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Play therapy

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Play therapy

  1. 1. History of Play Therapy<br />1762 Rousseau wrote about observing children at play<br />1903 Froebel wrote in In the Education of Man wrote about symbolic play- play is not sport but has meaning and importance<br />1909 Freud’s Little Hans case- five year old with phobias<br />1919-1930s Anna Freud and Melanie Klein use toys in therapy with children and introduced completing theories- Klein said play had meaning; Freud said play built a relationship with the therapist<br />1930sFrom Rank’s work Taft and Allan counsel children with a de-emphasis on the past and interpretation of feelings- here and now focus<br />1940-1970s Carl Rogers develops person centered therapy and his student Virginia Axline develops child centered play therapy and applied theory to school counseling and teaching<br />1980s-present Play therapy programs are started in Universities– North Texas’ program started in 1989 and the Association for Play Therapy established in 1982<br />Landreth, Garry. (2002). Play therapy the art of the relationship. Bristol, PA: Routledge.<br />
  2. 2. Axline’s Eight Principles<br />1. The therapist must develop a warm friendly relationship with the child<br />2. The therapist unconditionally accepts the child<br />3. The therapist develops a feeling of permissiveness<br />4. The therapist recognized the child’s feelings expressed in play<br />5. The therapist respects the child’s ability to solves problems for herself<br />6. The therapist does not direct the child’s actions<br />7. The therapist does not hurry the therapy<br />8. The therapist established only the needed limitations needed to anchor therapy to reality<br />Axline, V. M. (1974). Play therapy. New York: Ballantine Books.<br />
  3. 3. View of Children<br />Play is the work and language of children.– Lev Vygotsky<br />To grow to be health, very young children do not need to know how to read, but they do need to know how to play.– Fred Rogers<br />A child strives towards an enter balance that guides a child’s beliefs and actions.– Virginia Axline<br />Who would have thought there was a place like this in the whole world?– a child in play therapy<br />Landreth, Garry. (2002). Play therapy the art of the relationship. Bristol, PA: Routledge.<br />
  4. 4. Types of Play Therapy<br />There are as many play theoretical perspectives as there are theoretical perspectives<br />Child centered therapy<br />Gestalt Play Therapy<br />Psychodynamic play therapy<br />Brief play therapy<br />Solution-focused play therapy<br />Adlerian play therapy<br />Cognitive-Behavioral play therapy<br />Play therapy is not limited to children. Adults can also benefit from play therapy<br />
  5. 5. The Play Therapy Room<br />University of North Texas. (2010, April 23). Center for play therapy. website: http://cpt.unt.edu/about-play-therapy/playrooms/<br />
  6. 6. Play Therapy Room<br />University of North Texas. (2010, April 23). Center for play therapy. website: http://cpt.unt.edu/about-play-therapy/playrooms/<br />
  7. 7. Play Therapy Room<br />University of North Texas. (2010, April 23). Center for play therapy. website: http://cpt.unt.edu/about-play-therapy/playrooms/<br />
  8. 8. Guidelines for Selecting Toys<br />Toys should:<br />Allow for exploration of real life experiences including cultural values, traditions and roles.<br />Facilitate contact with the child by gaining the child's interest and attention<br />Permit reality testing/limit setting<br />Provide the opportunity for development of self-control<br />Facilitate exploration of the self and others<br />Allow children to express their needs symbolically (without any need for verbalization)<br />Provide for expression of a wide range of feelings<br />Provide opportunities for insight/self-understanding<br />Allow for creative expression<br />Toys should also be durable, simple, and easy to operate, allow for success & are fun<br />Reminder: Toys should be selected, not collected<br />University of North Texas. (2010, April 23). Center for play therapy. website: http://cpt.unt.edu/about-play-therapy/playrooms/<br />
