Formative Evaluation Handouts Crefoc Sbz 2009


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Formative Evaluation Handouts Crefoc Sbz 2009

  1. 1. Formative Evaluation (Workshob by Inspector Mr. Med Salah Abidi. CREFOC, Sidi Bouzid. July 2009) ~ HANDOUTS APPENDIX Word doc.1 - Groups of 4 to 6 participants read mixed up notes to develop definitions of the concepts: Formative / Summative Evaluation and the major features of difference between both of them. - on-going assessments, reviews, and observations in a classroom. - used to evaluate the effectiveness of instructional programs and services at the end of an academic year or at a pre-determined time. - to improve instructional methods and student feedback throughout the teaching and learning process. - to make a judgment of student competency -- after an instructional phase is complete. - given periodically to determine at a particular point in time what students know and do not know. - provides the information needed to adjust teaching and learning while they are happening. - generally associated only with standardized tests such as state assessments. - spread out and occur after instruction every few weeks, months, or once a year. - It's not teachers just collecting information/data on student learning; it's what they do with the information they collect. - It is a continuous assessment that allows teachers to determine individual student needs and to adjust instruction as appropriate. - It is often used when students are ready to demonstrate achievement of curriculum objectives. - The purposes are to identify aspects of performance that need to improve and to offer corrective suggestions. - It need not make a judgment. -They are assessments for learning a opposed to assessment of learning. -They produce non-threatening Results
  2. 2. Formative Evaluation (Workshob by Inspector Mr. Med Salah Abidi. CREFOC, Sidi Bouzid. July 2009) ~ HANDOUTS Word doc.2: Benefits of formative evaluation The Assessment Reform Group in the UK has set out 10 principles for formative assessment. Among these principles are that assessment for learning should: • be part of effective planning of teaching and learning • focus on how students learn • be recognised as central to classroom practice • be regarded as a key professional skill for teachers • be sensitive and constructive because any assessment has an emotional impact • take account of the importance of learner motivation • enable learners to receive constructive guidance about how to improve • develop learners’ capacity for self-assessment so that they can become reflective and self-managing • recognise the full range of achievements of all learners
  3. 3. Formative Evaluation (Workshob by Inspector Mr. Med Salah Abidi. CREFOC, Sidi Bouzid. July 2009) ~ HANDOUTS Word doc.3: Formative assessment is a means of communication between teacher and student, guiding the teacher toward appropriate instructional decisions and providing encouraging feedback to the student. You’ve probably been using all kinds of formative assessments without realizing that they were called, which is something that often happens in education and communication. But when we give a name to something, such as formative assessment, we can transform what we are doing intuitively into an intentional practice. Our awareness of formative assessment will make us better communicators and planners. Formative assessment is assessment that is meant to guide both teachers and students toward the next steps in the learning process. Formative assessment differs from summative assessment in that summative assessment has an air of finality. When we think of summative assessments, we think of unit tests, final exams, standardized tests, entrance exams, and the like. Although any assessment instrument may be used as formative assessment (to guide learning), those just mentioned are usually used more for ranking and sorting students than for informing them (and their teacher) about their learning needs. Thus, the difference between formative and summative assessment depends largely upon how the results of the test or project are going to be used. There’s another difference, and that has to do with the attitude that students have toward formative assessment: formative assessment does not result in a grade “that counts.” Therefore, students approach it with less anxiety, competitiveness, and defensiveness. The downside is that some students might not do their best on formative assessments, believing that they “don’t count.” The unfortunate view that students should give a school-time task their best shot only if it will figure into their report card grade is ingrained in our society and works against a more authentic view of what education is really all about. Formative assessment leads to follow-through; summative assessment ends with a grade. To understand the difference between formative and summative assessment, you need to undergo a paradigm shift in what assessment in school is all about. Traditionally, we think of assessment (testing) as a means of putting “closure” on learning, as though learning is something that should have closure. Earlier, I said that any assessment can be formative assessment. Whether an assessment is formative depends on how the teacher and student are
  4. 4. Formative Evaluation (Workshob by Inspector Mr. Med Salah Abidi. CREFOC, Sidi Bouzid. July 2009) ~ HANDOUTS going to use the results. Consider this example: A student takes a traditional spelling test. She gets four words wrong. If this assessment is to be used formatively, the student would be expected not only to learn the misspelled words, but, more importantly, to employ an effective method for learning them. For example, the misspelled words may conform to a rule that the student needs to learn, or they may fit into a pattern of words that are spelled similarly; they may be exceptions to a rule; they may be learned through a visual or mnemonic. The point is that the traditional spelling test—any traditional test—may be turned into a formative assessment by including a meaningful follow-up component, one that goes beyond mere correction of wrong answers. Responses to Formative Assessments Teachers can use the results of formative assessments to adjust their teaching strategies and to match students with appropriate materials and learning conditions. Formative assessment information can determine: ♦ How to group students ♦ Whether students need alternative materials ♦ Whether students are ready to advance ♦ The amount of time to be allocated to a particular learning experience, such as reading and understanding a document ♦ Whether students are understanding a poem’s literal level, before moving on to its interpretative possibilities ♦ What concepts may need to be retaught to the entire class, or to certain students. If a teacher does not intend to regroup, reteach, scaffold, or change any learning conditions as a result of formative assessment information, then there’s no point in doing any formative assessment. Therefore, teachers using formative assessment need an array of alternatives (methods and materials). If the goal is to cover, get through, finish up, putting every student through the samepaces at the same rate with the same resources, then formative assessment does not achieve its purpose.
