Only goldfishes can live without privacy?<br />Qian Tao,<br /> Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
-----Intermediary Liability of Website Operators in Privacy Cases<br />Privacy protection in cyberspace in China<br />Qian...
Privacy in Cyberspace<br />Internet industries disclose users’ privacy<br />Internet users disclose others’ privacy<br /> ...
Part 1 Privacy rules in China<br />Part 2 Case studies<br />Part 3  Freedom of expression and public concern<br />Qian Tao...
Privacy Protection in China<br />Constitutional law<br />privacy doesn’t be clearly mentioned.<br />Article 38. The person...
Privacy Protection in China<br />In General Principles of the Civil Law (GPCL),1987, the section of rights of personality(...
Privacy Protection in China<br /> Tort Liability Law (July 1,2010)<br /> privacy is written clearly in the article 2 as on...
Chinese rules for cyber torts<br />Tort liability Law 2010 (Article 36)<br />The Administrative Provisions on Internet Aud...
Summary of these rules: website operator’s duties<br />Warn/remind: <br />    properly inform its users about the obligati...
Liability <br />Know but have not taken down timely <br /> (Knowledge based liability)<br />Knowledge: <br />Have Known af...
Case studies<br />Internet forums(Message Boards):  <br />                   Zhang  Xinlin v. Tianya.cn 2006<br />Wang Fei...
Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />Tianya.cn is the most popular forum in China with more than 30 million registered members.<...
Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br /> For revenge, “toochache girl” posted  Zhang’s landline number, mobilephone number,home adr...
Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />Zhang sued that:<br />Tianya’s slow response (in monitor and take down) resulted in :<br />...
Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />Tianya argued that:<br />  (1)   no editorial responsibility: not able to give pre-publicat...
Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />Main  dispute: “timely”<br />                   37 hours                          35 hours<...
Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />The court avoided discussing this question given that there is no clear definition under th...
Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />The court held that:<br />It is true that Electronic Messaging Service providers are not ab...
Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />If the service provider’s responsibility to take down unlawful information is based on vict...
Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />Ultimately, the court held  that Tianya failed to comply with the monitoring duty sufficien...
Question:If we should impose monitoring liability?<br />Such an active moonitoring mode may cause problems:<br />Place web...
Two years later.....<br />In the case: Wang Fei v.Tianya.cn, <br />    similiar cases, different outcomes.<br />Qian Tao, ...
Wang Fei v.Tianya.cn<br />A post on Tianya.cn January 10, 2008 stated the whole process  of a recent hot news: a wife kill...
Wang Fei v.Tianya.cn<br />Among these comments, Wangfei’s personal information (such as phone number, email adress, home a...
Wang Fei v.Tianya.cn<br />Wangfei sued Tianya for privacy and reputation damages.<br />Tianya argued:<br /> terms of use ,...
Wang Fei v.Tianya.cn<br />Main disputes:<br />Monitor  and take down in time<br />Terms of use as a way to immunity<br />Q...
Wang Fei v.Tianya.cn<br />The Court held:<br />fulfilled the requirement of law by setting up monitor and filter  measures...
Wang Fei v.Tianya.cn<br />Therefore:<br />    Tianya shall take down the unlawful posts in question when discovering them ...
Question remained: timely.  <br />35 hours V. 66 days<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.c...
New question:terms of use<br />If the Terms of use/ user agreement can  release the website operators of  liability?<br />...
Changes learned From the case:<br />Active monitor             passive monitor<br />Problems:<br />Passive monitoring mode...
Two years later, in 2010<br />Yin Hong v. Baidu.com<br />Yin is a graduate  from  Shanghai Maritime University<br />Baidu ...
Yin Hong v. Baidu<br />Yin’s exboyfriend posted Yin’s nude photos on Internet for revenge on May 8, 2009. <br />Yin made a...
Yin Hong v. Baidu<br />Yin sued : Baidu’s service promoted the dissemination of photos and  increased her damage.<br />Qia...
Yin Hong v. Baidu<br />Baidu argued<br /> (1) the search engine can’t identify contents  automatically; Baidu kept monitor...
