DISCOURSE ANALYSISFinal Test ProjectA Discourse Analysis of Dove “Campaign forReal Beauty” Advertisement Based on theLanguage and the Structure of theAdvertisementOktari Aneliya2215081412Reg 08 Dik A
ABSTRACTDiscourse of advertisements, especially in printed ads, has shown the development of anextraordinary language phenomenon. A copywriter is able to exploit the language to be used asthe media of communicative ads, which is very interesting and persuading. This exploitation oflanguage, especially the mixture of verbal and non-verbal signs, makes discourse of ads aninteresting subject to explore and analyze. This study is aimed at analyzing the meaning, thepurpose, and the message, behind the advertisement of Dove Beauty Campaign by looking itsstructure and the language of the advertisement. This study also analyzes the implication of thebeauty campaign for Dove itself. To study the exploitation of the language in the discourse ofadvertisement, the verbal sign and non verbal sign are analyzed to find the language used and themeaning, purpose, message, and the implication behind the advertisement. The structure and thelanguage of three Dove Beauty Campaign advertisements are analyzed. The study shows thatthese three advertisements have three kinds of structure of an advertisement that are: (1)headline; (2) illustration; and (3) body copy. The language use in those advertisements are kindof propaganda. The meaning of “Real Beauty” is that the beauty that represents from all womenin this world. The purpose of the “Dove Campaign for Real Beauty” is that this is a campaign forchanging the beauty stereotype of fashion models to the real women with a wider range of skintypes and body shapes. The message behind these campaign advertisements is that Dove caresabout the real women beauty by creating thought-provoking ads, confidence-building programsand messages that embrace all definitions of beauty. The implication of this campaignadvertisement for Dove itself is that Dove might have special place in their customers‟ part oflife because they think that Dove cares about them.
1. INTRODUCTION Language is an essential part in human being‟s life. Through language either spoken orwritten people can communicate with others. Crystal (1992) defined language as the systematic,conventional use of sounds, signs or written symbols in a human society for communication andself-expression. Language has a great impact towards people and their behavior. This is mainlytrue in the fields of marketing and advertising. In advertising, language as a tool ofcommunication is used to deliver specific messages with the intention of influencing,convincing, and informing people. These specific messages mostly aim to persuade people tobuy certain products or services. Language in advertising is very important because it helpspeople to identify the product and remember it. The language of advertising, according to Crystal (1987), is generally laudatory, positive,unreserved, and emphasizing the uniqueness of a product. Typically, it emphasizes why oneproduct stands out in comparison with another. Advertising which is defined as “any paid formof non-personal communication through the mass media about the product by an identifiedsponsor” (Wells, Burnett & Moriaty: 2003) has become part of our everyday life. The function ofadvertising can be viewed into basic ways: as a tool of marketing and as a means ofcommunication (Wright, Winter & Zeigler: 1982) thus, advertisements which are the products ofadvertising are delivered to different kind of societies in order to convey these two basic ways offunction. There are three general forms of advertising which close to human‟s life either in theform that simply use sound (radio advertising), vision (printed advertising), or both sound andvision (television advertising). Printed or electronic (radio and television advertising)advertisement is one of media in communication which grows as the developing of technology.According to Susanto in Mulyawan, at first, people advertise their products by shouting orproducing sounds to gain consumers‟ attention. This kind of advertisement is called directadvertisement in which the sellers advertise using spoken language that simple and advertisetheir product directly to the target market.
