Intro acids and bases

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Intro acids and bases

  1. 1. Brainpop~Acids and Bases
  2. 2. Acid:A substance thatreleases H+ ions inan aqueous solution“aqueous” means: water
  3. 3. Characteristics of Acids: Acids have a sour taste Acids react with metals Acids contain Hydrogen Many are poisonous andcorrosive to skinH
  4. 4. Strong Acids(break down completely to give off many H+ ions)
  5. 5. Weak Acids(only partially breaks down, gives less H+)Mark Bishop Acid animation
  6. 6. Common Acids:All others considered Weak (examples)Strong Acids The FormulaSulphuric acidHydrochloric acidHybrobromic acidHydroiodic acidNitric acidPerchloric acidH2SO4HClHBrHIHNO3HClO4Acetic acid (vinegar) HC2H3O2Carbonic acid HCO3Weak Acid The Formula
  7. 7. Base:A substance thatreleases OH- ions inan aqueous solution
  8. 8. Characteristics of Bases: Bases usually taste bitter Bases feel slippery Bases contain hydroxide ions STRONG bases are also poisonousand corrosive to skinOH-
  9. 9. Strong Bases The FormulaeLithium hydroxideSodium hydroxidePotassium hydroxideRubidium hydroxideCaesium hydroxideBarium hydroxideCalcium hydroxideStrontium hydroxideLiOHNaOHKOHRbOHCsOHBa(OH)2Ca(OH)2Sr(OH)2Common Bases:(Hydroxides of Group 1 and Group 2 Metalsare STRONG)All others are WEAK
  10. 10. Some bases (VERY FEW)don’t have OH-Most commonly:ammonia NH3
  11. 11. Reactions betweenacids and basesWhen and acid and a basereact with each other, thecharacteristic properties ofboth are destroyed. This iscalled neutralization.
  12. 12. Reactions betweenacids and basesGeneral formula for acid base reaction:Acid + Base → H2O + Salt“Salt” means any ioniccompound formed froman acid/base reactionNOT JUSTNaCl !!Neutralization Reaction Animation
  13. 13. NeutralizationHCl + NaOH → H2O + NaClacid base water salt
  14. 14. NeutralizationAnother ExampleHNO3 + KOH → H2O + KNO3H OHKNO3acid base water salt
  15. 15. IndicatorsAn indicator is a compoundthat will change color in thepresence of an acid or baseUniversal indicator (pH paper)Used for the full pH rangeRed Litmus-Turns blue in baseBlue Litmus-Turns red in acidPhenolphthalein-Turns pinkin base
  16. 16. pHpH stands for “potentialhydrogen” and is a measureof how many H+ ions thereare in solution.The MORE H+ there are, theLOWER the pH will be.
  17. 17. pH ScaleShows the range of H+concentrationsHigh H+ concentration Low H+ concentration

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