expressions of elementary loads, we obtain exact values. Then we obtain an almost perfect reconstructed current for the elementary load and linear loads, and a good reconstructed current for the nonlinear load. Then, the K-NN method allows us to identify a moderate sample of data and assigning a label for it.
- 3. 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction ………………………………………………………………..1 1.1 Problem statement……………………………………………………......1 1.2 Project objectives………………………………………………………....2 1.3 Document structure……………………………………………….............4 2. Literature review……………………………………………………………5 2.1Introduction…………………………………………………………………5 2.2 Data aggregated energy meter……………………………………………...5 2.3 Smart Energy meter system………………………………………………...7 2.3.1 Energy tracker for home ………………………………………………....7 2.3.2 Entacker hardware and theory of operation……………………………...7 2.3.3 Evaluation and current limitation………………………………………...8 2.4 Non Intrusive Appliance load monitoring history………………………….9 2.4.1 United States of America…………………………………………………9 2.4.2 France……………………………………………………………………..9 2.4.3 Other Countries…………………………………………………………..10 2.4.4 Disaggregated End- Use Energy sensing………………………………....11 2.5 Conclusion………………………………………………………………….13 3. Methodology ……………………………………………………………....14 3.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………14 3.2 Signal Model……………………………………………………………...14 3.3 Feature Extraction………………………………………………………...15 3.3.1 The covariance matrix………………………………………………….15 3.3.2 Estimation Signal Parameter via rotational invariant technique………..16 3.4 Classification……………………………………………………………..19 3.4.1 Database of signature…………………………………………………..19 3.4.2 K-Nearest Neighbor…………………………………………………….20 3.5 Conclusion………………………………………………………………..20 4. Results and discussion……………………………………………21
- 4. 4 4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………….21 4.2 Elementary Load…………………………………………………....21 4.2.1 Series RC load……………………………………………………21 4.2.2 Series RL Load…………………………………………………...23 4.2.3 Parallel RL load…………………………………………………..24 4.2.4 Series RLC load…………………………………………………..26 4.2.5 Nonlinear load……………………………………………………27 4.3 Real Signals………………………………………………………...28 4.4 Feature Space……………………………………………………….32 5. Conclusion……………………………………………………………….34 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………...35 Appendix A……………………………………………………………………….36 Appendix B……………………………………………………………………….42
- 5. 5 LIST OF FIGURES 1: NIALM scheme……………………………………………………………….....3 2: Schematic block diagram of Entacker prototype……………………………....7 3: Event recording system………………………………………………………..10 4: Single-point disaggregated energy sensing system………………………………..12 5: The analytic and reconstructed currents of the series RC circuit……………...22 6: The analytic and reconstructed currents of the series RL circuit……………...24 7: The analytic and reconstructed currents of the parallel RL circuit……………25 8: The analytic and reconstructed currents of the series RLC circuit…………….27 9: The analytic and the reconstructed current of a nonlinear load………………..28 10: The measured and reconstructed currents of the economy lamp……………..29 11: The measured and reconstructed currents of the Incandescent Lamp………..29 12: The measured and reconstructed currents of the Halogen Lamp…………….29 13: The measured and reconstructed currents of the Electric Convector………...30 14: The measured and reconstructed currents of the vacuum cleaner…………....30 15: The measured and reconstructed currents of the television………………….30 16: The measured and reconstructed currents of the computer…………………..31 17: The measured and reconstructed currents of the water heater………………..31 18: The measured and reconstructed currents of the fridge………………………31 19: The training matrix…………………………………………………………..32 20: The feature space……………………………………………………………..33 21: The feature space showing one sample data appliance………………………33
- 6. 6 LIST OF TABLES 1: Summary of results: Shows the correct % of device transitions detected ……8 2: The residues, attenuation factor, and frequencies of the series RC load……....21 3: The estimated characteristics of a series RC load extracted by ESPRIT……...22 4: The residues,attenuation factor, and frequencies of the series RL load………..23 5: The estimated characteristics of a series RL load extracted by ESPRIT……....23 6: The residues, attenuation factor, and frequencies of the parallel RL load….…25 7: The estimated characteristics of a parallel RL load extracted by ESPRIT…….25 8: The residues, attenuation factor, and frequencies of the series RLC load……..26 9: The estimated characteristics of a series RLC load extracted by ESPRIT…….27 10: Current composition of a nonlinear load…………………………………....28
- 7. 7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Problem statement Improving energy efficiency by monitoring household electrical consumption is of significant importance with the climate change concerns of the present time. Home owners are sometimes unaware of how older appliances, newly installed appliances and changes in occupant behavior affect the energy consumption of their house. For example, installing a more efficient furnace will not necessarily reduce energy bills if the occupants stop turning down the thermostat at night [1]. Utilities installed energy meters have advanced tariffs based on load data and in building automation systems the state of appliances can be used for fault diagnostics and calculation of energy consumption. They report only the aggregate electrical energy consumption of a home over intervals as long as a month. Consequently, they cannot tell the consumers which devices are responsible for their energy consumption. In contrast, disaggregated energy data broken down by individual appliances offers a much plentiful dataset that has the potential to authorize a wide variety of energy stakeholders from homeowner's operators to utilities. In other words, disaggregated energy data enables the utilities and the policymakers to understand how energy is consumed in the home. The method of extraction of the constituent parts of the overall load is called “Load Disaggregation “. It produces more accurate information about the electrical energy consumption of end uses without measuring the end uses directly for long periods of time; therefore, fewer sensors are needed, and less data is collected.
- 8. 8 Notice that the disaggregated data presents for households to better understand their consumption practices, determine cost-effective measures to increase their energy efficiency, and finally reduce their overall consumption. Even a 10-15% reduction in electricity consumption use across the United States of America homes would be substantial, representing nearly 200 billion kWh of electricity per year. This is equivalent to the yearly power output of 16 nuclear power plants or 81.3 million tons of coal. Such statistics have led a growing body of scientists, utilities, and regulators to view energy efficiency as the most accessible and cost effective form of alternative energy [2]. There are two classes of appliance signature: nonintrusive and intrusive. An electrically intrusive signature is generated at the electricity meter by injecting a signal such as a voltage harmonic. A nonintrusive signature is one that can be measured by passively observing the operation of a load. There are two types of nonintrusive signature: steady state and transient. A steady state signature is derived from the difference between the steady state properties of an appliance's operating states. Transient signatures, on the other hand, are more difficult to detect and provide less information than steady state signatures [3]. 1.2 Project Objectives In this project, it is proposed to implement a non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system (NIALM). It can determine the operating schedule of whole electrical loads in a target system from measurements made at a centralized location. In addition it can identify the operation of electromechanical devices from other kinds of power distribution net and distinguish loads even when many are operating at one time. This system captures the signals from the aggregate consumption, extracts the features from these signals and classifies the extracted features in order to identify the switched on appliances (see figure 1). We will employ for feature extraction the estimation signal parameter via a rotational invariant technique method (ESPRIT), a well known parametric estimation technique. ESPRIT is based on theorems that make the extension to higher spatial dimension and to signal containing multiple frequencies possible.
