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WDM Basics

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WDM Basics

  1. 1. Module 1 WDM Transmission Basics 3JK10358AAAAWBZZA Edition 01 Section 1 WDM Technology - Fundamentals
  2. 2. Blank Page
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Explain the reasons for deploying a WDM network. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the basic WDM technology and the operational concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the functions of the major components used in WDM. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives [cont.]
  5. 5. Table of Contents <ul><li>Switch to notes view! </li></ul>
  6. 6. Table of Contents [cont.] <ul><li>Switch to notes view! </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1 Introduction
  8. 8. 1 Introduction 1.1 Network Hierarchy Mesh Ring Inter-metro connections Inter-metro connections Inter-metro connections Point-to-point Residential networks: - DSL - Cable modem SDH/SONET: - POTS - Wireless ISP POP: - IP services Enterprise: - Frame Relay - ESCON - Fiber Channel - Gigabit Ethernet Long-haul networks Metro- politan networks Access networks
  9. 9. 1 Introduction 1.2 Bandwidth Demand Data Voice Voice-centric Data-centric Traffic volume 50 100 150 200 250 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
  10. 10. 1 Introduction 1.3 Options for Increasing Carrier Bandwidth <ul><li>Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increasing the number of fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increasing the bit rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increasing the number of wavelengths </li></ul></ul>Complementary solutions
  11. 11. 1.3.1 Time Division Multiplexing Concept Bits of information Transmission link TDM
  12. 12. 1.3.1 Time Division Multiplexing SDH Standard Incoming streams Link rate = (2.5Gbps x 4 = 10Gbps) Outgoing stream Bit rate = 2.5Gbps (T) (T)
  13. 13. 1.3.2 Wavelength Division Multiplexing Concept TRANSMITTERS Separating signals Optical fiber RECEIVERS Combining signals
  14. 14. 1.3.2 Wavelength Division Multiplexing Input Format Independence SDH IP Leased line ATM ...
  15. 15. 1.3.3 TDM versus WDM Network Evolution 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 N channels Colored signals with specific wavelengths 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 N terminals WDM STM-16 terminal STM-16 terminal STM-16 terminal STM-16 terminal 1R 1R 1R 1R N terminals 16 x STM-1 3R 3R 3R REGENERATOR REGENERATOR REGENERATOR 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 16 x STM-1 STM-16 terminal STM-16 terminal N terminals N terminals
  16. 16. 1.3.3 TDM versus WDM Unlimited Transmission Capacity WDM + TDM Year N x 2.5Gbps TDM Single Channel 128 x 2.5Gbps 64 x 2.5Gbps 32 x 2.5Gbps 16 x 25Gbps 8 x 25Gbps 4 x 25Gbps 2 x 25Gbps 8 x 10Gbps 16 x 10Gbps 40 x 10Gbps N x 10Gbps 200Gbps 100Gbps 10Gbps 140Mbps 565Mbps 2.5Gbps 10Gbps 40Gbps Global capacity per fiber (Gbps) 0.1 1 10 100 1000 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2001 2004
  17. 17. 2 Varieties of WDM
  18. 18. 2 Varieties of WDM 2.1 WDM Evolution 64 channels 50GHz spacing 64 channels 100-200GHz spacing Dense WDM, integrated systems with network management, add-drop functions 2-8 channels Narrowband WDM 200-400Ghz spacing Passive WDM components 2 channels Wideband WDM 1310nm, 1550nm Evolution of WDM Late 1990’s 1996 Early 1990’s 1980’s
  19. 19. 2 Varieties of WDM 2.2 Conventional WDM Definition Transmit Receive End system End system End system End system ( 1310nm + 1550nm ) ( 1310nm + 1550nm )
  20. 20. 2.3 DWDM Definition Absorption Spectrum of the Optical Fiber Wavelength (nm) Loss (dB/km) 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 1 0.5 10 5 S C L
  21. 21. 2.3 DWDM Definition C Band BLUE BAND RED BAND 1528nm 1546nm 1564nm C Band
  22. 22. 2.3 DWDM Definition ITU-T Standard for 100GHz Spacing in C Band Nominal Frequencies Allocation Plan (Red Band) Channel Central Central frequency (THz) number wavelength (nm) 20 1561.42 192.000 21 1560.61 192.100 22 1559.79 192.200 23 1558.98 192.300 25 1557.36 192.500 26 1556.55 192.600 27 1555.75 192.700 28 1554.94 192.800 30 1553.33 193.000 31 1552.52 193.100 32 1551.72 193.200 33 1550.92 193.300 35 1549.32 193.500 36 1548.51 193.600 37 1547.72 193.700 38 1546.92 193.800 Nominal Frequencies Allocation Plan (Blue Band) Channel Central Central frequency (THz) number wavelength (nm) 42 1543.73 194.200 43 1542.94 194.300 44 1542.14 194.400 45 1541.35 194.500 47 1539.77 194.700 48 1538.98 194.800 49 1538.19 194.900 50 1537.40 195.000 52 1535.82 195.200 53 1535.04 195.300 54 1534.25 195.400 55 1533.47 195.500 57 1531.90 195.700 58 1531.12 195.800 59 1530.33 195.900 60 1529.55 196.000
  23. 23. 2 Varieties of WDM 2.4 CWDM Definition 186.21THz 1610nm 8 195.94THz 1530nm 4 188.55THz 1590nm 7 198.54THz 1510nm 3 190.95THz 1570nm 6 201.20THz 1490nm 2 193.41THz 1550nm 5 203.94THz 1470nm 1 Frequency Wavelength Channel Frequency Wavelength Channel
  24. 24. Blank Page
  25. 25. 3 DWDM Basic Components
  26. 26. 3 DWDM Basic Components 3.1 DWDM Network Post- amplifier Pre- amplifier In-line amplifiers Transponder interfaces Direct connections Terminal A Terminal B Transponder interfaces Direct connections … …