Yin Hong v. Baidu<br />Main disputes:<br />Valid notice<br />If not valid,  should Baidu have known of illegal contents<br...
Yin Hong v. Baidu<br />About the notice:<br />The court held:<br />who made the declaration on Newspaper is unclear becaus...
Yin Hong v. Baidu<br />About the knowledge<br />The court held: <br />Because:  After May 8, 2009, it became the hottest t...
Yin Hong v. Baidu<br />take-down standard hasn’t been mentioned.<br />Ultimately, Baidu was held to be liable on June 30, ...
Question:“Notice” requirement---- lack of legal guidance<br />What are the formal requirements this notice must comply wit...
Problems: “Notice” requirement <br />If  regardless of the validity of the complaints, it would result in intentional or u...
Changes learned From the case:<br />Passive monitor               moderate monitor : Implied consciousness (hot news)<br /...
Put three cases together: Summary of questions:<br />Monitor standard<br />Knowleage standard<br />Notice standard<br />Ta...
Put three cases together:Summary of changes: <br />2006-----2008------2010<br />Strict----loose-----moderate <br />Backgro...
Freedom of expression<br />Constitutional Law in ChinaArticle 35. Citizens of the People's Republic of China enjoy freedom...
Dabate on “public concern”<br />Public figures have a lesser expectation of privacy <br />But when someone who is not publ...
Dabate on “public concern”<br />If the contents in question is truthful and  newsworthy information about a matter of publ...
hypothesis:If these three cases happened in EU or US or any other countries where you are from,<br />How will be the court...
Thank you!<br />  Qian Tao,<br /> Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies,Pisa,Italy<br />China University of Political Scien...
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Privacy protection in cyberspace in China------ -----Intermediary Liability of Website Operators in Privacy Cases

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Privacy protection in cyberspace in China------ -----Intermediary Liability of Website Operators in Privacy Cases

  1. 1. Only goldfishes can live without privacy?<br />Qian Tao,<br /> Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  2. 2. -----Intermediary Liability of Website Operators in Privacy Cases<br />Privacy protection in cyberspace in China<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  3. 3. Privacy in Cyberspace<br />Internet industries disclose users’ privacy<br />Internet users disclose others’ privacy<br /> users: direct liability<br />website operators: indirect liability <br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  4. 4. Part 1 Privacy rules in China<br />Part 2 Case studies<br />Part 3 Freedom of expression and public concern<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  5. 5. Privacy Protection in China<br />Constitutional law<br />privacy doesn’t be clearly mentioned.<br />Article 38. The personal dignity of citizens of China is inviolable.<br />(considered as the constitutional basis)<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  6. 6. Privacy Protection in China<br />In General Principles of the Civil Law (GPCL),1987, the section of rights of personality(reputation, name, image, etc): privacy isn’t included.<br />Three Interpretations of the Supreme People`s Court ,1988 1993,2001<br />anyone discloses the privacy of others……should be determined as infringing upon right to reputation<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  7. 7. Privacy Protection in China<br /> Tort Liability Law (July 1,2010)<br /> privacy is written clearly in the article 2 as one of civil rights<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  8. 8. Chinese rules for cyber torts<br />Tort liability Law 2010 (Article 36)<br />The Administrative Provisions on Internet Audiovisual Program Services 2007<br />The Administrative regulation on Internet Information Service 2000<br />The Administrative Provisions on Internet Electronic Messaging Services 2000<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  9. 9. Summary of these rules: website operator’s duties<br />Warn/remind: <br /> properly inform its users about the obligations which they are subjected to by law and about the risks implied by non-compliance<br />Monitor:<br /> Shall discover the apparently illegal contents<br />Take down timely (in time):<br /> take necessary measures timely when knowing its user violating others’ privacy by its service. <br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  10. 10. Liability <br />Know but have not taken down timely <br /> (Knowledge based liability)<br />Knowledge: <br />Have Known after notice of the infringement<br />Should know the apparently illegal contents <br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  11. 11. Case studies<br />Internet forums(Message Boards): <br /> Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn 2006<br />Wang Fei v. Tianya.cn 2008<br />Search engine:<br /> Yin Hong v. Baidu.com 2010<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  12. 12. Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />Tianya.cn is the most popular forum in China with more than 30 million registered members.<br />a registered user named “toochache girl” who was quite active and famous on Tianya was doubted to be a man by another user named“one hundred flavors”. <br />After a wrong investigation, “toochache girl” mistook Zhang for “one hundred flavors”. <br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  13. 13. Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br /> For revenge, “toochache girl” posted Zhang’s landline number, mobilephone number,home adress, family member information on Tianya.cn. <br /> She also posted that “Zhang had previously been detained and is now a fugitive from the law” (it is not true)<br />Tianya took down the contents 35 hours later after his complaint.<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  14. 14. Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />Zhang sued that:<br />Tianya’s slow response (in monitor and take down) resulted in :<br /> his privacy being exposed to the public 72 hours in total. <br /> Reputation being damaged <br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  15. 15. Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />Tianya argued that:<br /> (1) no editorial responsibility: not able to give pre-publication control. <br /> (2) The filtering technology not able to filter contents including personal information automatically <br /> (3) taken down the contents as soon as they could after complaints were received.<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  16. 16. Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />Main dispute: “timely”<br /> 37 hours 35 hours<br /> monitor take down<br />User Posting victim complaint (notice) website takedown<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  17. 17. Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />The court avoided discussing this question given that there is no clear definition under the present laws.<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  18. 18. Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />The court held that:<br />It is true that Electronic Messaging Service providers are not able to edit and control the contents in advance, but they can monitor after being posted.<br />This monitor should be active and comprehensive, rather than passive. <br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  19. 19. Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />If the service provider’s responsibility to take down unlawful information is based on victim’s notice,<br /> it is unfair to victim because his right to complain is treated as an obligation in order to protect his legitimate right. <br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  20. 20. Zhang Xinlin v. Tianya.cn<br />Ultimately, the court held that Tianya failed to comply with the monitoring duty sufficiently, waited for victim’s complaint passively and indulged unlawful information disseminating on its system, Therefore, Tianya is liable for Zhang’s damages.<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  21. 21. Question:If we should impose monitoring liability?<br />Such an active moonitoring mode may cause problems:<br />Place web operators in a difficult position of evaluating complaints and consequently removing all contents in question in order to aviod any possible liability.<br />Chilling effect to freedom of expression<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  22. 22. Two years later.....<br />In the case: Wang Fei v.Tianya.cn, <br /> similiar cases, different outcomes.<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  23. 23. Wang Fei v.Tianya.cn<br />A post on Tianya.cn January 10, 2008 stated the whole process of a recent hot news: a wife killed herself because of her hansband’s betray. Wangfei is this hansband.<br />Numbers of persons have followed this post, and added comments.<br />
  24. 24. Wang Fei v.Tianya.cn<br />Among these comments, Wangfei’s personal information (such as phone number, email adress, home adress, family member etc.) was repeatedly exposed. There were also many insulting words to blame him.<br />The contents were taken down March 15, 2008<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  25. 25. Wang Fei v.Tianya.cn<br />Wangfei sued Tianya for privacy and reputation damages.<br />Tianya argued:<br /> terms of use ,warning when users post <br /> Taken down before the lawsuit (3 days before)<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  26. 26. Wang Fei v.Tianya.cn<br />Main disputes:<br />Monitor and take down in time<br />Terms of use as a way to immunity<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  27. 27. Wang Fei v.Tianya.cn<br />The Court held:<br />fulfilled the requirement of law by setting up monitor and filter measures and publishing terms of use.<br />had the monitor duty,<br /> but impossible to monitor every post based on the existing and common web managing mode and technological methods. <br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  28. 28. Wang Fei v.Tianya.cn<br />Therefore:<br /> Tianya shall take down the unlawful posts in question when discovering them itself or after victim’s complaint<br /> Tianya is not liable since the posts in question were taken down before this lawsuit. (decision on December 18th, 2008)<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  29. 29. Question remained: timely. <br />35 hours V. 66 days<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  30. 30. New question:terms of use<br />If the Terms of use/ user agreement can release the website operators of liability?<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  31. 