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Ergonomics

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Occupational Safety Health Environment

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Ergonomics

  1. 1. Ergonomics:A work place realities in Pakistan Asim Zaheer1, Dr. Rameez Khalid Department of Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering, NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan 1 corresponding author: asimzaheer@neduet.edu.pk
  2. 2. 2 Topics To be DiscussedI. INTRODUCTIONII. CONTEXTIII. PROBLEM STATEMENTIV. RESULTSV. ERGONOMICS AWARENESS PROGRAMVI. CONCLUSIONS Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer
  3. 3. 3 I. INTRODUCTION What is Ergonomics? • Ergonomics, is derived from the Greek word ‘ergon’ which means work and ‘nomos’ means law [1-3] • The Science of Work or the Study of Work • Designing the job to fit the worker • Improve the human well-being • Optimize overall system’s performance Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer
  4. 4. 4 I. INTRODUCTION(Cont..)• Focus on worker• Physical and psychological capabilities• Keep an eye on human limitations• Harmonious relationship• Enhancement of productivity and efficiency [2] This guy needs more than a new chair!!!!
  5. 5. 5 II. CONTEXT In Pakistan, knowledge of ergonomics is in its infancy • Ignorance among employer & employee Ergonomics include different scientific disciplines: [6, 7] Physiology Biomechanics Psychology Anthropometry Industrial hygiene Kinesiology Physical stresses and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) MSDs are also referred interchangeably as CTDs: [10, 11] • Repeated trauma, Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSIs) and • Occupational overexertion syndrome Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer
  6. 6. 6 II. CONTEXT(Cont..) According to Cohen [8], MSDs result in: • Delays, Absenteeism, Injuries, Illnesses Risk factors associated with MSDs are: [11, 12] • Repetitive motion • Force-full exertion • Vibration • Mechanical compression • Awkward body postures • High noise • Low lighting • Extreme temperatures Ergonomics reduce MSDs by more than 50% [9] Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer
  7. 7. 7 II. CONTEXT(Cont..) MSDs affect [4]  Symptoms of MSDs:[11] • Upper limb • pain • Neck • numbness • Back • Tingling Work place common • stiff joints • difficulty in moving MSDs are CTS and • muscle loss back injury [10] • paralysis Prolong working hours • Disorders Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer
  8. 8. 8 II. CONTEXT(Cont..) Two law enforcing agencies: • NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) • OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) Human body is divided into three planes: [6,7,13] • Sagittal plane, • Coronal plane and • Transverse plane Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer
  9. 9. 9 II. CONTEXT(Cont..) Wrist movement classified as: • Flexion • Extension • Radial • Ulnar Hand movements are classified as:[13] • Abduction • Adduction • Supination • Pronation
  10. 10. 10Industrial Examples
  11. 11. 11 II. CONTEXT(Cont..) Job analysis tools: • Strain Index (SI), • Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) • Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) • Ovako Work Assessment System (OWAS)
  12. 12. 12 II. CONTEXT(Cont..) Strain Index (SI):[14] • Number (score) • Upper extremity disorders. • Tool to evaluate the job, not the workerSI = (Intensity of Exertion Multiplier)× (Duration of Exertion Multiplier)× (Efforts per Minute Multiplier)× (Posture Multiplier)× (Speed of Work Multiplier)× (Duration per Day Multiplier) Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer
  13. 13. 13 II. CONTEXT(Cont..) Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) [6, 17]• Number (score)• Upper limb disorders  Wrist  Forearms  Elbows  Shoulders  Neck  Trunk Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) [18]• Number (score)• Entire body assessment Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer
  14. 14. 14 III. PROBLEM STATEMENT Manufacturing Industry of two wheelers OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) vendor for famous companies of auto-bikes in Pakistan Products include:
  15. 15. 15Selected Postures
  16. 16. 16III. PROBLEM STATEMENT(Cont..)  Analysis Tools and Procedures: • Strain Index (SI) • Exclusively focused on wrist and hand • Recorded videos • Critical analysis of working postures • Gathered relevant data • Taken snaps Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer
  17. 17. 17 IV. RESULTS SI for Posture 1 • Rating Criteria Table • Multiplier Table[14] • SI Calculation S.NO. SI Parameters Rating Multiplier Ergointelligence™ 1 Intensity of effort 2 3 2 Percentage 3 1.5 Other Postures duration 3 Effort per minute 2 1.0 4 Wrist Posture 3 1.5 5 Speed of work 4 1 6 Duration / day 3 0.75 SI = 5.1
  18. 18. 18 IV. RESULTS (Cont..) SI FOR POSTURES Action Mean IncidencePosture Problems SI Risk Type Needed Rate [14] Wrist Flexion Abduction Caution 77 injuries per 100 1 Force 5.1 Some Risk required worker per year Neck flexion Hard grip Wrist Flexion Abduction Caution 77 injuries per 100 2 Grip force 6 Some Risk required worker per year Neck flexion Trunk flexion Wrist extension Abduction Immediate 77 injuries per 100 3 Force 27 Hazardous action worker per year Hard grip Wrist flexion Abduction Immediate 77 injuries per 100 4 Force 20.25 Hazardous action worker per year Neck flexion Trunk flexion
  19. 19. 19 IV. RESULTS (Cont..) SI FOR POSTURES Mean ActionPosture Problems SI Risk Type Incidence Rate Needed [14] Wrist flexion 2 injuries per 5 Excessive 2.6 Safe situation No action 100 worker per reaching year 2 injuries per Extreme bending Caution 6 4.5 Uncertain 100 worker per Wrist flexion required year Wrist extension 77 injuries per Force Caution 7 6 Some Risk 100 worker per Hard grip required year Neck flexion Wrist flexion 2 injuries per Caution 8 Neck flexion 3 Uncertain 100 worker per required Trunk flexion year Wrist flexion/extension 77 injuries per Upper arm Caution 9 6 Some Risk 100 worker per abducted required year Force Neck flexion
  20. 20. 20 V. ERGONOMICS AWARENESS PROGRAM Proposed Ergonomics Awareness program: • Phase 01: Analysis of work place • Phase 02: Prevention and control of Hazards • Phase 03: Personnel training and education • Phase 04: Medical Management Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer
  21. 21. 21V. ERGONOMICS AWARENESS PROGRAM (Cont..)
  22. 22. 22V. ERGONOMICS AWARENESS PROGRAM (Cont..)
  23. 23. 23 VI. CONCLUSIONS Findings • Realities in Pakistani Industry • Strain Index (SI) • Worker is at risk; Awkward postures • Poor environment; Injury prone jobs Perspectives • Awareness program • RULA • REBA Ergonomics: A work place realities in Pakistan - Asim Zaheer
  24. 24. 24Acknowledgment THANK YOU for your attention Questions  Contact: asimzaheer@neduet.edu.pk; +92 (0)321 2700850

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