  5. 5. Formative Evaluation (Workshob by Inspector Mr. Med Salah Abidi. CREFOC, Sidi Bouzid. July 2009) ~ HANDOUTS Word doc.4: FORMATIVE vs SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT -Participants complete the following table individually, check in their groups the answers, then whole group discussion: Tick the appropriate box Statement Formative assessment Summative assessment Timing is flexible Questions on a test are surprises to the student Test /task is not flexible No direct follow-up: when it is over, it is over Teacher’s feedback is commentary and / or number grade Evaluation is used to guide future learning Results figure in the report card grade Considers the students zone of proximal development Students must perform within time limits
  6. 6. Formative Evaluation (Workshob by Inspector Mr. Med Salah Abidi. CREFOC, Sidi Bouzid. July 2009) ~ HANDOUTS Word doc.5: ANALYSIS OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT PROCESSES Participants in their groups complete the chart. They analyse the process and discuss the possible intentions of the teacher and the possible benefits for the learner. Description T.Intention Benefit for the learner T.observes learner at work. T. asks learner about how and why specific action has been taken. T.asks for clarification about what has been done, is being done or will be done. Learner replies. T. communicates task criteria(what has to be done in order to complete the task) or negotiates them with the learner. evaluative feedback on work done with respect to task, effort, ability...with reference to past achievement)
  7. 7. Formative Evaluation (Workshob by Inspector Mr. Med Salah Abidi. CREFOC, Sidi Bouzid. July 2009) ~ HANDOUTS Word doc.6: Samples from the Tunisian Textbooks -1st year Secondary Education Perform Through English At the end of each lesson, there’s a “check what you have learnt today” rubric. CHECK WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT TODAY Ideas Functions Grammar Vocabulary Other - 2nd year Secondary Education Perform to Learn a- Before the learners start the new syllabus, they are sollicited to answer a diagnostic test pp11-12, a qustionnaire p13 and have a go on a three review sessions pp15-19. b- During the course, students answer three progress check tests pp52- 53; 93-94; 162-164. c- After each progress check, students complete a self-evaluation sheet p54; 95; 165. - 3rd year Secondary Education Activate And Perform a- The book starts with a Review module pp7-11. b- Each module starts with the expected learning outcomes c- At the end of each module students are asked to fill in a self- assessment sheet.
  8. 8. Formative Evaluation (Workshob by Inspector Mr. Med Salah Abidi. CREFOC, Sidi Bouzid. July 2009) ~ HANDOUTS Word doc.7: Conducting a survey Participants complete the chart and discuss the importance of data colloected through the survey for the teacher to improve teaching. In this team I feel Important 12345 Ignored Comfortable 12345 Uncomfortable Involved in the 12345 Restless, Bored activities Part of group 12345 Alone Sure of where I 12345 Not sure where I stand stand The trainer has been Prepared 12345 unprepared Fair unfair Helpful unhelpful Well-organised Lacking organisation Clear about Unclear about what is expected what is expected Sensitive to my Unsensitive to needs my needs Fully engaged Seemingly and excited bored knowledgeable Not on top of the issue Able to make Over our hands difficult ideas easy and accessible
  9. 9. Formative Evaluation (Workshob by Inspector Mr. Med Salah Abidi. CREFOC, Sidi Bouzid. July 2009) ~ HANDOUTS Our work has generally been Thought 12345 dull provoking Effective in ineffective hhelping me learn Too fast Too slow Too easy Too hard Too little Too much