  9. 9. Suggested Toys<br />  <br />Doll furniture (sturdy wood) <br />Gumby (bendable nondescript figure) <br />Doll bed, clothes, etc. <br />Bendable doll family <br />Dolls <br />Pacifier <br />Nursing bottle (plastic) <br />Chalkboard, chalk <br />Refrigerator (wood) <br />Dishes (plastic or tin) <br />Pitcher <br />Plastic food <br />Egg cartons <br />Broom, dustpan <br />Crayons, pencils, paper <br />Toy watch <br />Paints, easel, newsprint, brushes <br />Lone Ranger type mask <br />Tongue depressors, popsicle sticks <br />Truck, car, airplane, tractor, boat <br />Pounding bench and hammer <br />Cymbals <br />Toy soldiers and army equipment <br />Sandbox, large spoon, funnel, sieve, pail <br />Rubber snake, alligator <br />Multicolored chalk, eraser <br />Stove (wood) <br />Pans, silverware <br />Dishpan <br />Empty fruit and vegetable cans, etc.   <br />Band-aids <br />Sponge, towel <br />Soap, brush, comb <br />Transparent tape <br />Building blocks (diff. shapes and sizes) <br />Play-Doh or clay <br />Pipe cleaners <br />ATV (multi-wheel vehicle for riding on) <br />School bus (Fisher Price type) <br />Xylophone <br />Drum <br />Fireman's hat, other hats <br />Zoo animals, farm animals <br />Bop bag (Bobo) <br />Handcuffs <br />Toy noise making gun <br />Telephone (two) <br />Construction paper (several colors) <br />Rags or old towels <br />Tinker toys <br />Tissue <br />Rubber Knife <br />Dart gun <br />Balls (large and small) <br />Medical kit <br />Blunt scissors <br />Play money and cash register <br />Hand puppets (doctor, nurse, etc.) <br />Rope <br />Purse and jewelry <br />Landreth, Garry. (2002). Play therapy the art of the relationship. Bristol, PA: Routledge.<br />
  10. 10. Suggested On-the-Go Toys<br />Crayons<br />Newsprint<br />Scissors<br />Nursing bottle<br />Rubber knife<br />Doll<br />Clay<br />Dart gun<br />Toy soldiers<br />Tea set<br />Lone Ranger style mask<br />Nerf ball<br />Pipe cleaners<br />Cotton rope<br />Telephone<br />Aggressive hand puppet<br />Bendable doll family<br />Dollhouse<br />University of North Texas. (2010, April 23). Center for play therapy. website: http://cpt.unt.edu/about-play-therapy/playrooms/<br />
  11. 11. Application to Group<br />As children interact with one another, they learn about themselves<br />Children help one another within the group<br />Depending upon the goals, children can play at the same activity or play independently<br />Group goals and cohesion are not always needed<br />By watching other children, a child gains the courage to attempt need behaviors<br />Landreth, Garry. (2002). Play therapy the art of the relationship. Bristol, PA: Routledge.<br />
  12. 12. Books and Organizations for Play Therapy <br />Play Therapy by Virginia Axline<br />DIBS in Search of Self by Virginia Axline<br />Play Therapy: The Art of the Relationship by Garry Landreth<br />The Handbook of Group Play Therapy: How to Do It, How It Works, Whom It's Best Forby Daniel Sweeney<br />School Based Play Therapy Edited by Athena Drews , Lois Carey and Charles Shaefer<br />The University of North Texas Center for Play Therapy http://cpt.unt.edu <br />Association for Play Therapy www.a4pt.org<br />Texas branch of the Association for Play Therapy www.txapt.org <br />
  13. 13. Applications to Group<br />The first group a child participates in if the family group<br />Different goals can be achieved and children in different phases of therapy can be mixed allowing for more freedom when putting groups together<br />Children are able to take what they do and see in the play room to their outside worlds’<br />Landreth, Garry. (2002). Play therapy the art of the relationship. Bristol, PA: Routledge.<br />
  14. 14. References<br />Axline, V.M. (1974). Play therapy. New York: Ballantine.<br />Landreth, Garry. (2002). Play therapy the art of the relationship. Bristol, PA: <br /> Routledge.<br />University of North Texas. (2010, April 23). Center for play therapy. website: <br /> http://cpt.unt.edu/about-play-therapy/playrooms/<br />

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