LegalRuleML Metamodel


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The OASIS standard LegalRuleML (in draft) is an XML language for the machine-readable representation of rules in the legal domain. The design process of this language includes the development of a metamodel in RDFS axiomatizing the rdfs:subClassOf hierarchy of the LegalRuleML concepts and the rdfs:domain and rdfs:range of the properties used to describe the instances of these concepts. This presentation outlines the metamodel specifications and shows diagrams of the current version of the metamodel. The metamodel also provides an avenue for exposing the legal rule metadata as Linked Data in RDF.

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LegalRuleML Metamodel

  1. 1. LegalRuleML Metamodel Tara Athan, Harold Boley, Guido Governatori, Monica Palmirani, Adrian Paschke, Adam Wyner July 13, 2013 RuleML 2013 7th International Web Rule Symposium, Seattle
  2. 2. Contents  Purpose of Metamodel  Role of Metamodel in LegalRuleML Design Process  Entity-Relationship Diagrams of Metamodel
  3. 3. Purpose of Metamodel  Expose LegalRuleML Metadata as Linked Data  Provide partial semantics by transformation – LegalRuleML → RDF + RDFS (+ OWL)  Establish connections to external ontologies – Dublin Core – FRBR – RDF/RDFS – RuleML Metamodel  Essential Component of LegalRuleML's Language Design Process
  4. 4. LegalRuleML's Cyclic Language Design Process  Legal Source Examples  LegalRuleML Metamodel as RDFS Schema  RDF Instances based on Metamodel  LegalRuleML Instances from RDF/XML  XML Schemas Validating Against Instances  Glossary of XML Elements and Attributes  Repeat
  5. 5. LegalRuleML Metamodel as RDFS Schema  rdfs:Class – Names for classes of entities • Following RDF(S) conventions, UpperCamelCase – rdfs:subClassOf hierarchy  Connections to external ontologies  rdf:Property – Names for dyadic relations between entities • Following RDF(S) conventions, lowerCamelCase – rdfs:domain, rdfs:range – rdfs:subPropertyOf hierarchy  Connections to external ontologies
  6. 6. LegalRuleML Metamodel as (Future) OWL Ontology  owl:sameAs – Used in RDF instances  rdfs:comment – Natural language definitions of classes and properties – Describes characteristics that are beyond RDFS expressivity • Property Chaining • To be implemented
  7. 7. RDF Instances based on Metamodel  Simplified Samples Extracted from Legal Sources  Compactification – Start with Unnested Triples in any RDF format – Nest in Tree Structure using RDF/XML abbreviations to eliminate explicit blank nodes
  8. 8. LegalRuleML Instances from RDF/XML  Produced by semi-standardized invertible manual transformation  Design Principles – Striping • Fully-striped normal form – Alternating Node (rdfs:Class) element and edge (rdf:Property) element – One child per edge (except for rdfs:Collections) • Compact form with redundant stripes removed (stripe-skipping)
  9. 9. LegalRuleML Design Principles (cont.)  Renaming - shorter element and attribute names, still human readable  <Node>Collection → <Nodes>  Node-skipping  Nodes always appearing as blank nodes may be skipped provided no type information is lost  Leaf Stripes  Nodes that often have no content may optionally be skipped, leading to a “leaf-stripe”, provided no type information is lost
  10. 10. LegalRuleML Design Principles (cont.)  Attributes versus Edges  Attributes can lead to more compact syntax  However, may inhibit extensibility  Only used if, with high confidence,  Property will never have cardinality >1  Object will never be a blank node  Literal Object always has a unique specified datatype
  11. 11. XML Schemas Validating Against Instances  Modular Relax NG schemas  Customization by selection of a subset of the modules  Extension by including additional modules  Generated Monolithic XSD schemas  Schema Validation using various engines (Saxon EE, XMLSpy, …)  Instance Validation as Requirements Testing
  12. 12. Glossary of XML Elements and Attributes  Definitions for XML elements and attributes  Synchronization with natural language comments in RDFS metamodel  Initiates update of metamodel
  13. 13. Upper Metamodel (Classes) rdf:List
  14. 14. Upper Metamodel (Properties) rdf:List xsd:string xsd:any
  15. 15. Context Metamodel
  16. 16. Statement Metamodel xsd:any ruleml:Rule ruleml:RuleClass
  17. 17. Defeasible Metamodel
  18. 18. Metadata Metamodel frbr:Agent frbr:Jurisdiction frbr:Concept
  19. 19. Legal Temporal Metamodel
  20. 20. Deontic Metamodel ViolationFormula