Energy Harvesting Presentation Rjc Tyk 2


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Energy Harvesting Presentation Rjc Tyk 2

  1. 1. Energy Harvesting Elective Are the Environmental Energy Going to Waste? Harness Renewable Energy from the Environment Presenter: Mr. Tan Yen Kheng ( Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Cordially invited Raffles Junior College for the presentation
  2. 2. Present Energy Crisis Global warming results from excessive fuel burning Pollution caused by burning and oil spill Depleting in fossil fuels supply Surge in oil price due to growing demand Economy intact with energy supply
  3. 3. Sources of Energy Sources of electricity in the U.S. recorded in 2005 Fossil fuel generation is the largest energy source Cited from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, “Electricity generation”, ><
  4. 4. Sources of Energy (cont’d) Renewable energy source Nonrenewable energy source Renewable energy source Nonrenewable energy source Renewable energy source Nonrenewable energy source Renewable energy source Nonrenewable energy source Renewable energy source Nonrenewable energy source Cited from National Energy Education Development Project (NEED), “Scientific Forms of Energy”, ><
  5. 5. Transformation of Energy How do we achieve the goal of providing energy to the consumer at a specified location? converting energy from primary form (e.g. chemical energy contained in coal) to a suitable secondary form (electrical energy) transporting energy in the secondary form (electrical) from the place of conversion to the point of consumption, and finally converting it back to a suitable form (mechanical) at the point of consumption for final usage Transmission & distribution Power Electric Final energy Primary energy Power station electronics machines usage Fossil fuel Controlled Electric Drive Power Steam Electric Electric Mechanical Nuclear electronic turbine generator machine load converter Solar heat Thermal Mechanical Electrical Electrical Mechanical constant v & f variable v & f
  6. 6. Transformation of Energy Energy in electrical form is most versatile and universally useful: instant availability easy transmit-ability easy controllability For these reasons: centralized electric power generating stations are built transmission and distribution networks have been developed to convert, transmit and deliver energy to the point of consumption
  7. 7. Motivation of Energy Harvesting “The pervasiveness and near-invisibility of computing will be helped along by new technologies such as … inductively powered computers that rely on heat and motion from their environment to run without batteries.” Bill Gates in ‘The Economist’, Dec. 2002. “The $170 million initiative is part of an over $1 billion research blueprint, to generate new breakthroughs, grow top R&D talent and pursue a new research area - clean energy.” article in ‘Strait times Newspaper’, Mar. 2007. Goal: To investigate various energy harvesting technologies that can power mobile low-power electronic devices
  8. 8. Overview of Energy Harvesting What is energy harvesting? Gather energy from ambient environment and convert into usable electrical energy Importance of energy harvesting Need for endless energy supply to electronic systems To reduce dependency on batteries Accelerated interest for powering ubiquitously deployed sensor networks and mobile electronic products To conserve energy consumption and promote environmental friendliness
  9. 9. Overview of Energy Harvesting Advantages Boundless supply ⇒ Self-sustainable Ample energy solution ⇒ Unlimited usage Readily available, anywhere, everywhere ⇒ Mobility and promote truly autonomous Green and clean ⇒ Environmental friendliness Eliminate the problems that arise from replacement /recharging of batteries Suitable for numerous deployment at unreachable location
  10. 10. Characteristics of Batteries 1000 Continuous Power Density (µW)/cm3 Lithium 100 Alkaline 10 Zinc air Lithium rechargeable 1 NiMH 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Lifespan (Years)
  11. 11. Forms of Energy KINETIC ENERGY POTENTIAL ENERGY Electrical Energy is the movement of Chemical Energy is energy stored in the electrical charges. bonds of atoms and molecules. Radiant Energy is electromagnetic energy Mechanical Energy is energy stored in that travels in transverse waves which includes objects by the application of a force. visible light, x-rays, radio waves, etc. Solar energy is an example of radiant energy. Nuclear Energy is energy stored in the nucleus of an atom––the energy that holds Thermal Energy or heat, is the internal the nucleus together. energy in substances – the vibration and movement of the atoms and molecules within Gravitational Energy is the energy of substances. position or place. Motion Energy is the movement of objects from one place to another. Sound is the movement of energy through substances in longitudinal waves.
  12. 12. Potential energy harvesters
  13. 13. Comparison of Energy Harvesting Sources Energy source Power densities Notes Cited from J.A. Paradiso, T. Starner, “Energy scavenging for mobile and wireless electronics”, IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol.4, issue.1, pp.18 – 27, 2005
  14. 14. Lists of possible application areas Potential applications Remote area sensing Detection of natural disasters Industrial Automation Condition-based maintenance of energy distribution system equipment Lifestyle Management Body area network for health monitoring Structure health monitoring Buildings and bridge structure monitoring Automotive Network Vehicle navigation and safety system Eco Management Charging of Electronic devices, etc.
