Plantation Agriculture

47,959 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
14 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
47,959
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
260
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
999
Comments
0
Likes
14
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Plantation Agriculture

  1. 1. 7.5 Plantation Agriculture <ul><li>Characteristics & Historical Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs/Processes/Output </li></ul><ul><li>Case study: Oil Palm Malaysia </li></ul>Pg 54
  2. 2. Plantation Agriculture <ul><li>Can we classify rice as a plantation crop? </li></ul><ul><li>No. </li></ul><ul><li>Although it has become a commercial enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>most of the farmers are still subsistence in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Size of the farms are small </li></ul><ul><li>farmers sell the surplus to the middleman </li></ul><ul><li>who will then transport them to the mill for processing, packing and exporting . </li></ul><ul><li>However, the size of a plantation is at least 40 hectares . </li></ul><ul><li>Cash crops are grown instead of staples. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Where is Plantation Agriculture Practised in Asia? <ul><li>Mainly in Peninsular Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Islands of Sumatra and Java in Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Philippines </li></ul>Why?
  4. 4. Historical Overview <ul><li>Colonial period (18 th & 19 th centuries) </li></ul><ul><li>British : rubber plantations in M’sia </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch : coffee, sugar & spices in Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Hot & wet climate favoured perennial cultivation of sugar cane & rubber </li></ul><ul><li>Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Great demand in Europe & local industries </li></ul>
  5. 5. Changing Character of Plantation Agriculture <ul><li>Used to be foreign-owned </li></ul><ul><li>now largely owned by government or private companies </li></ul><ul><li>Govt encouraging setting up of plantations </li></ul><ul><li>subsidise capital investments of subsistence farmers who switch to plantation agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Land resettlement schemes by FELDA </li></ul><ul><li>F e deral L and D evelopment A uthority </li></ul>
  6. 6. Characteristics of Plantation <ul><li>Physical Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Land Size </li></ul><ul><li>Relief </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul>Refer to activity book pp 37-38! <ul><li>2. Human Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Labour type </li></ul><ul><li>Machines/Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilisers </li></ul>INPUTS OUTPUTS
  7. 7. What is Plantation Agriculture? <ul><li>It is a type of commercial farming where one particular crop is grown on a large scale and sold for cash and export . </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber, oil palm, coconut, pineapple, banana, tea, coffee and sugar cane </li></ul>
  8. 8. Case Study: Plantation Agriculture Oil Palm Plantations in Malaysia
  9. 9. Case Study: Oil Palm Plantation Peninsular M’sia <ul><li>Describe & explain the distribution of oil palm plantations in Msia </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of palm oil industry to M’sia & the world </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations & problems faced by oil palm plantations </li></ul>
  10. 10. Oil Palm Plantations in M’sia -Introduction- <ul><li>Did you know? </li></ul><ul><li>M’sia is world’s largest </li></ul><ul><li>producer & exporter of </li></ul><ul><li>palm oil since 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil palm is M’sia’s </li></ul><ul><li>main cash crop </li></ul>
  11. 11. Oil Palm Plantations in M’sia -Distribution-
  12. 12. Oil Palm Plantations in M’sia -Distribution- <ul><li>Mostly in 4 states: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Johor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both sides of the main road & railway line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selangor & Perak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Coastal lowlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pahang </li></ul></ul><ul><li> - Jengka Triangle (land development scheme for smallholders) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Oil Palm Plantations in M’sia -Factors influencing distribution- <ul><li>Physical conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Annual r/f: at least 1,500mm + evenly distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Temp : 24-32°C </li></ul><ul><li>Relief : flat/ undulating (gently sloping) </li></ul><ul><li>Soil : well-drained </li></ul><ul><li>Other requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Labour : abundant cheap supply </li></ul><ul><li>Transport: efficient network within estate linking mills to refineries </li></ul>
  14. 14. CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>A single crop is grown over a large area </li></ul><ul><li>planted in neat rows with well-developed network of transportation and communication, connecting plantation areas, processing industries and markets together </li></ul><ul><li>Production is mainly for the market and not for the farmers’ self-consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Involves modern inputs like chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Modern machinery is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Labour-intensive </li></ul>
  15. 15. Oil Palm Plantations in M’sia -Reasons for importance- <ul><li>Generating employment </li></ul><ul><li>Labour intensive, job opportunities in the field </li></ul><ul><li>From labourers, technicians and professionals involved in the R & D . </li></ul><ul><li>Generate high earnings to Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Provide export revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Supports local industries </li></ul><ul><li>Provide raw materials in local industries </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage development of local cosmetics, detergent, food and cooking oil industries </li></ul>
  16. 16. What exactly is Oil Palm? - Palm oil is an edible plant oil - Palm oil is naturally reddish because it contains a high amount of beta-carotene (though boiling it destroys the carotenoids and renders the oil colourless). - Palm oil is one of the few vegetable oils relatively high in saturated fats . -T he oil is widely used as a cooking oil , as an ingredient in margarine, and is a component of many processed foods. -Other than cooking oil, oil palm can be used as soaps, washing powders and personal care products to treat wounds.