In nowadays, advertisement is presented in various kinds of media such as printed mediaand electronic media with interesting, creative, attractive, as well as persuasive appearance. As amedia of communication, every advertisement has message to be delivered to the customers.Leech (1996) stated that in general, every advertisement has five structures; headline,illustration(s), body copy, signature line, and standing details. Advertisements have a lot of signsor illustrations which have meaning behind it. Advertisements use a sign system which iscomprised with verbal or non-verbal signs. In advertisements, language is the verbal signs, whileillustration, color, etc is the non-verbal signs Discourse of advertisements has shown the development of an extraordinary languagephenomenon. A copywriter is able to exploit the language to be used as the media ofcommunicative ads, which is very interesting and persuading. This exploitation of language,especially the mixture of verbal and non-verbal signs, makes discourse of advertisements aninteresting subject to explore and analyze. Dove, one of toiletries products of Unilever Company, is now trying to advertise theirbeauty campaign named “Campaign for Real Beauty”. Emphasizing on celebrating womenbeauty, Dove presents many advertisements to gain people‟s attention on its campaign. Thisstudy is aimed at analyzing the meaning, the purpose, and the message, behind the advertisementof Dove Beauty Campaign by looking its advertisement structure and the language ofadvertisement. This study also analyzes the implication of the beauty campaign for Dove itself.To study the exploitation of the language in the discourse of advertisement, the verbal sign andnon verbal sign are analyzed to find the language used and the meaning, purpose, message, andthe implication behind the advertisement. Using Van Dijk and Kelly-Holmes theories ofstructure of advertisement as well as the language of advertisement, three kinds ofadvertisements are analyzed. 2. METHODOLOGY In order to know the meaning, the purpose, the message, and the implication behind theadvertisement of Dove Beauty Campaign, the structure and the language of advertisement aswell as the verbal sign and non-verbal sign of the advertisements are analyzed. This study alsoanalyzes the implication of the beauty campaign for Dove itself. Using Van Dijk and Kelly-
Holmes theories of structure of advertisement as well as the language of advertisement, threekinds of advertisements are analyzed. Three kinds of Dove Beauty Campaign advertisements were picked from the website ofDove. Then those three advertisements were analyzed from the structure of discourse analysisproposed by Van Dijk (in Eriyanto: 2001; Sobur: 2001): macro structure, superstructure, andmicro structure) and the language of advertisement as well as the verbal sign that lies in theheadline, body copy, signature line, and the standing detail and the non-verbal sign that lies inthe illustration. 3. LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Advertisement Advertising has become a promising business nowadays. It appears everywhere invarious forms: printed, radio, or television advertising. Wells, Burnett & Moriaty (2003) definedthat advertising is a paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using massmedia to persuade or influence an audience. Advertising is a powerful communication force vitaland a marketing tool. The function of Advertising can be viewed in two basic ways: as a tool ofmarketing and as a means of communication (Wright, Winter & Zeigler: 1982). It means that therole of advertising is not only to communicate the message to the reader (communication) butalso to sell the product (marketing tool). Advertising is a form mass communication that informs, persuades, or influences peopleto buy goods or services. In marketing field, the role of advertising is to carry persuasivemessages to actual and potential customers. Thus it is important to know the target market of anadvertisement in order to know the marketing techniques to sell the products. A successful advertisement, according to Vestergaard & Shrodder (1985) is expected toaccomplish five functions: (1) attracting attention; (2) commanding interest; (3) creating desire;(4) inspiring conviction; and (5) provoking action. All these five functions are related each otherand serve to promote the selling power of the advertised product.