- 9. 9 NIALM can monitor the operation of the electrical distribution system itself, identifying situations where two or more otherwise healthy loads interfere with each other’s operation through voltage waveform distortion or power quality problems. We will also study a classification method. The classification module has the task of identifying an appliance by comparing it with labeled signatures in a database.. The main software that we will use is MATLAB® which is a high-level language and interactive environment that enables user to perform computationally intensive tasks faster than with traditional programming languages such as C, C++, and FORTRAN. The result of the feature extraction phase is a compact representation of the signal in terms of complex numbers referred to as poles and residues. We will use these complex numbers to determine a feature vector consisting of the contribution of the fundamental, the third and the fifth harmonic currents to the maximum of the total load current. Once a signature is extracted, we will store it in a database of signatures which is used by a classification method to identify the appliance. Results obtained will be evaluated in terms of the success rate. Electric Appliance Current Identification Figure 1: NIALM scheme Data Acquisition Event Detection Feature Extraction Classification
- 10. 10 1.3 Document structure This document is divided into 5 chapters; an overview about each chapter is given below: Chapter1 This chapter presents the problem statement and the project objectives in extended way. Chapter 2 This chapter presents a survey of literature and historical background on NIALM system Chapter 3 This chapter presents the methodology of the project. It shows the data analysis of different kinds of electrical loads operation. Chapter 4 This chapter presents the results of the project. It shows the current signature of different kind of electrical load. Chapter 5 This final chapter summarizes the main achievements of the work, discusses the obtained results, and provides suggestions for future work.
- 11. 11 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction There is a stark contrast between the grid as it exists today and the grids of other sectors, such as telecommunications. Power systems grids are not much different than they were a hundred years ago. On the other hand, the information and communications technology that is starting to be applied in the grid is, to a great extent, similar to what was done 30 years ago in the telecom infrastructure. Machine learning techniques can be applied to sensor data collected from smart homes to reveal activity patterns of the residents, which can then be correlated with measured energy consumption. Improving energy efficiency and reducing expenses need intelligent systems that can be devised to automatically control home environments by associating activities with energy usage and costs. To make informed decisions, residents need to know current energy consumption in real time and ideally would need to be alerted when appliances are being activated at unfavourable times. Without installing additional sensors, Non-intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring (NIALM) techniques can be designed to detect switch events at individual appliances on a single electrical circuit and communicate those events to a home energy management system. This chapter will present a brief summary on data aggregated energy meter benefits and disadvantages, show similar systems to NIALM and represents the historical background of NIALM in different countries. 2.2 Data aggregated energy meter Utility Company programs aims to reduce demand for electricity have been in existence since the late1970s. But beyond that, consumption information must be under customers’
- 12. 12 control, as any sharing must be with their explicit authorization. This is standard practice in Commercial & Industry; particularly in manufacturing and process industries, where some companies view their consumption profiles as competition-sensitive and protect this information carefully. While the development of the power grid promises many social profits, the data collected by advanced metering systems (AMI) introduce fundamental issues for electricity consumers, including personal privacy. Electricity consumption is collected frequently on a large scale; however, because sensing is passive, consumers have little awareness of their exposure. The accurate electricity load data will prevent electricity deceive attacks against the electricity distribution infrastructure. Handling energy-use data is at the core of many privacy use cases, including data aggregation. Data aggregation of AMI data can be used to avoid "fingerprinting" consumer behaviour being able to associate specific consumption patterns with specific individuals by storing aggregate behavior. While utilities require singular consumer data for billing, that data can be collected over long intervals (several hours); data that needs to be accessed more frequently than that data needed for operational purposes such as demand-response can be aggregated across customers at intervals of less than an hour before being processed and used[4]. By eliminating unnecessary information from transmitted data streams, data aggregation can achieve two fundamental objectives. First, aggregation can strongly reduce network traffic, thus improving the efficiency of the AMI network. Second, since only the necessary information is kept, aggregation improves the privacy of customers from not only entities outside the network but also, to a lesser extent, even entities within the network. The disadvantage of this system is the lack of accountability. A node that is captured by an adversary can report arbitrary values as its aggregation result; the opponent thereby corrupts the measurements of all the nodes in its entire aggregation sub-tree. In this kind of powerful cost-effective integrity attack, an opponent can control the measurements of a large portion of the network by compromising a selected number of well-positioned aggregating nodes.
- 13. 13 2.3 Smart energy meter system 2.3.1 Energy Tracker for Homes (Entacker) This system was implemented by Sunil Mallya a Computer Science Student at Brown University in Spring Semester 2011. The aim of Mallya was building a system that can provide real time estimate of the power breakdown per device in a house given a power meter that records the total power consumption of the entire house and a device that determines the binary state of devices in the house [5]. 2.3.2 Entacker hardware and theory of operation The system contains two modules: the signal processing unit and the power meter. The signal processing unit (see Figure 2) is Data acquisition (DAQ) which records the analog noise signal through a power line interface circuit, which in turn is plugged into any electrical socket. Figure 2: Schematic block diagram of Entacker prototype [5] Each appliance has a characteristic noise pattern which is produced when it turns on, the systems collects these characteristics and uses machine learning to predict later when these devices are switched again. His first step was to detect the transient noise in the electrical line. Signal data is sampled by the DAQ and his software module converts this
- 14. 14 signal from time domain to frequency domain by performing a real Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The FFT results in a vector which contains amplitudes for frequencies ranging from 0 to 100 KHz. It was further observed that over several instances of device actuations the Euclidean transient value was stable. 2.3.3 Evaluation and current limitation The result was that Entacker was able to classify around 70% of the device actuations correctly. It had a higher accuracy of around 80% for detecting the on transitions. The accuracy is lower for all events including off transitions because Mallya pays double penalty for every wrong on classification he makes. Every misclassification of on transition results in misclassification of the off transition too. It was also observed that he missed a few transitions due to the fact that we had a static threshold for detecting the Euclidean transients. Table 1: Summary of results: Shows the correct % of device transitions detected [5] As shown in table 1 the percentage of accuracy reaches 81 % on detecting an on transition. On the other hand, it reaches no more than 63 % on detecting an off transition. Mallya concluded that instead of analyzing a big slice of the frequency spectrum, it is efficient to extract dominant features from the device signature and use these features to classify a potential signature. Mallya disregarded the phase component and he observed that the noise signatures for the same device could vary depending upon the phase of all the components, not just that of the device but also the other devices. He tried to incorporate phase into his model and failed at his attempt to do so.