  17. 17. Oil Palm Plantation in Malaysia - In 2004, Malaysia produced 14 million tons of palm oil -more than 38,000 square kilometres of land -The Malaysian Sime Darby conglomerate is its largest plantation operator, with 524,626 hectares of oil palms -Malaysia opened its first biodiesel plant in the state of Pahang
  18. 18. - It produces two types of oil - palm oil from the flesh of the fruit, and palm kernel oil from the seed or kernel . - For every 10 tonnes of palm oil, about 1 tonne of palm kemel oil is also obtained .
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES <ul><li>More job opportunities for the people </li></ul><ul><li>Source of income for the country </li></ul><ul><li>Wider variety of food </li></ul><ul><li>Effective use of vast land </li></ul>
  20. 20. DISADVANTAGES <ul><li>Local people may be exploited as cheap labour, leading to slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of a single crop makes plantations very prone to diseases, poor weather and the fluctuation in world market prices </li></ul><ul><li>Fertile soil for crops exported, rather than for self-consumption </li></ul>
  21. 21. Oil Palm Plantations in M’sia -Challenges- <ul><li>Shortage of labour </li></ul><ul><li>Diff to recruit labour due to stiff competition from other economic sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Crucial to maintaining + raising crop production because process is labourr dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to increasing production cost </li></ul><ul><li>Raising production cost </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of labour has caused production to fluctuate </li></ul><ul><li>heavy application of fertilisers: poor tropical soil + monoculture </li></ul>
  22. 22. Oil Palm Plantations in M’sia -Challenges- <ul><li>Risk of disease/ pest attack </li></ul><ul><li>Monoculture </li></ul><ul><li>Fluctuating prices </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on demand from user countries </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy loses when price plunges </li></ul><ul><li>Competition from oil substitutes </li></ul><ul><li>Soya bean oil, sunflower seed oil </li></ul><ul><li>Affects earnings </li></ul>
  23. 23. Oil Palm Plantations in M’sia -Measures to counter Problems- <ul><li>Mechanisation of field operations </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanising field operations to cut down heavy dependence on labour </li></ul><ul><li>Aircraft to spray fertilisers </li></ul><ul><li>Employ foreign labour </li></ul><ul><li>Other forms of tech to lower production cost </li></ul><ul><li>To remain competitive </li></ul><ul><li>R & D to improve efficiency of processes </li></ul><ul><li>Produce new & value added products </li></ul>
  24. 24. Oil Palm Plantations in M’sia -Measures to counter Problems- <ul><li>Foreign labour </li></ul><ul><li>Solve labour shortage problem </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarging present market </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. South America to enhance marketability </li></ul><ul><li>Trade fairs, publications,… </li></ul>
  25. 25. PROBLEMS FACED <ul><li>Technology advances, reducing the need of plantation agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>HYV (High-yield varieties) Short growth periods </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of workers </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy natural habitats </li></ul>
  26. 26. RESOURCES IMAGES: http://images.google.com.sg/imghp?hl=en CONTEXT: http://library.thinkquest.org/26634/forest/farming/plantation.htm http:// www.alfredhartemink.nl/plantations.htm http:// www.slideshare.net / http:// wiki.answers.com /
