Common Acids:All others considered Weak (examples)Strong Acids The FormulaSulphuric acidHydrochloric acidHybrobromic acidHydroiodic acidNitric acidPerchloric acidH2SO4HClHBrHIHNO3HClO4Acetic acid (vinegar) HC2H3O2Carbonic acid HCO3Weak Acid The Formula
Characteristics of Bases: Bases usually taste bitter Bases feel slippery Bases contain hydroxide ions STRONG bases are also poisonousand corrosive to skinOH-
Strong Bases The FormulaeLithium hydroxideSodium hydroxidePotassium hydroxideRubidium hydroxideCaesium hydroxideBarium hydroxideCalcium hydroxideStrontium hydroxideLiOHNaOHKOHRbOHCsOHBa(OH)2Ca(OH)2Sr(OH)2Common Bases:(Hydroxides of Group 1 and Group 2 Metalsare STRONG)All others are WEAK
Some bases (VERY FEW)don’t have OH-Most commonly:ammonia NH3
Reactions betweenacids and basesWhen and acid and a basereact with each other, thecharacteristic properties ofboth are destroyed. This iscalled neutralization.
Reactions betweenacids and basesGeneral formula for acid base reaction:Acid + Base → H2O + Salt“Salt” means any ioniccompound formed froman acid/base reactionNOT JUSTNaCl !!Neutralization Reaction Animation
NeutralizationHCl + NaOH → H2O + NaClacid base water salt
NeutralizationAnother ExampleHNO3 + KOH → H2O + KNO3H OHKNO3acid base water salt
IndicatorsAn indicator is a compoundthat will change color in thepresence of an acid or baseUniversal indicator (pH paper)Used for the full pH rangeRed Litmus-Turns blue in baseBlue Litmus-Turns red in acidPhenolphthalein-Turns pinkin base
pHpH stands for “potentialhydrogen” and is a measureof how many H+ ions thereare in solution.The MORE H+ there are, theLOWER the pH will be.
pH ScaleShows the range of H+concentrationsHigh H+ concentration Low H+ concentration