- 15. 15 2.4 Non- Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring History 2.4.1 United States of America Due to increasing electricity prices, concerns about the continued reliability of electricity supply, and growing interest in limiting emissions of greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change, utilities, policymakers, and environmental groups have shown renewed interest in policies and programs to promote energy efficiency . Non-intrusive Appliance Load Monitor (NIALM) was developed by George W. Hart in 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).NIALM is designed to monitor an electrical circuit that contains a number of appliances which switch on and off independently. By a sophisticated analysis of the current and voltage waveforms of the whole load, the NIALM estimates the number and nature of the individual loads, their individual energy consumption, and other relevant statistics such as time-of-day variations [6]. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsor has accomplished the basic research and development of Hart. Hart designed and implemented the first two prototypes and specified the algorithms for the third prototype. The hardware prototype was a unit housed as a module separate from the meter, with signals being captured through a meter extender to the service entrance. The result was an Automatic-Setup NIALM for households, which set it up as it measures the load. This desirable goal took more than 10 years to commercialize this system. The system was commercialized in 1998 by Telog Instruments Inc. 2.4.2 France Electricite’ de France (EDF) has engaged in some studies since 1990 with the aim of distinguishing among domestic electrical uses (Sultanem 1991). A digital prototype of a recorder named ACNI was built during 1989 – 1992 in collaboration with Schlumberger industries. This device fed by the currents and voltages of a single phase customer records dP and dQ each time a variation of the load is detected.
- 16. 16 Another model consists of a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) which attempts to recognize the logical and chronological switch-on and switch-off of different loads (Bons et al. 1994) is investigated. 2.4.3 Other Countries Fuzzy Logic method to recognize household appliances was chosen as a research project in Denmark during 1990-1992. The lack of suitable 3-phase load registration equipment led to unsuccessful results. The households that have a 3-phase power supply are the dominant in Denmark as in Finland. In Finland, at VTT Energy, a group of researcher developed a project on NIALM. The NIALM-concept was based on a 3-phase, power quality monitoring kWh-meter and unique load identification algorithms. As shown in figure 3 below the prototype event recording system consists of the power quality kWh meter and a laptop personal computer. The meter is connected to power supply lines via current transformers in the electric distribution board of a building and to a laptop IBM-compatible personal computer via an RS-232 link. The meter sends, once per second, through the data link, registered measurement values to the PC and these values are processed and stored into the files of a hard disk [7]. Figure 3: Event recording system [7]
- 17. 17 The software of load identification algorithms which runs in an off-line personal computer was the principal part of the developed NIALM-system prototype. Both two- state and multi-state appliances were identified accurately. This prototype requires manual-setup in which the naming of appliances is performed. The results of this prototype field testing in a real private house were verified by parallel measurements in the case of main appliances. The loads in the test house, in addition to being common household appliances, also contained one big multi-state load (hot water boiler for accumulating electrical heating). The average error of this NIALM in estimating daily energy consumption including nine main appliances was about 12.1 % and the average error of energy over a week period was about -6.2 %. 2.4.4 Disaggregated End-Use Energy Sensing Recently research has explored methods to infer disaggregated energy usage via a single sensor. The building of databases of the signatures for the NIALM architecture was investigated by Berges et al. and Roberts and Kuhn .In the ideal case, these signatures would be similar across homes and thus could be pre-loaded on the sensing device or uploaded and tested in the cloud. In the worst case, however, a training example of each appliance must be produced per home, which would greatly increase installation complexity [2]. The group of researchers used transient voltage noise to implement a prototype system which consists of a single custom power line interface plug-in module that can be plugged into any electrical outlet in the home .The output of the plug-in module is connected to a high speed data acquisition system that digitizes the analog signal and streams it over a USB connection to data collection software running on the PC. The PC then samples and conditions the incoming signal (see Figure 4).
- 18. 18 Figure 4: Single-point disaggregated energy sensing system [2] To detect and classify the transient voltage noise, they employed a simple sliding window algorithm (1-microsecond in length) to look for substantial changes in the input line noise (both beginning and end). To detect and classify steady-state noise, they also employed a frequency-based analysis. The incoming time domain signal stream from the data acquisition hardware was buffered into 4 ms windows. Their feature extraction algorithm used finds new resonant peaks using the difference vector and extracts quantities related to center frequency, magnitude, and bandwidth of the resonances. To evaluate the accuracy of their approach, they had conducted a number of staged experiments over a total of 14 homes of varying styles, ages, sizes and locations. For transient voltage noise analysis they tested their system in one home for six weeks and in five homes for one week each to evaluate the system performance over time and in different types of homes. Results indicate that they could classify various electrical events with accuracies ranging from 80-90% with recalibration being unnecessary even after 6 weeks of installation. They tested the steady-state voltage signatures approach in one home for a period of six months, and in six other homes using staged experiments in a fixed setting. Results
- 19. 19 indicate that devices can be classified with accuracies ranging from 89-97% within individual homes. 2.5 Conclusion This chapter shows a literature review on NIALM system and brief evaluation of similar systems around world. We conclude that the main objective of NIALM is to automatically identify appliance-specific characteristics. The process of NIALM consists of four basic steps: (1) Data acquisition and preprocessing (2) Event detection (3) Feature extraction (4) Classification. Our project will emphasize on the last two steps Feature extraction and classification. We will use the Estimation Signal Parameter via Rotational Invariant Technique (ESPRIT) method which is a signal parameter estimation method to extract the features from the aggregate signal in order to decompose it into multiple signals In addition we will use the k nearest neighbor classification method that has the task of assigning a label to each extracted signature.