2. Structure of an advertisement 2.1. Headlines Headline is the most important of an advertisement. It is the very first thing read and should arouse the interest of customer. Headline usually appears in the top of an advertisement and printed in the bold types of different sizes. 2.2. Illustrations These can be photographs or drawings and should show the product in use (if possible) and with the brand name. illustration also can strengthen the concept of the advertisement. 2.3. Body copy Body copy is the text of the advertisement. It includes the main part of the advertising message. It is usually smaller sized type and written paragraph or multiple lines. Its purpose is to explain the idea or selling point. Body copy is a logical continuation of the headline. 2.4. Signature line This is the brand message conveyed by trademarks, logos, slogans, brand names, or packages. 2.5. Standing details A standing detail in a print ad might include cut-out coupons and purely practical information appearing in small print. For example contact information of a firm, instructions where further information can be acquired or legal footnotes. This type of information generally appears in an identical form in different advertisements of the same product (Leech 1966: 59). 3. Advertisement as a text and a discourse An advertisement can be said as a text when it is seen as a product of advertisementmaker. An advertisement is a creation of a product that is bounded of semiotic structure and thesocial function as a media of communication and marketing. Meanwhile an advertisement can besaid as a discourse when it is seen as a media of communication and marketing of a product orservice. At this time an advertisement is not only seen as a unification of semiotic but it is also
seen as a media of communication that involves contextual aspect besides the element of textualcomponent. Advertising can be seen as an interaction between pictures, language or text,paralanguage and so forth. These components are considered to form the discourse ofadvertising. More specifically, the elements that are considered to be a part of the advertisingdiscourse are subordinate concepts of text and context. The text in advertising discourse refers tolinguistic forms and is separated from context for the purposes of analysis (Cook 2001: 4).Context on the other hand, includes components such as substance, paralanguage, co-text,participants, and the functions of advertisements. 4. Language of advertisement Advertising language has been described as a „functional dialect‟, which refers to theresult of the process where language is chosen to be used for a particular purpose, andconsequently the product becomes a variety of its own (Kelly-Holmes 2005: 8). Moreover, thelanguage used in advertisements is described to be colloquial and simple rather than formal andcomplex. This implies that advertising vocabulary is fairly concrete and comprehensible. (Leech1966). Further, standard advertising English is a concept which can be defined as a loadedlanguage, i.e. it aims to change the will, opinions, or attitudes of its audience. The choices concerning language in market-driven discourses, such as advertising, arerarely made without careful consideration, as Kelly-Holmes (2005: 8) claims. Consequently,language can have various functions in advertising, for instance informational, expressive andvocative ones. The informational function of a language refers to its aim to inform or to report, todescribe and to emphasize in an advertisement. Moreover, feelings or emotions can be expressedthrough language and thus it can have an expressive function. (Kelly-Holmes 2005: 8). Advising,recommending and persuading are considered to act as language‟s directive or vocative function.In advertising discourse, the informative and the directive functions, that is informing andadvising, might be considered the most common purposes of language (Kelly-Holmes 2005: 8). 5. Van Dijk’s structure of discourse Van Dijk (in Eriyanto: 2001; Sobur: 2001) proposed a framework of discourse analysiswhich have three structures: macro structure, superstructure, and micro structure
5.1. Macro structure The macrostructure of a discourse is the structure of its global meaning, topic or theme. Macrostructures are derived or inferred from the local meanings (the propositions, or semantic microstructure) of discourse by a number of rules or strategies that reduce complex information. The topic of the text is not seen explicitly in a text but it is bound in the overall text as a unity in a form or coherence. Therefore, the topic of the text can be identified by reading the whole text as a social discourse that can be drawn one main idea or topic which developed the text.5.2. Superstructure Superstructure is a basic outline of a text which includes the composition or series of structure or elements of a text in forming a coherent unity of form. In other words, the analysis of superstructures is an analysis of the scheme or the plot of the text. Just like in a building, the superstructure of a text is the organizational pattern or outline that the author used in writing the text, and this textual structure has been dictated by the nature and structure of the authors thinking. In an advertisement, the superstructure is; headline, illustration(s), body copy, signature line (logo), and standing details.5.3. Microstructure Microstructure is an analysis of a text based on the intrinsic elements. The intrinsic elements are: a. Semantic The semantic in this case is categorized as a local meaning which comes from words, clauses, sentences, and paragraph as well as their relationship such as the relationship between words, between clauses, between sentences, and between paragraphs that develops meaning in one text. b. Syntactic Syntactic structure is an arrangement of words in sentences, clauses, and phrases, and the study of the formation of sentences and the relationship of their component parts. Eriyanto (2001) said that:
