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Chapter 2 
Neuroscience
Brain and Mind 
T h e P e r s o n 
T h e B r a in 
P h y s i c a l 
T h e M i n d 
P s y c h o l o g i c a l
Topics to Explore 
1. The Neuron 
2. The Peripheral Nervous System 
3. The Central Nervous System
Part One 
Neuron
Neuron and Its Parts 
Neuron: Individual nerve cell; 100 billion in brain 
- Dendrites: Receive messages from other neuron...
Picture of a Neuron
The Nerve Impulse 
• Resting Potential: Electrical charge of an inactive neuron 
• Threshold: Trigger point for a neuron’s...
Resting Potential 
Resting Potential: Tiny charge between inside & outside of 
neuron 
• Created by electrically charged p...
Action Potential 
Action potential: Change in potential, primarily because 
of messages from other neurons 
• Excitatory m...
Resting vs. Action Potential
Graphic: Action Potential
Graphic: Action Potential
Graphic: Synaptic Gap
Neurotransmitters 
Neurotransmitters: Chemicals that alter activity in 
neurons; brain chemicals. Messages from one neuron...
Some Neurotransmitters 
• Acetylcholine: involved in learning, memory, and muscle 
contractions. Botulism toxin prevents r...
Nerves and Neurons 
• Nerves: Large bundles of neurons 
• Myelin: Fatty layer of tissue that coats axons 
• Multiple Scler...
A Little Exercise 
Demonstration of the speed 
of a neural impulse.
An Organizational Pause 
Organization of 
the CNS
Major Sections of 
the Nervous System 
• Central Nervous System (CNS): Brain and spinal cord 
• Peripheral Nervous System:...
Organization of Nervous System
Graphic: Nervous System
Part 2 
The Peripheral Nervous System 
See in class! 
• The Autonomic Nervous System 
• The Somatic Nervous System
Divisions of Autonomic System 
• Sympathetic: Arouses body; emergency system 
• Parasympathetic: Quiets body; most active ...
Functions of 
Autonomic Nervous System
Three Components of Emotion 
• Physical component: state of physiological 
arousal triggered by autonomic nervous system 
...
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Schachter-Singer Theory
Comparison of 
Three Theories of Emotion
Somatic Nervous System 
• Motor Nervous System: transfers messages from CNS 
to control function of voluntary muscles 
• S...
Structures in Somatic System 
• Sensory neuron: neuron that transmits information 
from sensory organ to CNS 
• Motor neur...
Graphic: Somatic Nervous System
Motor & Somatosensory Areas 
in Cerebral Cortex
Motor Homunculus 
“homunculus” = 
“a diminutive human 
being”
Somesthetic Homunculus
A Little Exercise 
A demonstration of the somatosensory 
system, using toothpicks and little rulers.
Part 3 
The Central Nervous System 
See in class! • The Spinal Cord 
• The Brain 
- The Central Core 
- The Limbic System ...
The Spinal Cord 
• Spinal Nerves: 31 of them; carry sensory and motor 
messages to and from the spinal cord 
• Cranial Ner...
The Central Core 
(aka the “old brain”) 
• Medulla: Connects brain with the spinal cord and controls vital 
life functions...
Graphic: Central Core
The Limbic System 
At the top border (limbus in Latin) of the brain stem. 
•Hypothalamus: controls pituitary gland (direct...
Graphic: Limbic System
Neocortex 
• Cerebral Cortex: Outer layer of the cerebrum 
• Cerebrum: Two large hemispheres that cover upper part 
of the...
Graphic: Relative Size
Graphic: Corpus Callosum
Left & Right Hemispheres
Left Brain/Right Brain 
• About 95 percent of our left brain is used for language 
• Left hemisphere better at math, judgi...
Graphic: Left vs. Right
Lobes of the Neocortex 
• Occipital Lobe: Back of brain; vision center 
• Parietal Lobe: Just above occipital; bodily 
sen...