- 20. 20 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This chapter will present the methods used to achieve the objectives of the project. It shows the electric current signal model, explain the feature extraction method ESPRIT, and the classification method (k-NN) chosen to identify the appliance. 3.2 Signal Model For a sinusoidal driving voltage of the form the drawn electric( ) 2 sin ( )v t V wt current can be modeled as a linear combination of d cisoids (complex-valued sinusoidal signals) weighted by complex residues according to the following signal model: (1) 1 ( ) exp 2 ( ) d m m m m i t r j f t b t where is the residue of the cisoid, is its attenuation factor, is its frequencymr th m m mf and b(t) is additive white Gaussian noise. After sampling the time variable t is replaced by , where is the chosen sampling period.k st kt st 4 6.25 10 The discrete current signal becomes: (2) 1 ( ) ( ) d k m m m i k r z b k 1,2,......,k N where
- 21. 21 (3) exp 2m m m sz j f t 1,2,.....,m d is the complex pole. Under matrix form, the signal model is expressed by:th m (4)i Ar b with the following notational definitions: current data vector (5)[ (1), (2),....., ( )]T i i i i N 1N Vandermonde matrix (6)1 2[ , ,......., ]dA a a a N d mode vector (7)2 [ , ,......, ]N T m m m ma z z z 1N vector of complex amplitudes (8)1 2[ , ,....., ]T dr r r r 1d noise vector (9)[ (1), (2),...., ( )]T b b b b N 1N The superscript T denotes the transpose operator. The problem the feature extraction problem can be stated as follows: Given the electric current data sequence we use a feature extraction method 1 N k i k which is known as ESPRIT to extract the complex poles and residues 1 d m m z of the appliance. 1 d m m r 3.3 Feature Extraction 3.3.1 The covariance matrix The covariance matrix of the electric current data vector is defined by:N N i (10)[ ]H R E ii where E and H are the expectation and the conjugate-transpose operators, respectively. Using equation (1) and developing, R can be written as
- 22. 22 (11)2 2H iR AR A I where and denote the covariance matrices of the echoes and noise,iR 2 2 I respectively. Practically R is estimated from M independent snapshots of the current data vector which is termed the sample covariance matrixi (12) 1 1ˆ M H x x x R i i M The covariance matrix is Hermitian and positive semi-definite. All eigenvalues of R are real and, due to its positive semi-definiteness, nonnegative. Notice that eigenvectors with distinct Eigen values are orthogonal. This fundamental property of orthogonality forms the basis of subspace-based estimation methods. Being Hermitian R admits the following eigenvalue Decomposition (EVD): (13) 1,....., 1[ ] ,..., [ ]H H N i n N i nR Udiag U U U diag U U Where U is the unitary matrix of eigenvectors, 2 1 2 1... ... 2d d N ,and and contain the eigenvectors associated with the1[ ...... ]i dU u u 1[ ... ]n d NU u u signal(largest d) and noise (smallest N-d) eigenvalues, respectively. Indeed, the subspace spanned by the eigenvector of is termed the electric current signal subspace, whereasiU the subspace spanned by the eigenvectors of is termed the noise subspace [8].nU 3.3.2 Estimation Signal Parameter via Rotational Invariant Technique (ESPRIT) In many practical signal processing problems, the objective is to estimate from measurements a set of constant parameters upon which the received signals depends. There have been several approaches to such problems including the so-called maximum likelihood (ML) method of Capon and Burg’s maximum entropy (ME) method. Although often successful and widely used, these methods have certain fundamental limitations because they use an incorrect model of the measurements [9].
- 23. 23 Schmidt exploited correctly the measurement model in the case of sensor arrays of arbitrary form, the resulting algorithm was called MUliple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) that was a leading candidate for an actual hardware implementation, but it requires a search over array manifold which is computationally expensive. Resembling to the same subspace-based algorithm family ESPRIT algorithm proposed by Richard Roy and Thomas Kailath dramatically reduces these computations. The main idea behind ESPRIT is to exploit the rotational invariance of the underlying signal subspace induced by the Vandermode structure of the mode matrix A without having to know . In particular, this rotational invariance can be established byA partitioning into two adjacent frequency sub band, preferably with maximumA overlapping for maintaining the resolution capability of the algorithm. According to the damped exponential models, it is justified that the following relation carries: (14)2 1S S Where and are dimensional matrices obtained from by removing its1S 2S ( 1)N d A last and first rows, respectively: (15)1 2 S SA And is a full rank diagonal matrix that gathers the electric current signal poles: d d (16) 1 2, ..., ddiag z z z For the damped exponential case, the complex numbers on the diagonal of have modulo less than one and becomes a contractive operator. The objective of ESPRIT is to estimate the diagonal elements of from electric current data samples. Because the subspace spanned by the mode vectors of is equal to the subspaceA spanned by the eigenvectors of (the electric current signal subspace) defined in sectioniU (3.3.1), there must exist a unique nonsingular dimensional matrix such thatd d j (17)iU Aj Partitioning in same way as done for gives:iU A
- 24. 24 (18)1 2 i i U i UU Using equation (17) allows us to express and as1iU 2iU (19)1 1iU S j (20)2 2 1iU S j S j Equation (19) implies (21) 1 1 1iS U j Replacing the above equation in equation (19) yields (22) 1 2 1i iU U j j This equation can also be expressed as (23)2 1i iU U Where (24) 1 - j j Therefore, and are similar matrices and the sought diagonal elements of are the eigenvalues of . The estimation problem leads to estimating from andiU computing its eigenvalues. Equation (24) is the key relationship in the development of ESPRIT and its properties[8]. Recall that the covariance matrix is estimated from a finite number of noisy snapshots as described in section (3.3.1) .The result is that the subspace spanned by the eigenvectors of is only an estimate of the signal subspace and different from the subspace spannediU by the mode vector of A. We encounter a problem due to the difference between the spans of the eigenvectors of and .Least Square criterion (LS) can solve this problem1iU 2iU that yields the following approximate solution for : (26) 1 2 2 2 1 H H i i i iU U U U
- 25. 25 Knowing that both and contain errors, estimating using the the Total Least1iU 2iU Square criterion (TLS) is more appropriate.The TLS solution is given by: (27) 1 12 22W W Where the dimensional matrices and are determined from a matrix W that d d 12W 22W results from the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of an dimensional ( 1) 2N d matrix as follows:2 1i iV U U [ ] (28) H V E W (29) 11 12 21 22 W W W W W As a result ESPRIT allows us to obtain a reconstructed current y (t): (30) 1 ( ) exp 2 ( ) d m m m m y t r j f t b t Where y(t) can indicates the accuracy of the characteristic complex numbers extracted by ESPRIT (see Appendix A ). 3.4 Classification 3.4.1 Database of signature Supervised multi-class classification algorithms aim at assigning a class label for each input example. Given an electric current training data set of the form( , , , )x x x xa b c d where compose a feature vector consisting of the contribution of the, ,x x xa b c n A fundamental, the third and the fifth harmonic currents respectively to the maximum of the total appliance current, and is the class label, the algorithms aim atth x xd {1,..., }K th x finding a learning model such that for new unseen appliances. ( , , )x x x xa b c d The problem is simply formulated in the two-class case, where the labels are justxd
- 26. 26 +1 or -1 for the two classes involved. Several algorithms have been proposed to solve this problem in the two-class case, some of which can be naturally extended to the multi-class case, and some that need special formulations to be able to solve the latter case. The first category of algorithms includes decision trees, neural networks, k-Nearest Neighbor, Naive Bayes classifiers, and Support Vector Machines. The second category includes approaches for converting the multi-class classification problem into a set of binary classification problems that are efficiently solved using binary classifiers. 3.4.2 K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) K-Nearest Neighbor is considered among the oldest non-parametric classification algorithms. To classify an unknown appliance, the distance (using some distance measure, e.g. Euclidean) from that appliance to every other training appliance is measured. The k smallest distances are identified, and the most represented class in these k classes is considered the output class label. The value of k is generally determined using a validation set or using cross-validation. That method we use it to classify the electric current sample data. Results obtained will be evaluated in terms of success rate. 3.5 Conclusion Up to these approaches we conclude that ESPRIT extracts the complex poles and the residues of the individual load. So, we need to validate it as a feature extraction method this can be achieved by first comparing its poles and residues with those obtained from the theoretical expressions of elementary loads. Then we must validate ESPRIT on currents of real appliances .This can be done by observing the current drawn by the appliances and its reconstruction based on the pole-residue estimates of ESPRIT. After doing this part well we can move to the K-Nearest Neighbor method to identify the switched on appliance.