  27. 27. Recap: Oil Palm Plantation Peninsular M’sia <ul><li>Describe & explain the distribution of oil palm plantations in Msia </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of palm oil industry to M’sia & the world </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations & problems faced by oil palm plantations </li></ul>
  28. 28. Oil Palm Plantations in M’sia -Processes- Phase 1: Cultivation <ul><li>Pre-nursery stage </li></ul><ul><li>Good palm seeds & soaked for 7 days </li></ul><ul><li>Sown in polythene bags containing fertile soil </li></ul><ul><li>then kept in germinators for 2 months at 40°C </li></ul><ul><li>Nursery stage </li></ul><ul><li>Transplanted to nursery & maintained for 1 yr </li></ul><ul><li>Main field </li></ul><ul><li>Transplanted to main field during early part of rainy season </li></ul><ul><li>Cover crops planted bet rows of oil palm trees </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilisers, fungicides & pesticides applied </li></ul><ul><li>Harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>3 yrs after field planting </li></ul><ul><li>Harvested using sharp knife tied to poles every wk </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits collected manually </li></ul>Txtbk pg 131-132
  29. 29. Oil Palm Plantations in M’sia -Processes- Phase 2: Processing <ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Harvested taken to the mills (within estate) quickly to min accumulation of fatty acid </li></ul><ul><li>Processed on the same day </li></ul><ul><li>Sterilization </li></ul><ul><li>Sent to sterilisers to steam for 90 min at 1,400°C </li></ul><ul><li>Stripping </li></ul><ul><li>Sent to rotary drum stripper </li></ul><ul><li>Stripped & separated from stalk by lifting & dropping </li></ul><ul><li>Collected on conveyor belt leading to digester </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Mesocarp separated from kernel & turned into digested mash under steam heated condition </li></ul><ul><li>Oil extraction & Purification </li></ul><ul><li>Mash sent to hydraulic press where oil is extracted </li></ul><ul><li>Crude oil pumped into clarification tank at 900°C </li></ul><ul><li>Impurities sink, purer oil skimmed off the top </li></ul><ul><li>Passed thru high speed centrifuge & vacuum dryer </li></ul><ul><li>Stored </li></ul>Txtbk pg 131-132
  30. 30. RESOURCES IMAGES: http://images.google.com.sg/imghp?hl=en CONTEXT: http://library.thinkquest.org/26634/forest/farming/plantation.htm http:// www.alfredhartemink.nl/plantations.htm http:// www.slideshare.net / http:// wiki.answers.com /
  31. 31. Hi-Tech Farming <ul><li>Market Gardening </li></ul><ul><li>Case study: S’pore </li></ul>
  32. 32. Did you know?! <ul><li>Where do we get our supply of food and vegetables, fruits, flowers? </li></ul><ul><li>Johor, Cameron Highlands, Australia, China, Indonesia, Thailand… </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore! </li></ul>
  33. 34. Hi-Tech Farming -Learning Outcomes- <ul><li>Define & Describe the Characteristics of Market Gardening </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Hi-Tech farming as a system of I P O </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Esp: Processes of Hydroponics & Aeroponics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe the +ves & -ves of Hi-Tech farming </li></ul><ul><li>Account for the imptce of agrotechnology parks in S’pore </li></ul><ul><li>Access the viability of Hi-Tech farming in S’pore </li></ul>
  34. 35. Terms & Definitions <ul><li>Traditional Market Gardening </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive cash crop cultivation of vegetables, fruits or flowers mainly for the urban market </li></ul><ul><li>Hi-Tech Farming </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive farming system which applies modern science & technology to produce high value & high quality farm produce </li></ul>
  35. 36. What does it mean by intensive agricultural farming? What does it mean by agrotechnology ?