Graphic: Lobes
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2 1 chapter 2 neuroscience excellent tutorial

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Neuroscience, Tutorial, for Masters Level Neuroscience Students,
Neurobiology,
Neurochemistry,
Neurophysiology,
Neuropsychology,
Hypothalamus Basal Ganglia

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2 1 chapter 2 neuroscience excellent tutorial

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Neuroscience
  2. 2. Brain and Mind T h e P e r s o n T h e B r a in P h y s i c a l T h e M i n d P s y c h o l o g i c a l
  3. 3. Topics to Explore 1. The Neuron 2. The Peripheral Nervous System 3. The Central Nervous System
  4. 4. Part One Neuron
  5. 5. Neuron and Its Parts Neuron: Individual nerve cell; 100 billion in brain - Dendrites: Receive messages from other neurons; have thousands of branches - Soma: Cell body; metabolic center of neuron; contains genetic material - Axon: Carries information away from the cell body; longest part of neuron - Axon Terminals: Branches that link the dendrites and soma of other neurons - Synaptic Gap: Space between the end of the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of an adjacent neuron
  6. 6. Picture of a Neuron
  7. 7. The Nerve Impulse • Resting Potential: Electrical charge of an inactive neuron • Threshold: Trigger point for a neuron’s firing • Action Potential: Nerve impulse
  8. 8. Resting Potential Resting Potential: Tiny charge between inside & outside of neuron • Created by electrically charged particles (ions) - Some concentrated outside the cell (sodium and chloride ions) - Some concentrated inside the cell (Potassium ions) • How is the charge maintained? - Sodium-potassium pump - Selectively permeable cell membrane
  9. 9. Action Potential Action potential: Change in potential, primarily because of messages from other neurons • Excitatory messages: Cell loses the negative charge; Depolarization • Inhibitory messages: Cell becomes more negatively charged; Hyperpolarization
  10. 10. Resting vs. Action Potential
  11. 11. Graphic: Action Potential
  12. 12. Graphic: Action Potential
  13. 13. Graphic: Synaptic Gap
  14. 14. Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters: Chemicals that alter activity in neurons; brain chemicals. Messages from one neuron to another pass over the synapse, the microscopic gap between neurons Receptor Site: Areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitive to neurotransmitters Antagonist: drug that decreases activity of a neurotrans-mitter
  15. 15. Some Neurotransmitters • Acetylcholine: involved in learning, memory, and muscle contractions. Botulism toxin prevents release of acetylcholine, resulting in paralysis • Dopamine: involved in arousal, mood, and movement. In Parkinson’s, receptors in brain fail to react to dopamine, leading to tremors, rigidity and problems initiating movement • Serotonin and Norepinephrine: involved in arousal and mood. Cocaine blocks re-uptake of both neurotransmitters, resulting in “high” • GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid): main inhibitory neurotrans-mitter; lowers arousal and anxiety • Endorphins: lower pain perception. Morphine and heroin bind to endorphin receptors, increasing endorphin activity.
  16. 16. Nerves and Neurons • Nerves: Large bundles of neurons • Myelin: Fatty layer of tissue that coats axons • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) occurs when myelin layer is destroyed; numbness, weakness, and paralysis occur
  17. 17. A Little Exercise Demonstration of the speed of a neural impulse.