- 27. 27 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Introduction This chapter will present the evaluation of ESPRIT on the following elementary loads: series RC, series RL, parallel RL, and series RLC, give numerical results of the complex characteristics. Then it presents the validation of ESPRIT on nine real signals. Finally it presents an example on the K-NN method on an electric current sample data. 4.2 Elementary Loads 4.2.1 Series RC Load The RC circuits lead to first order differential equations. Numerical results will be given for a load of values R=100 and C=0.1mF. The theoretical analysis of the circuit allows writing the current i(t) in the following form: (31) 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 j wt j wtt t c V e e i t v V wt e R R j ( ) sin cos cos The load is initiated at the moment =0, and .0t t 0 0cv Table 2: The residues, attenuation factor, and frequencies of the series RC load. m mr m mf Hz 1 2 2 cos jV e jR 0 50 2 2 2 cos jV e jR 0 -50 3 0 0 0 1 2 t cv V wt e R sin cos 1 0
- 28. 28 As shown Table 2, thus a RC series load is characterized by three couples’ pole- residues, two pure imaginary conjugate poles representing their forced response and one real pole representing their natural response. Table 3: The estimated characteristics of a series RC load extracted by ESPRIT m mr m mf 1 0.4701 - 1.4767i 0.0000 50.0000 2 0.4701 + 1.4767i 0.0000 - 50.0000 3 -0.9401 - 100.00 0 Table 3 confirms that the estimated characteristics by ESPRIT are exactly equal to the theoretical values. Figure 5: The analytic and reconstructed currents of the series RC circuit Figure 5 shows the analytic and reconstructed currents of the series RC circuit obtained by the poles and residues extracted by ESPRIT.
- 29. 29 4.2.2 Series RL load The RL circuits lead also to first order differential equations. Numerical results will be given for a load of values R=10 and L=100mH. The theoretical analysis of the circuit allows writing the current i(t) in the following form: (32) 0 0 0 2 2 2 j wt j wtt t L V V e e i t i wt e R R j ( ) ( ) cos sin cos The load is initiated at the moment =0, and .0t t 0 0Li As shown Table 4, thus a RL series load also is characterized by three couples’ pole- residues, two pure imaginary conjugate poles representing their forced response and one real pole representing their natural response. Table 4: The residues, attenuation factor, and frequencies of the series RL load. m mr m mf Hz 1 2 2 cos jV e jR 0 50 2 2 2 cos jV e jR 0 -50 3 0 0 0 2 t L V i wt e R cos sin 1 0 Table 5: The estimated characteristics of a series RL load extracted by ESPRIT m mr m mf 1 -4.7006 - 1.4962i 0.0000 50.0000 2 -4.7006 + 1.4962i 0.0000 - 50.0000
- 30. 30 3 9.4011 - 100.00 0 Table 5 represents that the estimated characteristics by ESPRIT are exactly equal to the theoretical values. Figure 6: The analytic and reconstructed currents of the series RL circuit Figure 6 shows the analytic and reconstructed currents of the series RL circuit obtained by the poles and residues extracted by ESPRIT. 4.2.3 Parallel RL load The parallel RL circuits lead also to first order differential equations. Numerical results will be given for a load of values R=10 and L=100mH. The theoretical analysis of the circuit allows writing the current i(t) in the following form: (33) 0 0 2 2 2 ( ) sin cos cos( ) j wt j wt L e eV V i t i wt R R j The load is initiated at the moment =0, and .0t t 0 0Li
- 31. 31 Table 6: The residues, attenuation factor, and frequencies of the parallel RL load. m mr m mf Hz 1 2 2 cos jV e jR 0 50 2 2 2 cos jV e jR 0 -50 3 0 0 2 sin cos L V i wt R 0 0 As shown Table 6, parallel RL load is characterized by two pure imaginary conjugate poles representing its forced response and one real pole representing its natural response. Table 7: The estimated characteristics of a parallel RL load extracted by ESPRIT m mr m mf 1 -5.1768 -16.2635i 0.0000 50.0000 2 -5.1768 +16.2635i 0.0000 - 50.0000 3 10.3536 0.0000 0 Table 7 represents that the estimated characteristics by ESPRIT are exactly equal to the theoretical values.
- 32. 32 Figure 7: The analytic and reconstructed currents of the parallel RL circuit Figure 7 shows the analytic and reconstructed currents of the parallel RL circuit obtained by the poles and residues extracted by ESPRIT. 4.2.4 Series RLC Load The RLC circuit leads to a second order differential equation. Numerical results will be given for a load of values R=1 , L=20mH and C=20 mF.The theoretical analysis of the circuit allows writing the current i(t) in the following form: (34) 1 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 ( ) cos j wt j wt K w t t K w t tV e e i t Ae Be R j The load is initiated at the moment =0.0t t Table 8: The residues, attenuation factor, and frequencies of the series RLC load. m mr m mf Hz 1 2 2 cos jV e jR 0 50 2 2 2 cos jV e jR 0 -50 3 1 0 0k w t Ae 1 0k w 0 4 2 0 0k w t Be 2 0k w 0
- 33. 33 As shown table 8, the RLC Load has, beside the two pure imaginary conjugate poles of its forced response, two conjugate complex poles related to its natural response. The expressions of the dependent parameters are given in the appendix B.