  27. 27. 3 DWDM Basic Components 3.2 Transponder Standard Receiver Client Interface DWDM Interface 3R Regeneration Colored Interface B&W Interface 3R Regeneration Optimized Receiver Optical Signal Optical Signal Electrical Signal Electrical Signal
  28. 28. 3 DWDM Basic Components 3.3 Multiplexer/Demultiplexer <ul><li>Multiplexing and demultiplexing in a bidirectional communication </li></ul>Optical fiber Optical fiber
  29. 29. 3.4 Optical Amplifier Applications Post-amplifier In-line Amplifier Pre-amplifier TRANSMITTER RECEIVER
  30. 30. 3.4 Optical Amplifier Types RFA TDFA EDFA GS-TDFA EDTFA GS-EDFA L Band C Band 1575 1620 1560 1530 S Band S+ Band 1480 1420 Wavelength (nm)
  31. 31. 3.4 Optical Amplifier Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Active fiber doped with Erbium ions Ground state Excited state Energy supply (pumping) Spontaneous emission Stimulated emission electron Noise generation Optical amplification photon Signal in Signal in Signal out Pump coupler Pump laser diode ERBIUM-DOPED FIBER AMPLIFIER
  32. 32. 3.4 Optical Amplifier Raman Amplification Principle (nm) 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 1450 1470 1490 1510 1530 1550 1570 1590 1610 1630 1650 @1455nm @1480nm Gain spectrum versus pump wavelength Gain (relative)  (gain)=  (pump)+100nm Transmitter Receiver 1455nm pump Optical fiber
  33. 33. 3 DWDM Basic Components 3.5 OADM Concept Optical fiber  1 ,  2 , … ,  n  -  n Amplifier Optical fiber OADM  n  n Amplifier  1 ,  2 , … ,  n
  34. 34. Blank Page
  35. 35. 4 Module Evaluation
  36. 36. Answer the Questions (1/8) Is the following statement true or false? WDM systems cost more than installing more fibers. Select the correct answer. True False
  37. 37. Answer the Questions (2/8) What is the multiplexing concept used for SDH? Select the correct answer. TDM SDM WDM
  38. 38. Answer the Questions (3/8) Is the following statement true or false? WDM systems are input format independent. Select the correct answer. True False
  39. 39. Answer the Questions (4/8) Which band is in the third optical window? Select the correct answer. A C B S L
  40. 40. Answer the Questions (5/8) Associate each wavelength spacing to the correct multiplexing technology. To do this, draw a line between each wavelength spacing from the list on the left and the appropriate technology from the list on the right. 100GHz 50GHz 3000GHz DWDM WDM 400GHz CWDM
  41. 41. Answer the Questions (6/8) <ul><li>Fill in the blanks in the figure below to situate each element that makes up a DWDM network. </li></ul><ul><li>The elements are: </li></ul><ul><li>MUX (multiplexer) </li></ul><ul><li>PreA (pre-amplifier) </li></ul><ul><li>ILA (In-line amplifier) </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitter </li></ul><ul><li>DEMUX (demultiplexer) </li></ul><ul><li>PostA (post-amplifier) </li></ul>
  42. 42. Answer the Questions (7/8) Is the following statement true or false? The main function of the transponder is to convert the B&W wavelength to a colored wavelength. Select the correct answer. True False
  43. 43. Answer the Questions (8/8) What is the amplification range for an EDFA? Select the correct answer. 1530-1610nm 1490-1530nm 1530-1565nm
  44. 44. Summary (1/2) <ul><li>Options for increasing carrier bandwidth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Varieties of WDM: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional WDM: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 wavelengths: 1310nm and 1550nm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or 400 GHz spacing around 1550nm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense WDM (DWDM): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Range: 1460nm-1565nm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S, C, L bands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spacing: 200, 100, 50, 25GHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coarse WDM (CWDM): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Range: 1270nm-1610nm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spacing: 3000GHz </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Summary (2/2) <ul><li>A DWDM network is made up of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a transmitter, also called transmit transponder, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a multiplexer and a demultiplexer, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amplifiers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a post-amplifier, also called booster, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-Line Amplifiers (ILAs), also called repeaters, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a pre-amplifier, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an optical fiber, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (OADM) which is optional, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a receiver, also called receive transponder. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Blank Page
  47. 47. Self-Assessment on the Objectives <ul><li>Please be reminded to fill in the form Self-Assessment on the Objectives for this module </li></ul><ul><li>The form can be found in the first part of this course documentation </li></ul>
  48. 48. End of Module WDM Transmission Basics

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