  18. 18. An Organizational Pause Organization of the CNS
  19. 19. Major Sections of the Nervous System • Central Nervous System (CNS): Brain and spinal cord • Peripheral Nervous System: All parts of the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord - Autonomic System: Serves internal organs and glands; controls automatic functions such as heart rate and blood pressure - Somatic System: Links spinal cord with skeletal muscles and sense organs; controls voluntary behavior
  20. 20. Organization of Nervous System
  21. 21. Graphic: Nervous System
  22. 22. Part 2 The Peripheral Nervous System See in class! • The Autonomic Nervous System • The Somatic Nervous System
  23. 23. Divisions of Autonomic System • Sympathetic: Arouses body; emergency system • Parasympathetic: Quiets body; most active after an emotional event
  24. 24. Functions of Autonomic Nervous System
  25. 25. Three Components of Emotion • Physical component: state of physiological arousal triggered by autonomic nervous system • Behavioral component: outward expression of the emotion, including facial expression & behavior • Cognitive component: appraisal of the situation to determine which emotion we are experiencing and why
  26. 26. James-Lange Theory of Emotion
  27. 27. Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
  28. 28. Schachter-Singer Theory
  29. 29. Comparison of Three Theories of Emotion
  30. 30. Somatic Nervous System • Motor Nervous System: transfers messages from CNS to control function of voluntary muscles • Sensory Nervous System: transfers messages from sensory organs to CNS; brings information from outside the body to the brain to be processed
  31. 31. Structures in Somatic System • Sensory neuron: neuron that transmits information from sensory organ to CNS • Motor neuron: neuron that transmits information from CNS to voluntary muscle • Connector neuron: neuron in spinal cord connecting sensory and motor neurons to form reflex arc. • Reflex: An innate, automatic motor response to a specific sensory stimulus
  32. 32. Graphic: Somatic Nervous System
  33. 33. Motor & Somatosensory Areas in Cerebral Cortex
  34. 34. Motor Homunculus “homunculus” = “a diminutive human being”
  35. 35. Somesthetic Homunculus
  36. 36. A Little Exercise A demonstration of the somatosensory system, using toothpicks and little rulers.
  37. 37. Part 3 The Central Nervous System See in class! • The Spinal Cord • The Brain - The Central Core - The Limbic System - The Cerebral Cortex
  38. 38. The Spinal Cord • Spinal Nerves: 31 of them; carry sensory and motor messages to and from the spinal cord • Cranial Nerves: 12 pairs that leave the brain directly; also work to communicate messages • Spinal cord functions to connect peripheral nervous system to the brain
  39. 39. The Central Core (aka the “old brain”) • Medulla: Connects brain with the spinal cord and controls vital life functions such as heart rate and breathing • Cerebellum: Regulates posture, muscle tone, muscular coordination, and procedural learning • Reticular formation: Associated with levels of arousal and consciousness, as well as some reflexes (breathing, coughing, sneezing, vomiting) • Thalamus: serves as a relay station for incoming sensory Information • Basal ganglia: involved in physical movement
  40. 40. Graphic: Central Core
  41. 41. The Limbic System At the top border (limbus in Latin) of the brain stem. •Hypothalamus: controls pituitary gland (directing activity of endocrine system) and autonomic nervous system; involved in basic drives (eating, drinking, sex) • Hippocampus: involved in formation of memories • Amygdala: involved in regulating emotional experiences, particularly initial emotional responses
  42. 42. Graphic: Limbic System
  43. 43. Neocortex • Cerebral Cortex: Outer layer of the cerebrum • Cerebrum: Two large hemispheres that cover upper part of the brain • Corticalization: Increase in size and wrinkling of the cortex • Cerebral Hemispheres: Right and left halves of the cerebrum • Corpus Callosum: Bundle of fibers connecting cerebral hemispheres
  44. 44. Graphic: Relative Size
  45. 45. Graphic: Corpus Callosum
  46. 46. Left & Right Hemispheres
  47. 47. Left Brain/Right Brain • About 95 percent of our left brain is used for language • Left hemisphere better at math, judging time and rhythm, and coordinating order of complex movements - Processes information sequentially • Right hemisphere good at perceptual skills, and at expressing and detecting other’s emotions - Processes information simultaneously
  48. 48. Graphic: Left vs. Right
  49. 49. Lobes of the Neocortex • Occipital Lobe: Back of brain; vision center • Parietal Lobe: Just above occipital; bodily sensations such as touch, pain, and temperature (somatosensory area) • Temporal Lobe: Each side of the brain; auditory and language centers • Frontal Lobe: Movement, sense of smell, higher mental functions; contains motor cortex; controls motor movement
  50. 50. Graphic: Lobes

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