  36. 37. Traditional Market Gardening -Characteristics- <ul><li>Located close to/ edge urban centre – Why? </li></ul><ul><li>High daily demand in urban settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Perishables - Deliver quickly to ensure freshness </li></ul><ul><li>Highly intensive - What? & Why? </li></ul><ul><li>High human inputs per unit area (fertilisers,…) </li></ul><ul><li>Highly productive (yields) </li></ul><ul><li>Land near towns = expensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>=> need high economic returns </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Von Thunen Model Agricultural Land Use
  38. 39. Changes in Farming in S’pore -Trad Mrkt Gardeng -> Hi-Tech Farmg- <ul><li>Declining agri in S’pore – Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Land shortage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>competition land uses: residential, industrial… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low cost of importing </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul>815 2003 1,465 807 4,700 8,000 Farming Area (ha) 2005 2002 1985 1980 Year
  39. 40. Changes in Farming in S’pore -Trad Mrkt Gardeng -> Hi-Tech Farmg- <ul><li>Emphasis on Hi-Tech farming – Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce dependence on external supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptability when SS falls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability in $$ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to be more self-reliant </li></ul><ul><li>Agrotechnology: cost-effective mthds -> high quantity & quality yields </li></ul>815 2003 1,465 807 4,700 8,000 Farming Area (ha) 2005 2002 1985 1980 Year
  40. 41. 30 41 48 53 50 55 56 Ornamental plants (mil plts) 13 19 19 22 22 17 15 Orchids (mil stalks) 110 110 101 123 117 113 142 Aquarium Fish (mil pcs) 16563 16525 17690 19293 18927 17291 16281 Vegetables (tonnes) 6369 7795 7785 10483 10526 11516 13049 Fish (tonnes) 392 361 426 330 318 319 336 Hen eggs (mil pcs) 0 0 0 0 0 8.5 203 Ducks ('000 no.s) 1164 1075 1266 955 955 1219 1368 Chicken ('000 no.s) 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 Year
  41. 42. Hi-Tech Farming in S’pore Comes Alive!!! <ul><li>Group Work! </li></ul><ul><li>6 grps </li></ul><ul><li>Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Research on the topics chosen ( www.ava.gov.sg ) </li></ul><ul><li>Get more insight from farm visit </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidate info & present to the class! </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>Fun Fun Fun  with Hi-Tech Farming in S’pore!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Hi-Tech farming as a system of I P O </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Esp: Processes of Hydroponics & Aeroponics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe the +ves & -ves of Hi-Tech farming </li></ul><ul><li>Access the viability of Hi-Tech farming in S’pore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors that encourage dev of farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems faced by farmers </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>Fun Fun Fun  with Hi-Tech Farming in S’pore!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the +ves & -ves of Hi-Tech farming </li></ul><ul><li>Control of plant growth: composition of nutrient solution </li></ul><ul><li>High yields: more than 2x more than traditional market gardening </li></ul><ul><li>Root zone environment regulated: yields are consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Grown close together: land scarce S’pore </li></ul><ul><li>Mature faster: carefully controlled environment </li></ul><ul><li>Automation: speeds up work +lbr shortage </li></ul><ul><li>Less water in aeroponics: recycled </li></ul><ul><li>Control of temp: sub-trop or temperate crop available throughout the year </li></ul><ul><li>Local supply: fresher </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>Fun Fun Fun  with Hi-Tech Farming in S’pore!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the +ves & -ves of Hi-Tech farming </li></ul><ul><li>Set up and operation cost: expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary knowledge and technical skills: training, time and money </li></ul><ul><li>Pest or disease: spread rapidly (same nutrient storage tank) </li></ul><ul><li>Not all plants can be grown: insufficient knowledge of nutrient requirement of plants </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>Fun Fun Fun  with Hi-Tech Farming in S’pore!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Access the viability of Hi-Tech farming in S’pore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors that encourage dev of farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems faced by farmers </li></ul></ul>

×