  15. 15. Thermal Energy Harvesting Nextreme Thermal Solutions:
  16. 16. Thermal Energy Harvesting (cont’d) Wrist-watch-like thermal harvester to power oximeter Thermoelectric conversion of human heat Oximeter measures heart rate and oxygen level in the blood
  17. 17. Thermal Energy Harvesting (cont’d) Seiko’s Thermic wristwatch Small thermal gradient provided by body heat over ambient temperature Hence body heat energy is converted into electrical energy and then into mechanical energy
  18. 18. Vibration Energy Harvesting Piezoelectric and Electromagnetic generators
  19. 19. Vibration Energy Harvesting (cont’d) Stair-Case Vibrations from Running Up and Down Stairs Convert vibrations from passing trains to provide continuous light without the need for wiring into the grid Harvest vibration energy from a wooden staircase to power temperature sensor Research work done in University of California, Berkeley, USA
  20. 20. Vibration Energy Harvesting (cont’d) Motion/Kinetic/Vibration Energy Captures the kinetic energy of normal everyday motion – Human or vehicular Helping solve the military’s high-pain mobile power crisis Transforming the way mobile devices are powered M2E link:
  21. 21. Vibration Energy Harvesting (cont’d) Batteryless remote controller/lighting switch Converts mechanical energy provided by human hand depressing the piezoelectric transducer into regulated electrical energy to power the RF transmitter To power remote control of light switches within buildings in a wireless manner Piezoelectric Transducer RF transmitter and power conditioning circuit
  22. 22. Motion Energy Harvesting Knee-powered generator Self-powered totaltotal knee replacement setup Self-powered knee replacement components
  23. 23. Wind Energy Harvesting A wind turbine obtains its power input by converting the force of the wind into a torque (turning force) acting on the rotor blades The amount of energy which the wind transfers to the rotor depends on the density of the air, the rotor area and the wind speed
  24. 24. Wind Energy Harvesting (cont’d) Wind energy harvesting scheme implemented to power remote area wind speed sensor
  25. 25. Solar Energy Harvesting Develop a solar energy harvesting mechanism to power the optical sensor used to detect vehicle speed Solar-powered Wireless Optical Sensor for Vehicle Speed Detection Rechargeable battery Power processing unit and RF circuits Solar panel Optical sensor
  26. 26. Solar Energy Harvesting (cont’d) Optical sensors placed 2 meters apart Vehicle traveling t t speed = 1 2 Y = t2 – t1 2/Y time Calculation for speed: Distance between the optical sensors = 2 meters Total time taken by the car to travel 2 meters = 340ms Speed = Distance/Time = 2m/340 ms = 5.88 m/s = 21.17 km/h Actual traveling speed of the car = 20 km/h
  27. 27. Design considerations for energy harvesting circuit Typical block diagram of the energy harvesting circuit More challenges and design considerations for the low-powered power converter than other portions of the power processing unit
  28. 28. Photovoltaic Technology Do You Know …… The sun generates an enormous amount of energy – 1,540,000,000,000,000,000 kWh/year (1,540 Peta kWh/year) This is 15,000 times as much the electrical consumption worldwide
  29. 29. Photovoltaic Technology (cont’d) PV stands for Photovoltaic and is short for photovoltaic solar energy Photovoltaic solar cells or PV cells convert sunlight directly into electrical energy Solar cell’s energy conversion efficiency is the percentage of power converted from absorbed light into electrical energy For example, solar cells of 1 m² surface area producing 120 watt of peak power (Wp) under Standard Test Condition (STC) has efficiency of 12%
  30. 30. How Photovoltaic Works Photovoltaic cells – silicon-based A solar cell or a photovoltaic cell is a device that can convert light energy directly into electrical energy by means of photovoltaic effect Two main functions: 1. Photo generation of charge carriers in a light absorbing material (electrons and holes) 2. Separation of these charge carriers to maintain flow i.e. produce electricity
  31. 31. How Photovoltaic Works (cont’d) When solar energy photons hit the cell, its energy frees the electron hole pair. The electric field generated in the depletion zone pushes the electron to n-side where it is provided with a conducting path to produce current Flow of Su Electrons nl ig ht N-Type Silicon Junction Layer P-Type Silicon
  32. 32. Types of PV cells Monocrystalline Silicon Cell The principle advantage of mono- crystalline cells are their high efficiencies, typically around 15%, higher costs than other technologies Multicrystalline (Polycrystalline) Silicon Cell Multicrystalline cells are cheaper to produce than monocrystalline ones, slightly less efficient, with average efficiencies of around 12%
  33. 33. Types of PV cells Amorphous (Non-Crystalline) Silicon Composed of silicon atoms in a thin homogenous layer. Amorphous silicon can be deposited on a wide range of substrates, both rigid and flexible. Efficiency varies between 4% to 12%. Easy to manufacture, low cost
  34. 34. Types of PV cells Other Thin Films Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) and Copper Indium Diselenide (CIGS: Cu(In,Ga)Se2 ) are now being used for PV modules. Can be manufactured by relatively inexpensive industrial processes, and offer higher module efficiencies than amorphous silicon.