“Unsur sintaksis merupakan salah satu elemen yang membantu pembuat teks untuk memanipulasi keadaan dengan jalan penekanan secara tematik pada tatanan kalimat. Manipulasi tersebut dapat berupa pemilihan penggunaan kata, kata ganti, preposisi, dan konjungsi, serta pemilihan bentuk-bentuk kalimat seperti kalimat pasif atau aktif” c. Stylistic Features of stylistics include the use of dialogue, including regional accents and people‟s dialects, descriptive language, the use of grammar, such as the active voice or passive voice, the distribution of sentence lengths, the use of particular language registers, etc. In addition, stylistics is a distinctive term that may be used to determine the connections between the form and effects within a particular variety of language. Therefore, stylistics looks at what is „going on‟ within the language; what the linguistic associations are that the style of language reveals. d. Rhetoric Rhetorical emphasizes the style in a text that is closely related to how a text message to be delivered, which includes hyperbole style, repetition, alliteration or other style. 4. DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS This commercial made by Dove‟s Real Beauty Campaign, addresses the ever prevalentissue of body image for young women. Here is the analysis: 1. Dove Beauty for Real campaign advertisement 1 a. Headline The headline in this advertisement is “All this talk about fashion models and extreme dieting”
In this headline, the ads maker tries to increase customers and readers sight. This headline also uses propaganda that can be seen from the choice of words “All this talk”. From this choice of words, the writer infers that the ads maker uses bandwagon technique by generalizing on what people think to persuade the target audience to join in an issue. It gives the information that nowadays all people talking is about fashion models and people who is on extreme diet.b. Illustration Three blue doves are the illustration of this advertisement. The doves represent the brand of Dove itself.c. Body copy The body copy of this advertisement is “How did our idea of beauty become so distorted?” in this body copy the ads maker chose the same style with the headline. The ads maker generalized what people think by using word “our”. This body copy gives more information about the advertisement that is people‟s ideas about beauty is now distorted by the perfection of body image that is portrayed in the fashion models. Conclusion: Form the language of the advertisement, the ads maker uses bandwagon technique to persuade the customers or readers to believe in the issue arose by Dove. From this advertisement, the proposition that can be inferred is that Dove concerns with the distortion of body image in which people idolize fashion models as their perfect body image, therefore many people go on extreme diet. The purpose of this advertisement is to awaken people mind that beauty is not about fashion models. The message behind this advertisement is that Dove wants to change people‟s ideas about perfect body image.2. Dove Beauty for Real campaign advertisement 2
a. Headline The headline is “We see beauty all around us”. This headline also uses generalization idea from the choice of deictic register of “We” and “Us”. Yet, this choice of words gives meaning that ads maker wants to make the customers or readers as a unity.b. Illustration Three women from different sizes, shapes, colors, and ethnics are smiling with confidence makes the headline‟s intention become clear. It gives meaning that the beauty all around us is like those there women represented in the illustration. In this illustration, the ads maker uses Transfer and Plain Folks technique of propaganda. Transfer means trying to improve the images of the products or in this case, is the campaign by showing symbols or illustration. Plain Folks means using people from plain folks instead of people who have power or higher than others. In this campaign, the ads maker uses an image of average-looking women. From the illustration above, it can be inferred that Dove is trying to persuade customers or readers to join in a new image of beauty that is women from different types of skin and body shapes.c. Body copy “At Dove, we want to free ourselves and the next generation from beauty stereotypes. It’s this message that’s at the heart of our Campaign for Real Beauty and Self Esteem Fund, and it’s why we continue to create thought-provoking ads, confidence-building programs and messages that embrace all definitions of beauty” is the body copy of the 2nd advertisement. In this body copy, the ads maker didn‟t use generalization because of the choice of words “At Dove” this indicates the next subject of “We” is Dove people. In the first sentence, the ads maker opens its body copy by stating the purpose of the advertisement that is giving people and the next generation freedom from the beauty stereotypes. This also indicates that dove wants to make changes not only for now but on the future for beauty stereotypes by choosing the words “next generation”. In the second sentence, the ads maker tries to convince the customer or readers of Dove‟s aim. By choosing the words “at the heart of our campaign” indicates that Doves want wholeheartedly making their promises. In this 2nd sentence the ads maker also gives evidence on how they will make their promises; by creating thought-provoking ads, confidence-building programs and messages that embrace all definitions of beauty. Conclusion: From this advertisement, Dove gives clear ideas about their purpose of campaign and how they do their campaign. Changing the beauty stereotypes by showing three happy women from a wider range of skin types and body shapes is the purpose of this advertisement. Dove appreciates the beauty of real women, and wants to build women confidence on what they are is the message of this advertisement.