- 34. 34 Table 9: The estimated characteristics of a series RLC load extracted by ESPRIT m mr m mf 1 -25.4489 - 4.0848i 0.0000 50.0000 2 -25.4489 + 4.0848i 0.0000 - 50.0000 3 25.4489 +44.8294i -25.0 0 4 25.4489 -44.8294i -25.0 0 Table 9 represents that the estimated characteristics by ESPRIT are exactly equal to the theoretical values. Figure 8: The analytic and reconstructed currents of the series RLC circuit Figure 8 shows the analytic and reconstructed currents of the series RLC circuit obtained by the poles and residues extracted by ESPRIT. 4.2.5 Nonlinear Loads A nonlinear load is one for which the relationship between the current through the load and the voltage across the load is a nonlinear function. So for a nonlinear load, the resistance varies. When AC power is supplied to a nonlinear load, the result is the creation of currents that do not oscillate at the fundamental frequency. These currents are
- 35. 35 called harmonics. Harmonics occur at multiples of the fundamental frequency. For instance, if the fundamental frequency is 50 Hz, the third harmonic is 150 Hz, and so on. To evaluate the performance of ESPRIT on nonlinear loads, we considered the current shown in Table 10. It consists of a fundamental and four harmonics and hence can be represented by ten pair wise complex conjugate pole-residue couples. We then used ESPRIT to extract these ten couples which served to reconstruct the current as shown in Figure 9. As can be seen, ESPRIT is successful in estimating the pole-residue couples of the load. Table 10: Current composition of a nonlinear load 1I 5I 7I 11I 13I 100% 18.9% 11% 5.9% 4.8% Figure 9: The analytic and the reconstructed current of a nonlinear load 4.3 Real Signals In this section, the validation of ESPRIT is carried out on currents of nine representative loads [10]: Incandescent Lamp, economy Lamp, Halogen Lamp, Electric Convector, Vacuum cleaner, Television, Computer, Water Heater, and Fridge. Figures 10-18 show the measured current drawn by the appliances and its reconstruction based on the pole-residue estimates of ESPRIT.
- 36. 36 Figure10: The measured and reconstructed currents of the Incandescent Lamp Figure11: The measured and reconstructed currents of the economy lamp Figure12: The measured and reconstructed currents of the Halogen Lamp
- 37. 37 Figure13: The measured and reconstructed currents of the Electric Convector Figure14: The measured and reconstructed currents of the vacuum cleaner Figure15: The measured and reconstructed currents of the television
- 38. 38 Figure16: The measured and reconstructed currents of the computer Figure17: The measured and reconstructed currents of the water heater Figure18: The measured and reconstructed currents of the fridge The current of the incandescent lamp, Halogen lamp, Electric Convector, Vacuum cleaner, Water Heater, and Fridge could be accurately reconstructed from two pole- residue couples. The current of the economy lamp needs thirteen pole-residues couples. The current of the television needs eight pole-residues couples. The current of the computer needs four pole-residues couples. As we can see from the figures, ESPRIT is
- 39. 39 good in estimating the pole-residue couples of the incandescent lamp, television, and computer, as well as in estimating the pole-residue couples of the other linear loads. 4.4 Feature Space 0 4442 0 0 1 0000 0 3623 0 2980 0 1761 2 0000 2 8770 0 0 3 0000 7 9911 0 0 4 0000 5 2069 0 0 5 0000 0 5269 0 5103 0 3756 6 0000 0 2314 0 1359 0 7 0000 15 8281 0 0 8 0000 0 9719 0 0 9 0000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 19: The training matrix Figure 19 shows the electric current training matrix where columns 1, 2, and 3 compose a feature vector consisting of the contribution of the fundamental, the third and the fifth harmonic respectively to the maximum of each individual total appliance load (see Appendix A).Notice that even harmonics didn’t exist in the real signals that we studied. Whereas the fourth column represents the label for each appliance, the labels are assigned to the following appliance: 1- Incandescent lamp 2- Economy Lamp 3- Halogen Lamp 4- Electric Convector 5- Vacuum Cleaner 6- Television 7- computer 8- water heater 9- fridge
- 40. 40 Figure 20: The feature space Figure 20 represents the disaggregated contribution of the fundamental and harmonic currents to the maximum of the total current for the nine appliances. Figure 21: The feature space showing one sample data appliance Figure 21 represents the electric current sample data [0.5369 0.5303 0.3856] used to evaluate the K-NN method, so we observe that the classification method assigned label 6 to this sample data because it is the nearest one to the training data [0.5269 0.5103 0.3756] (Television) so we remark that the television is the switched on appliance.
- 41. 41 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION In summary, NIALM allow us to switching from aggregate to disaggregate consumption. By using ESPRIT as a feature extraction method, we obtain a database of signature of nine different loads. We obtain an almost perfect reconstructed current for the elementary load and linear loads, and a good reconstructed current for the nonlinear loads. Then, the K-NN method allows us to identify a moderate sample of data and assigning a label for it. In the future, it is recommended to enrich the database of signatures by a largest number of appliances that covers the most developed technologies. Then using other classification method like Support Vector Machine allows obtaining a more accurate classification. Finally the challenge will be writing a C code that performs the same algorithm of the MATLAB code that we write; here we can talk about a real hardware implementation without the absence of a microcontroller having a high sampling frequency.
