Progress on Measurement in Biology & Medicine: Multiscale Systems Engineering Ron SummersDept Electronic & Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, UK R.Summers@lboro.ac.uk http://www-staff.lboro.ac.uk/~lsrs1
Outline• Introduction to the Team• Multiscale Modelling Anatomic Level of Analysis Cellular Level of Analysis Protein Level of Analysis Genome Level of Analysis• Future Work
Engineering Dimension“…multiscale modelling is the field of solving physical problems which have important features at multiple scales, particularly multiple spatial and (or) temporal scales”. Wikipedia, accessed 2010
Scales of Measurement Hunter P, Robbins P, Noble D (2002) The IUPS human physiome project. Eur J Physiol 445 1-9
Medical Dimension• Why is it important to better understand congenital heart defects ?• What is the Tetralogy of Fallot from an anatomical standpoint ?• Which embryological processes are involved in the formation of the Tetralogy of Fallot ?
Why is it important to know more about the congenitalheart defect and particularly about the Tetralogy of Fallot ?The prevalence of congenital heart defects,the most common congenital anomalyobserved in newborns, has been reported tobe 5-10 per 1000 births 10% of the childhood mortalityTetralogy of Fallot is the most common formof cyanotic congenital heart disease.It affects 9%-15% of all infants and childrenwith congenital heart disease (CHD) whichrepresents 55%-70% of all cyanoticcongenital malformationsWe need to improve our knowledge aboutthis abnormality
In vitro EMTWildtype Notch1 BMP2 L. Luna-zurita et al. “Integration of a Notch-dependent mesenchymal gene program and Bmp2-driven cell invasiveness regulates murine cardiac valve formation,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 120, 2010.
A lot of work remains…• Information Issues • Scale-linking • Biological Networks• Methodological Issues • Multiscale Model Process • Multiscale Model Validation • Multiscale Visualization• Software Issues • Multiscale Software Programming• Patho-physiological Issues • Anatomic Definition of Tetralogy of Fallot
Biophotonics Imaging SystemOptical Physiological Tomography: Concepts Electronic sub system ency W High USB Frequ Hz (4 00 avel 6–9 – 9 en 00 gth nm ) Oxygen level Oxygen level Micro- Micro- O2% electronics Fast digital Low Camera Multi- Multi- wavelength illuminator Photonics sub system Comprises biomedical photonics, microelectronics engineering, systems engineering, applied signal and image processing, and multiscale modelling/simulation