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Digestion<br />
<ul><li>The digestive systems are similar in basic structure in most vertebrates
They have the same essential parts
The differences are due to their specific diet </li></li></ul><li>Digestion in Herbivores<br /><ul><li>Herbivores eat plan...
Plants contain cellulose.
Cellulose has a very high energy content.
Cellulose needs to be broken down by bacteria that live in the gut.
This process is called fermentation.
The relationship between the herbivore and bacteria is called symbiosis.</li></li></ul><li>Let’s review the Digestive Syst...
Oesophagus
Liver
Stomach
Gall Bladder
Pancreas
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Year 11 Biology - Digestion in Herbivores

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Year 11 Biology - Digestion in Herbivores

  1. 1. Digestion<br />
  2. 2. <ul><li>The digestive systems are similar in basic structure in most vertebrates
  3. 3. They have the same essential parts
  4. 4. The differences are due to their specific diet </li></li></ul><li>Digestion in Herbivores<br /><ul><li>Herbivores eat plants.
  5. 5. Plants contain cellulose.
  6. 6. Cellulose has a very high energy content.
  7. 7. Cellulose needs to be broken down by bacteria that live in the gut.
  8. 8. This process is called fermentation.
  9. 9. The relationship between the herbivore and bacteria is called symbiosis.</li></li></ul><li>Let’s review the Digestive System...<br /><ul><li> Mouth
  10. 10. Oesophagus
  11. 11. Liver
  12. 12. Stomach
  13. 13. Gall Bladder
  14. 14. Pancreas
  15. 15. Small Intestine
  16. 16. Caecum
  17. 17. Large Intestine</li></li></ul><li>Digestion in Herbivores<br /><ul><li>Adaptations have occurred in different animals to make fermentation more efficient.
  18. 18. Two types of Herbivores:
  19. 19. Hindgutfermenters
  20. 20. Foregutfermenters
  21. 21. Ruminants</li></li></ul><li>Hindgut Fermenters<br /><ul><li>Modified caecum and colon
  22. 22. Bacteria is excreted (and lost)
  23. 23. Examples:
  24. 24. Horses
  25. 25. Koalas
  26. 26. Possums
  27. 27. Wombats
  28. 28. Pigs</li></li></ul><li>Foregut Fermenters<br /><ul><li>Enlarged stomachs
  29. 29. Slower process
  30. 30. Examples:
  31. 31. Sheep
  32. 32. Cattle
  33. 33. Wallabies
  34. 34. Elephants</li></li></ul><li>Foregut Fermenters - Ruminants<br /><ul><li>Type of foregut fermenters
  35. 35. One stomach, four compartments
  36. 36. Examples:
  37. 37. Cattle
  38. 38. Sheep
  39. 39. Goats</li></li></ul><li>Process of Rumination<br /><ul><li>Swallow food
  40. 40. First compartment (Rumen)
  41. 41. Fermentation begins and contents pass to second compartment
  42. 42. Prepared for regurgitation
  43. 43. Moved back into mouth
  44. 44. “Chewing the cud”
  45. 45. Swallowed for second time
  46. 46. Moved to third compartment – has two parts
  47. 47. Fourth compartment (same as human stomach)
  48. 48. Excreted</li></li></ul><li>Components of Cellulose<br /><ul><li>Sugar
  49. 49. Fatty acids become glucose
  50. 50. Protein
  51. 51. Amino acids
  52. 52. What happens to the bacteria?</li></li></ul><li>Well...<br />This sounds like a pretty complex process but...<br />It is a great process as it allows the animals to eat a resource that is widely available but usually indigestible!<br />
  53. 53. Nectar and Pollen Feeder<br /><ul><li>Specialised diet
  54. 54. Example:
  55. 55. Honey possum: feed on native plants growing in south-west WA
  56. 56. No digestion required for nectar
  57. 57. Immediate sugar and water
  58. 58. Pollen grains
  59. 59. Simple digestive system</li></li></ul><li>Digestion in Carnivores<br /><ul><li>Feed mainly on herbivorous animals.
  60. 60. Protein forms the major nutrient type.
  61. 61. Food is much easier to digest.
  62. 62. Shorter digestive system.
  63. 63. Much smaller caecum.
  64. 64. Example:
  65. 65. Tasmanian Devil</li></ul>See figure 5.30<br />
  66. 66. Using Energy from Food<br /><ul><li>Nutrients are used in cellular respiration
  67. 67. Occurs all the time
  68. 68. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
  69. 69. C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O</li>

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