- 42. 42 Bibliography [1] Zmeureanu.R ,Marceau.M, (September 1999); Evaluating the energy impact of people's behaviour in a house: a case study. Journal of Architectural Engineering: 1999. [2] Froehich.J,Larson.E,Gupta.S,Cohn.G,(April 2011); Disaggregated End-Use Energy Sensing for the Smart Grid,computer science & Engineering,Electrical Engineering,University of washigton seattle,IEEE:2011 [3] Zmeureanu.R ,Marceau.M,(October 1999); Nonintrusive load disaggregation computer program to estimate the energy consumption of major end uses in residential buildings, Department of building.Concordia university,Canada:1999 [4] Taban.G and Alvaro.A,(March 2012);Data Aggregation as a Method of Protecting Privacy in Smart Grid Networks ;IEEE:2012 [5] Mallay.S, ( spring 2011); Entracker: Energy Tracker for Homes, Department of Computer Science, Brown University:2011 [6] George hart ,website : http://www.georgehart.com/ [7] Hannu.P (May 1998) Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system based on a modern kWh-meter, VTT Energy:1998 [8] Chahine.K (2010) ; Méthodes d’estimation paramétriques appliquées à la caractérisation de milieux dispersifs du génie civil, THÈSE DE DOCTORAT: 2010 [9]Roy.R,(July 1989) ;ESPRIT-Estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques.IEEE :1989 [10] By courtesy of the French COPUS research project
- 43. 43 Appendix A % MATLAB m file function [Sing_Value_appliance_name]=Feature_Extraction clc; close all range=32*1-1; %%% % %%%%%%%%%%Loading data %%%%%%%%%%% load appliance_name.csv % load Microsoft excel comma separated values file containing the %current data sequence Appliance_voltage=[];Appliance_current=[]; [row_appliance,col_appliance]=size(appliance_name); for i=1:2:row_appliance Appliance_voltage=[Appliance_voltage appliance_name(i,:)]; Appliance_current=[Appliance_current appliance_name(i+1,:)]; end for index=1:100 %100 % take a specific (32x1) data vector from the whole appliance current graph % Economy_lamp_current=Economy_lamp_current(29411+(range+1)*(index- %1):29411+(range+1)*(index-1)+range); % Economy_lamp_current=Economy_lamp_current(:)/100; % halogenlamp_current=halogenlamp_current(8321+(range+1)*(index- %1):8321+(range+1)*(index-1)+range); % Electric_convector_current=Electric_convector_current(35585+(range+1)*(index- %1):35585+(range+1)*(index-1)+range); % Vacuum_cleaner_current=Vacuum_cleaner_current(23780+(range+1)*(index- %1):23780+(range+1)*(index-1)+range); % Television_current=Television_current(28581+(range+1)*(index- %1):28581+(range+1)*(index-1)+range); % Incandescent_lamp_current=Incandescent_lamp_current(242331+(range+1)*(index- %1):242331+(range+1)*(index-1)+range)/100; % Computer_current=Computer_current(8926+(range+1)*(index-1):8926+(range+1)*(index- %1)+range); % Water_heater_current=Water_heater_current(33+(range+1)*(index-1):33+(range+1)*(index- %1)+range)/100; % Fridge_current=Fridge_current(188507+(range+1)*(index-1):188507+(range+1)*(index- %1)+range); Time=(0:length(Appliance_voltage)-1)*(1/1600); fs=1600;% Sampling frequency % sampling period ts= 6.25 *10^-4 second time=Time(1:length(Appliance_current));% create an array (1x32) [poles1,residus1, SingVal]=ESPRIT(Appliance_current,1600,time);% call ESPRIT function to %obtain the estimated % poles residues and singular value of the appliance
- 44. 44 [poles_1,residus_1, Har_1]=arrange_poles(poles1,residus1);% call arrange_poles function to %obtain the contribution of the fundamental, the third and the fifth harmonic %currents respectively to the maximum of the total appliance current SIGH_1(index,:)=[Har_1 1]; % take the electric current training data and assign a label number %for it for kk=1:length(Appliance_current) Reconstructed_current(kk) = real(sum ( residus1.* exp(poles1/(fs)*(kk-1)) )); % calculate the reconstructed current from the extracted % poles-residues from ESPRIT end % draw the measured and the reconstructed current figure(1); plot(Appliance_current,'r--'); grid on; hold on; plot(Reconstructed_current,'b-o'); xlabel({'K'},'FontSize',20); ylabel({'Current (A)'},'FontSize',20); legend({'Measured I','Reconstructed I'},'FontSize',18); end %%%%%%%%%%% Feature Extraction%%%%%%% function [poles, residus, SingVal]=ESPRIT(I,fs,time) I=I(:);% load the electric current data sequence N=length(I); % data length m=floor(N/2); % Let m be the order of covariance matrix % compute the sample covariance matrix R=zeros(m,m); for i = m : N, R=R+I(i:-1:i-m+1)*I(i:-1:i-m+1)'/(N-m+1); end %R is estimated from N-m+1 independent snapshots of the current data [U,D,V]=svd(R);% perform the singular value decomposition of R where U is unitary % D is diagonal matrix Diagonal=diag(D);% take the diagonal element of D SingVal=Diagonal(1);% take the first element of Diagonal Energy=sum(Diagonal.^2);% calculate the energy of the signal kkk=1;M=1; while sum(Diagonal(1:kkk).^2)/Energy<0.98 %Keep first singular values which constitute 90% of %energy M=M+1; kkk=kkk+1; end n=M;%n -> the model order
- 45. 45 disp(['The value of n is: ', num2str(M)]); S=U(:,1:n);% Create a submatrix S contain elements from C#1 till C#n from U S1=S(1:m-1,:);S2=S(2:m,:);% Remove the last and the first row of S and place it into S1 and S2 %respectively phi = S2S1; % calculate phi = inverse (S2)*(S1) phi_LS= inv(S2'*S2)*S2'*S1; % apply least square solution represented by phi_LS W=[S2 S1];% create matrix W contain S1 and S2 [Uv,Dv,Wv]=svd(W);% perform singular value decomposition of W % column of Wv are called right singular vector and these are the % eigenvector of W' *W % take 4 submatrices from Wv Wv11=Wv(1:n,1:n);Wv12=Wv(1:n,n+1:2*n); Wv21=Wv(n+1:2*n,1:n);Wv22=Wv(n+1:2*n,n+1:2*n); phi_TLS=-Wv12*inv(Wv22);% apply total least square solution given by phi_TLS GG=eig(phi);%let GG be the eigenvalues of phi GG_LS=eig(phi_LS);%let GG_LS be the eigenvalues of phi_LS GG_TLS=eig(phi_TLS);%let GG_TLS be the eigenvalues of phi_TLS zeta_ESPRIT=real(log(GG_TLS));% Let zeta_ESPRIT and gamma_ESPRIT be the real part % and the imaginary part of the natural logarithm of phi_TLS respectively gamma_ESPRIT=imag(log(GG_TLS)); poles=log(GG_TLS(1:n))*fs;% calculate poles ESPRIT_Frequencies=gamma_ESPRIT/2/pi*fs;%calculate frequencies ESPRIT_Damping=zeta_ESPRIT*fs;% calculate damping factor z=GG_TLS(1:n); for i=1:n EXPO(:,i)=z(i).^(time*fs); % Take elements from row # i from z and do an array powering by % (time*fs) and place the result into a column # i of EXPO end residus=inv(EXPO'*EXPO)*EXPO'*I;% calculate residus %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Arrange pole function %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% function [polesa,residusa,Har]=arrange_poles(poles,residus) fs=1600; [bpc,npc]=sort(abs(imag(poles)));%Sort the absolute imaginary part of poles vector in ascending %order poles=poles(npc); residus=residus(npc); M=length(poles); coun=0; Remove_Entry=[]; for kj=1:M if isreal(poles(kj))==1% Determine whether poles vector entries are reals coun=coun+1; Remove_Entry(coun)=kj; end end if isempty(Remove_Entry)==0 % Determine whether Remove_Entry vector is empty
