Unit 3 pp #3


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Unit 3 pp #3

  1. 1. Economic Geography Resources SOL WG.7a
  2. 2. Natural Resources <ul><li>A natural resource is anything from nature that can be of value to humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable resources are natural resources that can replenish themselves with proper management and care. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonrenewable resources are natural resources that are limited and will run out over time. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Natural Resources <ul><li>Some examples of renewable resources are: </li></ul><ul><li>Soil ( Arable land is land that can be farmed) </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Plants such as trees or even food crops </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul>
  4. 4. Natural Resources <ul><li>Some examples of nonrenewable resources are: </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) </li></ul><ul><li>Metals (gold, silver, iron, copper, bauxite) </li></ul><ul><li>Gems (diamonds, rubies, emeralds) </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul>
  5. 5. Human Resources <ul><li>Human resources are people and the skills people possess. Human resources an be: </li></ul><ul><li>The level of education of a person </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled labor refers to people who must be trained over a long period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Unskilled labor refers to people who can be trained in a short period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial and managerial abilities refers to people who can start their own business and manage others </li></ul>
  6. 6. Capital Resources <ul><li>Capital resources refers to: </li></ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>The level of infrastructure in a country. Infrastructure means technical structures that support a society such as roads, water supplies, power systems, and communication systems </li></ul><ul><li>Availability and use of tools, machines, and technologies </li></ul>
  7. 7. Energy Resources <ul><li>Wood was used for thousands of years to produce energy and is still used in some parts of the world today, but it has caused widespread deforestation . </li></ul><ul><li>Coal is used by most countries to produce energy today but it causes pollution when it is burned and mining coal can cause pollution. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Energy Resources <ul><li>Petroleum or oil is used for transportation but it can cause air pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear power is cheap but it can create radioactive waste that is difficult to dispose of. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar, wind, and hydroelectric power are sources of cheap renewable energy that do not cause pollution but they can be expensive to make and they are not aesthetically pleasing . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Nuclear Power
  10. 10. Nuclear Power
  11. 11. Wind Farm
  12. 12. Distribution of Resources <ul><li>Natural resources are not evenly distributed across the earth. Some countries have many natural resources and other countries have very few. The unequal distribution of resources can cause the following: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Economic interdependence - Countries must trade in order to get the resources they need. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Uneven economic development - Some countries will be rich and others poor. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Distribution of Resources <ul><li>Energy producers and consumers - Some countries produce energy and others must import and consume energy. The United States imports most of its oil from other countries. Countries in the Middle East export oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism - Countries take over other regions of the world in order to exploit their natural resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict - Countries will fight over control of resources such as oil, diamonds, gold, or even guano. </li></ul>
  14. 14. World Diamond Deposits
  15. 15. Culture’s Perspective on Resources <ul><li>The use of a resource depends on a nation’s culture, values, access to technology, and governmental priorities. </li></ul><ul><li>The priority of some countries is economic development . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>China is a good example of a country that emphasizes economic development above other priorities such as saving the environment or listening to the demands of minorities. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Culture’s Perspective on Resources <ul><li>The priority of some countries is shifting towards environmental conservation and sustainability. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belize is a small country in Central America that has set aside most of its rainforest as parks in order to attract tourists to the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States has a growing green movement that emphasizes recycling and renewable energy. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Belize
  18. 18. Culture’s Perspective on Resources <ul><li>The United States and Australia have indigenous minorities that own large areas. They have special rights to use the resources on these lands. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Technology and Resources <ul><li>New technologies can create a demand for a resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Steam Engine - Demand for Coal </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Combustion Engine - Petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Chips - Skilled Labor </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Cost of Resources <ul><li>Whenever humans use natural resources they have to think about the costs or bad things that happen as a result of using the resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Depletion - When resources are used they will run out eventually. A good example of resource depletion is deforestation. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Cost of Resources <ul><li>Environmental Degradation - When people use resources they harm the environment. Mining for minerals causes deforestation and pollution. Industries can cause air and water pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Health Problems - Pollution causes health problems. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Benefits of Resources <ul><li>When people use resources they can: </li></ul><ul><li>Produce goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Create jobs for people </li></ul><ul><li>Develop new technologies </li></ul>
  23. 23. Patterns of Land Use <ul><li>Proximity of economic activity and resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Steel manufacturing regions are near coal deposits. </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle ranches are near areas that produce grain for cattle feed. </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing occurs near oceans. </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum smelting occurs near areas with hydroelectric power. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Ruhr Valley Germany
  25. 25. Patterns of Land Use <ul><li>Non-proximity of resources to economic activity: </li></ul><ul><li>Japan has limited natural resources so it must import natural resources from other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The United Arab Emirates have oil but few other resources so it is difficult to develop their industries. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Economic Activity <ul><li>Primary economic activity is when a person deals directly with a resource such as fishing, farming, forestry, mining, ranching, and hunting. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary economic activity is composed of manufacturing and processing. Processing is when an unusable natural resource is refined into something useable. Manufacturing is when something is assembled. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Economic Activity <ul><li>Processing can consist of sawmills, flour mills, oil refineries, and meat packing plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing can consist of automobile factories, furniture factories, and textile factories. </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary economic activity consists of service industries such as retail trade, information technology, banking, advertising, wholesaling, and transportation. </li></ul>