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General Anatomy of Muscles- by Dr. Javed Iqbal

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General Anatomy of Muscles in a precise manner.

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General Anatomy of Muscles- by Dr. Javed Iqbal

  1. 1. GENERAL ASPECTSGENERAL ASPECTS OF MUSCLESOF MUSCLES DEFINATION OF MUSCLESDEFINATION OF MUSCLES It is a contractile tissue which brings aboutIt is a contractile tissue which brings about movementmovement It is one of the mechanical effector organ ofIt is one of the mechanical effector organ of the bodythe body Four important characteristics beingFour important characteristics being excitability, contractility, extensibility andexcitability, contractility, extensibility and elasticityelasticity May be regarded as organs consisting ofMay be regarded as organs consisting of muscular and connecting tissuesmuscular and connecting tissues
  2. 2. CLASSIFICATION OF MUSCLESCLASSIFICATION OF MUSCLES  DEVELOPMEMTAL CLASSIFICATIONDEVELOPMEMTAL CLASSIFICATION 1.Ectodermal e.g sphincter and1.Ectodermal e.g sphincter and dilator pupillaedilator pupillae 2.Endodrmal e.g myoepitheliocytes2.Endodrmal e.g myoepitheliocytes of salivary glandsof salivary glands 3.Mesodermal e.g rest of the3.Mesodermal e.g rest of the muscles including skeletal, smoothmuscles including skeletal, smooth and cardiac musclesand cardiac muscles
  3. 3. STRUCTURAL & FUNCTIONALSTRUCTURAL & FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATIONCLASSIFICATION  Striated musclesStriated muscles SkeletalSkeletal CardiacCardiac  Non striated musclesNon striated muscles
  4. 4. SKELETAL MUSCLESSKELETAL MUSCLES NOMENCLATURENOMENCLATURE  Geometrical shape e.g rhomboid,trapezoidGeometrical shape e.g rhomboid,trapezoid  Number of heads of origin e.g bicepsNumber of heads of origin e.g biceps  Location e.g temporalis,supraspinatousLocation e.g temporalis,supraspinatous  Structural appearance e.g semitendinosusStructural appearance e.g semitendinosus  Attachments e.g stylohoidAttachments e.g stylohoid  Functions e.g adductor longusFunctions e.g adductor longus  Direction of fibres e.g rectus, transversusDirection of fibres e.g rectus, transversus  Size e.g minimus, maximusSize e.g minimus, maximus  Position e.g palmar, superficialisPosition e.g palmar, superficialis
  5. 5. ORGANIZATION OF SKELETALORGANIZATION OF SKELETAL MUSCLESMUSCLES  TWO ENDSTWO ENDS ORIGIN, INSERTIONORIGIN, INSERTION  TWO PARTSTWO PARTS FLESHY : BellyFLESHY : Belly FIBROUS : Tendons, AponeurosisFIBROUS : Tendons, Aponeurosis
  6. 6. STRUCTURE OF A SKELETALSTRUCTURE OF A SKELETAL MUSCLEMUSCLE  CONTRACTILE TISSUECONTRACTILE TISSUE Fibres,FibrilsFibres,Fibrils  SUPPORTING TISSUESUPPORTING TISSUE Endomysium, Perimysium,Endomysium, Perimysium, EpimysiumEpimysium
  7. 7. MODES OF ATTACHMENTSMODES OF ATTACHMENTS OF SKELETAL MUSCLESOF SKELETAL MUSCLES  CartilagesCartilages • Inferior constrictor muscles of pharynx from thyroidInferior constrictor muscles of pharynx from thyroid cartilage of larynxcartilage of larynx  FasciaFascia • Platysma muscle of neck from fascia covering pectoralisPlatysma muscle of neck from fascia covering pectoralis major and deltoidmajor and deltoid  TendonsTendons • Lumbricals of hand and foot from long flexor muscles ofLumbricals of hand and foot from long flexor muscles of digitsdigits  LigamentsLigaments • Trapezius from ligamentum nuchae and supraspinousTrapezius from ligamentum nuchae and supraspinous ligamentsligaments
  8. 8. CLASSIFICATION OF SKELETALCLASSIFICATION OF SKELETAL MUSCLESMUSCLES  ARCHITECTURAL CLASSIFICATIONARCHITECTURAL CLASSIFICATION A. PARALLEL MUSCLESA. PARALLEL MUSCLES 1.QUADRILATERAL e.g thyrohyoid1.QUADRILATERAL e.g thyrohyoid 2.STRAP e.g sartorius2.STRAP e.g sartorius 3.FUSIFORM e.g biceps brachii3.FUSIFORM e.g biceps brachii B. OBLIQUE MUSCLESB. OBLIQUE MUSCLES 1.TRIANGULAR e.g temporalis1.TRIANGULAR e.g temporalis 2.CIRCULAR e.g orbicularis oculi2.CIRCULAR e.g orbicularis oculi 3.DIGASTRIC e.g omohyoid3.DIGASTRIC e.g omohyoid 4.PENNATE4.PENNATE UNIPENNATE e.g flexor policis longusUNIPENNATE e.g flexor policis longus BIPENNATE e.g dorsal interossei, flexor hallucisBIPENNATE e.g dorsal interossei, flexor hallucis longuslongus MULTIPENNATE e.g deltoidMULTIPENNATE e.g deltoid C.SPIRAL/TWISTED FASCICULI e.g pectoralis majorC.SPIRAL/TWISTED FASCICULI e.g pectoralis major
  9. 9. REGIONAL CLASSIFICATIONREGIONAL CLASSIFICATION  MUSCLES OF HEAD AND NECKMUSCLES OF HEAD AND NECK  MUSCLES OF ABDOMEN, THORAXMUSCLES OF ABDOMEN, THORAX AND PELVISAND PELVIS  MUSCLES OF UPPER LIMBMUSCLES OF UPPER LIMB  MUSCLES OF LOWER LIMBMUSCLES OF LOWER LIMB
  10. 10. COLOR AND CONTRACTIONCOLOR AND CONTRACTION  RED MUSCLESRED MUSCLES  WHITE MUSCLESWHITE MUSCLES  INTERMEDIATE TYPEINTERMEDIATE TYPE
  11. 11. PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIONPHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION  PRIME MOVERSPRIME MOVERS  ANTAGONISTSANTAGONISTS  SYNERGISTSSYNERGISTS  FIXATORSFIXATORS
  12. 12. BLOOD SUPPLY OFBLOOD SUPPLY OF SKELETAL MUSCLESSKELETAL MUSCLES
  13. 13. NERVE SUPPLY OF SKELETALNERVE SUPPLY OF SKELETAL MUSCLESMUSCLES  MOTOR FIBRESMOTOR FIBRES  SENSORY FIBRESSENSORY FIBRES  MUSCLE SPINDLESMUSCLE SPINDLES  MOTOR POINTMOTOR POINT  MOTOR UNITMOTOR UNIT
  14. 14. CLINICAL ASPECTS OFCLINICAL ASPECTS OF MUSCLESMUSCLES  PARALYSISPARALYSIS  MUSCULAR STRAIN AND SPASMMUSCULAR STRAIN AND SPASM  ATROPHY AND HYPERETROPHYATROPHY AND HYPERETROPHY  REGENERATION OF SKELETAL MUSCLEREGENERATION OF SKELETAL MUSCLE  MYSTHENIA GRAVISMYSTHENIA GRAVIS  POLYMYOSITISPOLYMYOSITIS  ANGINA PECTORISANGINA PECTORIS  MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIAMYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA

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