Social StudiesReading ComprehensionUsing Historical Content and Passages in order to understand themes in History while supporting English Standards tested in the SBA
Identifying the Main IdeaThe question “What is this writing about?” is answered in the main Idea.Sometimes titles and headings reveal it. Individual paragraphs are builtaround a main idea. The rest of the sentences explain, give details about,or support the idea. Learning to Identify the Main Idea- Use the following guidelines to help you identify the main idea: •Read the selection carefully. •Look for the main idea and jot it down in your own words. •Look for the same main idea in a topic sentence. Remember the topic may be implied. •Read the selection to see whether other sentences support the main idea.
Identifying the Main Idea & Drawing ConclusionsProgressive Reforms: Progressives also changed the way U.S. senators are elected. The Constitution had given state In the early 1900’s, Progressives legislatures the responsibility for choosing senators,backed a number of reforms designed to but party bosses and business interests oftenincrease the people’s direct control of the controlled the selection process. Progressives wantedgovernment. Wisconsin, for example, to give the people an opportunity to vote for theirmade changes in the political process to senators directly. Support for this idea grew. In 1912give voters more power and to limit the Congress passed the Seventeenth Amendment to theinfluence of political parties. The reform Constitution to provide for the direct election ofincluded a direct primary election, in senators.which all party members could vote for a Progressive reforms changed the nature ofcandidate to run in the general election. American democracy by giving the people a greater Progressivism in other states passed voice and more real power in the political process.more reforms. The initiative allowed With these reforms, voters could select theircitizens to place a measure or issue on the representatives more directly; approve, reject, andballot in a state election. The referendum introduce legislation; and call for a special election togave voters the opportunity to accept or remove an elected official from office.reject measures that the state legislatureenacted. The recall enabled voters toremove unsatisfactory elected officialfrom their jobs.
Identifying the Main Idea and Drawing Conclusion 2. Which sentence below best1. Which of the following statementsbest states the main idea of the represents a conclusion that canreading? be drawn from this reading?A. Progressive reform increased A. Progressive reforms made people’s lives people’s direct control of the easier by allowing the government to take care of more issues. government. B. Progressives backed increasedB. Wisconsin gave voters more participation of political parties and power in the political process business interests in selecting than other states. government officials. C. Progressives believed that by placingC. Progressives thought that more power in the hands of the voters, people should be able to vote the political process would be fairer and for their senators directly. less corrupt.D. People had less control over D. Progressives’ most significant reform in the early 1900s was the recall. the government after Progressive reforms were passed.
Vocabulary Comprehension3. In the passage the term 4. In the passage a synonym‘initiative’ means - for ‘process’ is- A. ProcedureA. Ability to act on your own B. Legal issuesB. Plan C. SummonsC. Idea D. methodD. Beginning to take steps
Determining Cause & EffectAny condition or event that makes something happen is known as a cause. Whathappens as a result is an effect. Cause and effect relationships explain why thingshappen and how actions produce other actions. Cause and effect relationshipscan be simple or complex. Sometimes several different causes produce a singleeffect. At other times, one cause can produce several effects. Learning to Determine Cause & Effect- Use the following guidelines to help You in determining cause and effect: •Select an event or circumstance. •Compare the situation at the time of the event with conditions before it happened (causes) and after it happened (effects). •Look for vocabulary clues to help decide whether one event caused another. •Look for other relationships between the events. •Describe the cause and effects of the event.
Understanding Cause & Effect The Spanish American War Causes Effects Cuba gains independence U.S supportU.S support of the of the CubanCuban Rebellion Rebellion War with Spain in Cuba and U.S gains the Philippines overseas empire: Annexes Guam and Puerto Rico The sinking of the USS Maine U.S extends in Havana power through The sinking of military force in Harbor the USS Maine the Philippines in Havana
Understanding Cause & EffectWhich of the following was not an outcome of theSpanish American War?c)Cuba gained its independenced)The U.S gained Guam and Puerto Ricoe)Philippines willfully accepted American occupationf)The United States acquired a overseas empire
Analyzing Primary SourcesOriginal records of events made by eyewitnesses are known as primary sources.Primary sources include speeches, letters, journals, autobiographies, legal documents,drawings, pictures, and other objects made at the time. Each primary source can givesome kind of information but does not necessarily give a complete picture of an event. For example, a letter from an immigrant might describe in detail the events of thedifficult journey, but might not tell you how many people immigrated. Learning to Analyze Primary Sources- Use the following guidelines to help analyze primary sources: •Determine the origin of the source (the source’s author) and when and where the source was written or made. •Analyze the data for the main idea or concept as well as supporting ideas. •Consider the author’s personal beliefs or attitudes.