- 46. 46 poles(Remove_Entry)=[]; residus(Remove_Entry)=[]; end % find the contribution of the fundamental harmonic loc50p = find( imag(poles)>(2*pi*50-0.15*2*pi*50) & imag(poles)< (2*pi*50+0.15*2*pi*50) ; if length(loc50p)==1 polesa(1)=poles(loc50p); residusa(1)=residus(loc50p); else polesa(1)=0;residusa(1)=0; display('ZERO PADDING...') end loc50n = find( imag(poles)>-(2*pi*50+0.15*2*pi*50) & imag(poles) < -(2*pi*50-15*2*pi*50); if length(loc50n)==1 polesa(2)=poles(loc50n); residusa(2)=residus(loc50n); else display('ZERO PADDING...') polesa(2)=0;residusa(2)=0; end %find the contribution of the third harmonic loc150p = find( imag(poles)>(3*2*pi*50-0.15*3*2*pi*50) & imag(poles) < (3*2*pi*50+0.15*3*2*pi*50) ) ; if length(loc150p)==1 polesa(3)=poles(loc150p); residusa(3)=residus(loc150p); else polesa(3)=0;residusa(3)=0; display('ZERO PADDING...') end loc150n = find( imag(poles)>-(3*2*pi*50+0.15*3*2*pi*50) & imag(poles) < -(3*2*pi*50- 0.15*3*2*pi*50) ) ; if length(loc150n)==1 polesa(4)=poles(loc150n); residusa(4)=residus(loc150n); else display('ZERO PADDING...') polesa(4)=0;residusa(4)=0; end %find the contribution of the fifth harmonic loc250p = find( imag(poles)>(5*2*pi*50-0.15*5*2*pi*50) & imag(poles) < (5*2*pi*50+0.15*5*2*pi*50) ) ; if length(loc250p)==1 polesa(5)=poles(loc250p); residusa(5)=residus(loc250p); else polesa(5)=0;residusa(5)=0; display('ZERO PADDING...') end loc250n = find( imag(poles)>-(5*2*pi*50+0.15*5*2*pi*50) & imag(poles) < -(5*2*pi*50- 0.15*5*2*pi*50) ) ; if length(loc250n)==1 polesa(6)=poles(loc250n); residusa(6)=residus(loc250n); else display('ZERO PADDING...') polesa(6)=0;residusa(6)=0;
- 47. 47 end polesa=polesa(:); residusa=residusa(:); for kk=1:32 I_recon(kk) = real(sum ( residusa.* exp(polesa/(fs)*(kk-1)) )); % do an array multiplication of residusa by the whole exp term % take the real part of the summation place it into I_recon end [loc,val] = pickpeak(I_recon,1,5);% call pickpeak function to find the location of the K at which % the maximum peak of the reconstructed current occur Product=residusa(1:6).*exp(polesa(1:6)/(fs)*(loc-1)); % determine the final electric current signature of the appliance Har=real([Product(1)+Product(2) Product(3)+Product(4) Product(5)+Product(6)]); %%%%%%% PICKPEAK function %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% function [loc,val] = pickpeak(spec,npicks,rdiff) % [loc,val] = pickpeak(spec,npicks,rdiff) % spec - data vector or matrix % npicks - number of peaks desired [default = 2] % rdiff - minimum spacing between picked peaks [default = 5] % loc - vector of locations (indices) of the picked peaks % val - vector corresponding values % A 0 in location (i,j) of array loc (or a NaN in array val) % indicates that the j-th data vector has less than i peaks % with a separation of rdiff or more. % ---- parameter checks ------------------------------------------- if (exist('rdiff') ~= 1) rdiff = 5; end if (exist('npicks') ~= 1) npicks = 2; end % ---- convert row vectors to col vectors ------------------------- [mrows,ncols] = size(spec); if (mrows==1) mrows=ncols; ncols=1; spec = spec(:); end % ---- edit out NaNs and Infs --------------------------------------- good = find (finite(spec)); rmin = min(spec(good)) - 1; bad = find(~finite(spec)); if (~isempty(bad)) spec(bad) = ones(size(bad)) * rmin; end
- 48. 48 % ---- find a peak, zero out the data around the peak, and repeat val = ones(npicks,ncols) * NaN ; loc = zeros(npicks,ncols) ; for k=1:ncols % Find all local peaks: dx = diff([rmin; spec(:,k); rmin]); % for a local peak at either end lp = find(dx(1:mrows) >= 0 ... & dx(2:mrows+1) <=0); % peak locations vp = spec(lp,k); % peak values for p=1:npicks [v,l] = max(vp); % find current maximum val(p,k) = v; loc(p,k) = lp(l); % save value and location ind = find(abs(lp(l)-lp) > rdiff); % find peaks which are far away if (isempty(ind)) break % no more local peaks to pick end vp = vp(ind); % shrink peak value array lp = lp(ind); % shrink peak location array end end %%%%%% Classification %%%% % load electric current training matrix training=[0.4443 0 0;0.3623 0.2980 0.1761;2.877 0 0;7.99911 0 0;5.2069 0 0; 0.5269 0.5103 0.3756;0.2314 0.1359 0;15.8281 0 0;0.9719 0 0]; group=[1;2;3;4;5;6;7;8;9]; % assign a group number for each appliance scatter3(training(:,1),training(:,2),training(:,3),'r','o'), view(-60,30); hold on; sample=[0.5369 0.5303 0.3856];% take a sample data class=knnclassify(sample,training,group,1);% perform the knn method display('class'); display(class); scatter3(sample(:,1),sample(:,2),sample(:,3),class(:)), view(-60,30); hold on; xlabel({'fundamental harmonic'},'FontSize',16); ylabel('third harmonic','FontSize',16); zlabel('fifth harmonic','FontSize',16); hold off; % 1 Economy Lamp,2 Incandescent Lamp, 3 Halogen Lamp, 4 Electric Convector, 5 Vacuum cleaner, 6 Television, 7 Computer, 8 Water Heater, and 9 Fridge.
- 49. 49 Appendix B Load s rad Series RC RC 1 arctan RCw Series RL /L R arctan Lw R Parallel RL - arctan R Lw Series RLC coefficients: 2 0 0 2 cos sinL V A i wt R 1 1 arctan Lw R Cw 0 1 w LC 2 R C L 2 1 1k 2 2 1k 1 2 2 1 1 2 k A A k A k k
- 50. 50 2 2 2 1 2 1 k A A k A k k 0 1 0 0 2 cos cosc wC V A v wt L R w

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