  35. 35. Factors Affecting PV Performance Solar Isolation Angle of Incidence and Orientation Temperature Spectrum of Light Shadows Dust, Dirt, Fungus, Birds
  36. 36. Factors Affecting PV Performance Solar Isolation State / City Latitude Longitude Year Average Sydney 34°0’ S 151°0’ E 4.59 Singapore 1°17’ N 103°51’ E 4.61 Kuala Lumpur 3°7’ N 100°42’ E 4.70 Bangkok 13°45’ N 100°30’ E 4.27 New Delhi 28°42’ N 77°12’ E 5.10 Tokyo 35°45’ N 139°38’ E 4.00 Paris 48°52’ N 2°20’ E 3.34 London 51°32’ N 0°5’ W 2.61 Mexico City 19°23’ N 99°9’ W 5.49
  37. 37. Factors Affecting PV Performance Angle of Incidence and Orientation To optimise the effect of the solar radiation, the solar cells need to be directed towards the sun The electricity yield of a solar cell depends strongly on its orientation and angle of inclination Reflected rays Sunlight Harvested rays Solar panel
  38. 38. Factors Affecting PV Performance Temperature Cell temperature increases, PV performance decreases
  39. 39. Factors Affecting PV Performance Spectrum of Light Solar cell respond differently to the different wavelengths or colours of light Light that is too high or low in energy is not usable by a solar cell to produce electricity
  40. 40. Factors Affecting PV Performance Shadows Shadow casts on solar cells affect the output performance
  41. 41. Factors Affecting PV Performance Dust, Dirt, Fungus, Birds Spikes installed to prevent birds resting Fungus Growth
  42. 42. Conclusions Discuss on the topic of Energy Overview of Energy Harvesting Illustrate some applications of EH in both academic and industry Learn about photovoltaic technology Investigate on various factors that affect the PV performance
  43. 43. Q&A Thank you for your attention!
  44. 44. Energy Harvesting Elective Objectives of Elective Getting to know Solar Energy Harvesting Understand how power is harvested and transferred to the load Characteristic the performance of the solar panel Design and implement solar energy harvesting in practical application system
  45. 45. Energy Harvesting Activity (cont’d) Basic configuration of the solar panel and the motor
  46. 46. Energy Harvesting Activity (cont’d) Materials to be provided to each team include: - 2 x Solar Panels 1 x Solar Motor 3 x LEDs (Red, Yellow, Green) 1 x Buzzer 1 x Variable resistor 1 x Digital Multimeter 1 x Breadboard
  47. 47. Energy Harvesting Activity (cont’d) Guidelines for the hand-on sessions 1. Characterize the solar panels a) Measure the electrical Open-Circuit (O/C) voltage and Short- Circuit (S/C) current b) Connect the solar panel to the load resistance. Measure the voltage across the load and the current in the circuit c) Repeat steps 1.a) and 1.b) for different light intensity d) Plot the I vs V and Power vs Resistances curves
  48. 48. Energy Harvesting Activity (cont’d) Guidelines for the hand-on sessions 2. Use the solar panel to power the given loads i.e. LEDs, motor and buzzer a) Measure the voltage required by each load b) Measure the current required by each load c) Compute the power required by each load based on Power = Voltage x Current
  49. 49. Energy Harvesting Activity (cont’d) Guidelines for the hand-on sessions 3. Design Scenario a) Imagine you are a contractor who is tasked to design a three room apartment to run on sun energy b) The design of the apartment must fulfilled the following constrains by the owner I. At least one ‘ON’ LED per room II. At least one fan in one of the rooms III. Place a door bell in the apartment IV. Under bright light intensity c) Draft out the circuit schematic drawing to verify that your design is working
  50. 50. Q&A Q&A