Interpreting & Analyzing Information from Primary SourceUse the excerpt and social studies knowledge to answer the question below. How long are the Spaniards to drench Cuba with the blood and tears of herpeople? How long is the peasantry of Spain to be drafted away to Cuba to diemiserably in a hopeless war, that Spanish nobles and Spanish officers may getmedals and honors? - New York World, 1897The author of this article most likely believed that the U.S involvement in theSpanish American War was necessary in order to-h)Prevent further casualties in Cubai)Protect U.S economic interests in Spainj)Make Cuba a U.S colonyk)Seize control of Spanish territories
The Panama CanalRoosevelt and others believed a canal throughcentral America would save time and money formilitary and commercial shipping. The canalshortened the distance between the Pacific andAtlantic Oceans by 8,000 miles.
Analyzing HeadlinesRoosevelt Shrinks the World!What is this headline referring to?b)The building of the Panama Canalc)The end of the Spanish American Ward)The annexation of Hawaiie)The Monroe Doctrine
Drawing ConclusionsWhen you draw a conclusion, you analyze and interpret facts and information to arrive at a conclusion,or a reasonable judgment that sums up the information. Drawing conclusions may often involvegathering information that is not mentioned in the text. You may need to infer, or use information inthe text and what you already know about a topic to help you reach your conclusion. Learning to Draw Conclusions- Use the following guidelines to help you draw conclusions. •Read the selection carefully. •Identify the main ideas related to the topic. •Look for key information and data in the text, graphics, and any illustrations or photos. •Carefully consider all points of view presented in the text. •Draw conclusions about the topic based on the information given. •Ask yourself whether your conclusions are based on information in the text.
1920’s & 1930’sEconomic Boom & Bust: The economy began a steady growth that lasted most of the 1920 decade. Technology made rapid growth possible, and electricity powered American industry. As electricity became more available, demand grew for appliances. By the 1920’s more than 60% of households had electricity. Consumers acquired refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, and radios. As demand for these items grew, more and more of them were produced, leading to lower prices. Between 1920 and 1929, the cost of a refrigerator dropped from $600 to $300.
Drawing ConclusionsEconomic Boom & Bust ?: 1. What conclusion can you draw about the daily lives of ordinary citizens in the 1920’s? A. The prices of automobiles rose due to decreased consumer demand. B. Americans did not understand the new advances in technology. C. Americans preferred to save their earnings rather than spend them. D. Americans’ lives became easier because of the improvement in the economy and affordability of consumer goods.
Practicing Main Ideas & Supporting Details New Mexico’s Role in WWIINew Mexican and Philippian soldiers were forced tomarch 65 miles then held prisoner during WWII by theJapanese Imperial Army, which is known as the BataanDeath March. Later in the war, New Mexico’s NavajoCode Talkers would serve a crucial role in keeping oursecret code allowing us an opportunity to gain anadvantage over the Japanese who later surrendered. Asour soldiers fought bravely in the Pacific dedicatedscientists worked in our secret city developing a devicethat would win the war for the United States. On July 16,1945 the first atomic detonation took place in SocorroCounty at the Trinity Site. New Mexico’s contribution tothe war effort is memorialized throughout our state andrecognized every year at Veteran’s Day in many our citiesand their monuments celebrating our citizen’s bravery.
Practicing Main Ideas & Supporting Details In ten complete sentences elaborate on the previous text and add supporting details that correspond each bold term.