31. Changes learned From the case:<br />Active monitor passive monitor<br />Problems:<br />Passive monitoring mode may cause fringement increasingly.<br />In order to get more visits, some website operators post unlawful contents in the name of users.<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  32. 32. Two years later, in 2010<br />Yin Hong v. Baidu.com<br />Yin is a graduate from Shanghai Maritime University<br />Baidu is the leading search engine service provider in China (as Google in US)<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  33. 33. Yin Hong v. Baidu<br />Yin’s exboyfriend posted Yin’s nude photos on Internet for revenge on May 8, 2009. <br />Yin made a declaration on Shi Dai Newspaper asking all websites to take measures to remove them as well as related news on 13th May 2009. <br />By searching “Yin Hong” , “Maritime scandal” or “Maritime Girl” as keywords on Baidu.com, thousands of links, which included photos and personal information of Yin ,could be found out.<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  34. 34. Yin Hong v. Baidu<br />Yin sued : Baidu’s service promoted the dissemination of photos and increased her damage.<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Supriore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  35. 35. Yin Hong v. Baidu<br />Baidu argued<br /> (1) the search engine can’t identify contents automatically; Baidu kept monitoring illegal contents and removed the links even before Yin’s cliam<br />(2) the declaration on a local newspaper didn’t constitute a valid notice <br />(3) new posts continually, new URLs. it was impossible to screen all links even manually. <br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  36. 36. Yin Hong v. Baidu<br />Main disputes:<br />Valid notice<br />If not valid, should Baidu have known of illegal contents<br />Take down effciently<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  37. 37. Yin Hong v. Baidu<br />About the notice:<br />The court held:<br />who made the declaration on Newspaper is unclear because it was ended with “Ms. YH” instead of Yin’s full name. So didn’t constitute a valid notice<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  38. 38. Yin Hong v. Baidu<br />About the knowledge<br />The court held: <br />Because: After May 8, 2009, it became the hottest topic<br />Baidu received an anonymous complaint on May 15, 2009,<br /> ------Therefore, Baidu should have had knowledge of the infringement no later than May 15. <br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  39. 39. Yin Hong v. Baidu<br />take-down standard hasn’t been mentioned.<br />Ultimately, Baidu was held to be liable on June 30, 2010<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  40. 40. Question:“Notice” requirement---- lack of legal guidance<br />What are the formal requirements this notice must comply with?<br /> any form?<br />Who can effectively bring the notice ?<br /> anyone? <br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  41. 41. Problems: “Notice” requirement <br />If regardless of the validity of the complaints, it would result in intentional or unintentional abuses of reporting and wrong accusations<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  42. 42. Changes learned From the case:<br />Passive monitor moderate monitor : Implied consciousness (hot news)<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  43. 43. Put three cases together: Summary of questions:<br />Monitor standard<br />Knowleage standard<br />Notice standard<br />Take-down standard<br />Self-regulation standard<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  44. 44. Put three cases together:Summary of changes: <br />2006-----2008------2010<br />Strict----loose-----moderate <br />Background:<br />2006 cyber targeting and cyber bullying began. control the information on internet .<br />2008 promote internet market, especially the social networking websites.<br />2010 balance, control the increasing infringements<br />In this process, freedom of expression has never been mentioned.<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  45. 45. Freedom of expression<br />Constitutional Law in ChinaArticle 35. Citizens of the People's Republic of China enjoy freedom of expression, and ……<br />Legal status: Freedom of expression> privacy?<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  46. 46. Dabate on “public concern”<br />Public figures have a lesser expectation of privacy <br />But when someone who is not public figure but is nonetheless in postion of influence and is involved in a public debate or general concern?<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  47. 47. Dabate on “public concern”<br />If the contents in question is truthful and newsworthy information about a matter of public significance?<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  48. 48. hypothesis:If these three cases happened in EU or US or any other countries where you are from,<br />How will be the courts’ decision?<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />
  49. 49. Thank you!<br /> Qian Tao,<br /> Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies,Pisa,Italy<br />China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing ,China<br />taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />Qian Tao, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,Italy taoqianchina@gmail.com<br />

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