3. Dove Beauty for Real campaign advertisement 3 a. Headline “Rethink Beauty” is the headline of this advertisement. The ads maker uses two words simple headline. The ads maker also wants the customers or readers to do certain action that is rethink about beauty. This headline might be vague for the consumers or readers, yet if they have seen the previous advertisement they become clear what kind of beauty that they are asked to rethink about, that is the stereotype of fashion models beauty. b. Illustration A mother hugging and kissing her smiling daughter and a smiling teenager girl is the illustration of this advertisement. c. Body copy The illustration above depicts the body copy: “Believe in your own unique beauty and guide your daughter to believe in hers”. This body copy gives meaning that we should be proud of our unique beauty and also this body copy gives message to the mothers that they should take care of their daughter to be always confidence of what they look like. Conclusion: From this advertisement, Dove wants to give the realization on their previous campaign (see 2nd advertisement) that is “create thought-provoking ads, confidence-building programs and messages that embrace all definitions of beauty”. This advertisement is aimed at creating thought-provoking ads by choosing the headline “Rethink Beauty”, confidence-building programs by saying “believe in your own unique beauty”, and creating messages that embrace all definitions of beauty by “guide your daughters to believe in hers”. The message behind this advertisement is that Dove cares about the beauty image of fashion models that might impact the young generation. Therefore Doves reminds the mothers to guide their daughters to be confidence on their unique beauty.
5. CONCLUSION Dove beauty for real campaign is aimed at provoking people to change the beautystereotype of fashion models to the real women beauty with a wider range of skin types and bodyshapes. Three kinds of this campaign advertisement have been analyzed. Based on the threeadvertisements of “Dove Beauty for Real Campaign” analyzed above, it is found that the adsmaker use three kinds of structure of an advertisement that are: (1) headline; (2) illustration; and(3) body copy. The language use in those advertisements are kind of propaganda in which Doveads maker wants to influence the customers or the readers‟ attitude towards an issue of changingthe image of beauty stereotype. It is also found that the headlines, the illustrations, and the bodycopies are connected each other. The illustrations are appropriate for the messages of thecampaign. Finally from the analysis above the writer can infer the meaning, the purpose, and themessage, behind the advertisement of Dove Beauty Campaign as well as the implication of thebeauty campaign for Dove itself. The meaning of “Real Beauty” is that the beauty that representsfrom all women in this world that can be depicted from the advertisement illustrations. Thepurpose of the “Dove Campaign for Real Beauty” is that this is a campaign for changing thebeauty stereotype of fashion models to the real women with a wider range of skin types and bodyshapes by presenting several images of beautiful women who have slim body, medium body, fat,white skin, and dark skin. The purpose of this campaign is to realize women in this world thatbeauty is all around us, beauty is appreciate on your uniqueness, beauty if for all of us no matterwhat size and shapes you are. The message behind these campaign advertisements is that Dovecares about the real women beauty by creating thought-provoking ads, confidence-buildingprograms and messages that embrace all definitions of beauty. The implication of this campaignadvertisement for Dove itself is that Dove might have special place in their customers‟ part oflife because they think that Dove cares about them.
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