Evaluating InformationInformation that aims to persuade people to accept a viewpoint may notbe based on factual evidence. By evaluating information, you criticallyassess the information and form a judgment about its accuracy andusefulness. Learning to Evaluate Information- Use the following guidelines to help you evaluate information. •Read the source for its content. •Identify the author’s opinions and biases. Look for emotion-filled words. •Consider the motives the author may have had in writing the document and author’s target audience. •Based on your evaluation, form a judgment on how accurate and trustworthy the information is. •Draw a conclusion as to the usefulness of the information.
Evaluating Information The Atomic Bomb By the spring of 1945, the Japanese faced certain defeat. Yet theycontinued to fight. Their refusal to surrender led the United States to use apowerful new weapon: the atomic bomb. After years of work on July 16,1945, scientists tested the atomic bomb in the New Mexico desert. Trumannow had to decide whether to use the bomb against Japan. The allies issuedthe Postdam Declaration, warning that is Japan did not surrender it faced“prompt and utter destruction.” The Japanese leader did not want tosurrender, and Truman ordered the use of the bomb. On August 6, 1945, an American B-29 bomber, the Enola Gay,dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Three dayslater, a second bomb was dropped on the city of Nagasaki. The atomicbombs caused unimaginable destruction. The fist bomb leveled Hiroshimaand killed 80,000 to 120,00 people instantly; the Nagasaki bomb killedbetween 35,000 and 74,000 people. Thousands more were injured, andmany died later from radiation.
Evaluate Information Directions: Often a writer will try to persuade readers to accept a certain viewpoint. Read the following text and primary source. As you read, evaluate the information. Ask yourself if the reasoning is supported by sound factual information and if the passages appeal to the emotions and biases of the readers. Then answers the questions that follow. In July 1945, President Truman went to Postdam, near Berlin, for a meeting with WinstonChurchill and Josef Stalin. While the president was on his way back to the United States, anatomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan. On August 15, 1945, the Japanese surrendered.Many Americans have questioned the wisdom and the morality of using the atomic bomb.In recent years, some historians have suggested that the real reason for dropping the atomicBomb was to show the Soviet Union that the United States had a trump card in any post-warDispute.
Evaluating InformationIn his memoirs, from which this excerpt is taken, President Truman offers hisown explanation of his decision to use the atomic bomb. “The historic message of the first explosion of an atomic bomb was flashed to me in amessage from Secretary of War Stimson on the morning of July 16. The most secret and themost daring enterprise of the war had succeeded. We are now in possession of a weapon thatwould not only revolutionize war but could alter the course of history and civilizations. “The Army plan envisaged an amphibious landing in the fall of 1945 on the island ofKyushu, the southernmost of the Japanese home islands. The first landing would then befollowed approximately four months later by a second great invasion, which would be carriedout by our Eighth and Tenth Armies, followed by the First Army transferred from Europe, all ofwhich go ashore in the Kanto plains near Tokyo. In all, it had been estimated that it wouldrequire until the late fall of 1946 to bring Japan to her knees. “This was a formidable conception, and all of us realized fully that the fighting would befierce and the losses heavy. General Marshall told me that it might cost half a millionAmerican lives to force the enemy’s surrender on his home grounds. “Let there be no mistake about it. I regarded the bomb as a military weapon and neverhad any doubt that it should be used. “In deciding to use this bomb I wanted to make sure that it would be used as a weaponof war in the manner prescribed by the laws of war.”
Evaluating Information Standardized Test Practice1. What viewpoint does Truman want the reader to understand? 1. In recent years, some historians have suggested that Truman’s real reason for dropping the atomic bomb was___________________________________________________ C.To save thousands of Japanese lives that would be___________________________________________________ lost during an invasion. D.To save the enormous amount of money that would be required to mount a full-scale invasion of Europe.___________________________________________________ E.To show the Soviet Union that the United States had the atomic bomb in case of any disputes after the war.2. Briefly explain how Truman present his defense of his F.To keep the Japanese from developing the atomic decision to use the atomic bomb and whether his defense bomb. is effective. 2. Truman said that he chose to drop the atomic bomb___________________________________________________ on Japan because J.The Soviet Union was about to invade Japan___________________________________________________ K.The Soviet Union would soon have an atomic bomb if its own.___________________________________________________ L.The Japanese could never be defeated with conventional factors. M.Too many American lives would be lost in an___________________________________________________ invasion of Japan.