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MANUFACTURED SUBTANCES IN        INDUSTRY   BY : NURFARAHAIN BINTI AHMAD                4ST           SMK SG ABONG
IntroductionMany industrial products are manufactured for our comfort.They are either made from sulphuric acid, ammonia, a...
MAIN MENU     ALLOYSYNTHETIC POLYMERS GLASS & CERAMICSCOMPOSITE MATERIALS
ALLOYS∗ An alloy is a homogenous mixture of two or more  elements (especially metals) mixed in a certain fixed  percentage...
* malleable- can be hammered into sheets * high melting and boiling points * high density * high electrical and heat condu...
∗ A pure metal consists of layers of atoms arranged in an  even, orderly, and close-packed manner at fixed position.
∗ Pure metals are rather soft because when a force is applied,  one layer of atoms can slide over another.∗ Metals are duc...
Some imperfections in the orderly arrangement        of atoms in metals that allow some empty        space in between the ...
∗ Alloys such as bronze, brass, steel, stainless, duralumin and  pewter are commonly used in our daily lives.∗ The uses of...
∗ Table 1 The composition, properties and uses of some alloys Alloy    Composition       Properties                UsesBro...
Alloy       Composition         Properties        UsesStainless   • 74%iron           • Shiny           • In the making cu...
Bronze
Brass
Steel
Stainless steel
Duralumin
Pewter
THE ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS IN ALLOYS∗ The presence of atoms of other metals that are of  different size disturb the orderly ...
Pure metal A                                        Pure metal                                        B                   ...
Synthetic Polymers∗ Polymers are large molecules made up of many  identical repeating sub-units called monomers which  are...
polymerisationFormation of a polymer
A polymer may consist of thousands of monomers. Some polymersoccur naturally.Starch, cellulose, wool, protein, silk and na...
Synthetic polymers
Synthetic polymer
Synthetic polymers
Monomers in synthetic polymersSynthetic polymer         Monomer                 UsesPolythene             Ethene         P...
Synthetic polymer         Monomer                    UsesPerspex             Methylmethacrylate     Safety glass, reflecto...
Synthetic polymer in daily lifeWith the increasing use of synthetic polymers, there are some drawbacks :Synthetic polymers...
•To reduce the demand for landfill space, consumption of limited petroleum reserves and environmental pollution, we should...
Synthetic polymer
Polythene
Nylon
Polypropene
Terylene
Perspex
Polyvinyl cholride, PVC
Biodegradable plastic bag
GlassThe major component of glass is silica or silicon dioxide, SiO2.Silicon dioxide is the second most abundant elements ...
Silicon atom                                 Oxygen atomStructure of silicon dioxide
During rapid cooling, the particles in the liquid do not have time to return toits original crystalline arrangement. They ...
Types, composition, properties       and uses of glass1. There are four types of glasses :    (a) Soda-lime glass (soft gl...
Type of     Production             Composition      Properties             Uses glass       methodFused     Silica is heat...
Type of       Production       Composition      Properties               Uses glass         methodSoda-     Mixture of sil...
Type of         Production        Composition          Properties              Uses glass            methodBorosilicate   ...
Type of     Production        Composition       Properties         Uses  glass       methodLead       Lead (II) oxide is •...
Example of glass
Fused glass
Soda-lime glass
Borosilicate glass
Lead crystal glass
Special glassesSome special glasses have been made for specific purposes such asphotochromic glass, conducting glass and b...
Bullet-resisitant glass is usually constructed using a strong but transparentmaterials such as polycarbonate thermoplastic...
CeramicsCeramics are made from clay. Kaolin, a hydrated aluminosilicate,Al2O.2SiO2.2H2O is an example of clay.The major co...
Ceramic that has been hardened after heating cannot be melted again dueto its extremely high heat resistance.The main char...
Properties and uses of ceramics      Properties                   Uses                   ExampleHard and strong           ...
Ceramic
Special ceramicsBoron nitride is a lubricious ceramic that has high temperature and excellentelectrical resistance. It is ...
Composite materialsA composite materials is a structural material that is form by combining twoor more different substance...
Examples of composite materials
1) Reinforced concreteConcrete is a composite material which consists of mixture of stones, chipsand sand bound together b...
Reinforced concrete
Reinforced concrete is relatively cheap and can be moulded into any shape.It is also stronger and better able to withstand...
2) SuperconductorA superconductor is capable to conduct electricity without any electricalresistance when it is cooled to ...
Superconductor
3) Fibre opticA fibre optic capable consists of a bundle of glass or plastic threads thatare surrounded by a glass claddin...
Fibre optic
4) Fibre glassGlass is hard, strong, has high density but it is relatively brittle. Plastic iselastic, flexible, has low d...
Fibre glass
5) Photochromic glass∗ Silver chloride and copper (I) chloride crystal are  embedded in glass to produce photochromic glas...
 Silver atoms cluster together and block the  transmittance of light. The glass turns dark.∗ When the glass is removed fr...
Photochromic glass
The uses of composite materials   The needs for new materials for specific purposesWith the high demand of items with spe...
THE END
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  1. 1. MANUFACTURED SUBTANCES IN INDUSTRY BY : NURFARAHAIN BINTI AHMAD 4ST SMK SG ABONG
  2. 2. IntroductionMany industrial products are manufactured for our comfort.They are either made from sulphuric acid, ammonia, alloys, syntheticpolymers, glass, ceramics or composite materials.
  3. 3. MAIN MENU ALLOYSYNTHETIC POLYMERS GLASS & CERAMICSCOMPOSITE MATERIALS
  4. 4. ALLOYS∗ An alloy is a homogenous mixture of two or more elements (especially metals) mixed in a certain fixed percentage.∗ Alloys are made to improve the hardness, malleability and resistance to corrosion of pure metals.∗ General properties of pure metals : * ductile- can be drawn into wires
  5. 5. * malleable- can be hammered into sheets * high melting and boiling points * high density * high electrical and heat conductivity∗Most metals in their pure form are soft.∗Metals like iron and copper tend to undergo corrosion readilyto form oxides.
  6. 6. ∗ A pure metal consists of layers of atoms arranged in an even, orderly, and close-packed manner at fixed position.
  7. 7. ∗ Pure metals are rather soft because when a force is applied, one layer of atoms can slide over another.∗ Metals are ductile or can be stretched.
  8. 8. Some imperfections in the orderly arrangement of atoms in metals that allow some empty space in between the atoms. When a metal is knocked , atom slide. Metals are malleable or can be shaped.force the shape of the metal changes
  9. 9. ∗ Alloys such as bronze, brass, steel, stainless, duralumin and pewter are commonly used in our daily lives.∗ The uses of each different type of alloys depend on the properties of the alloy.∗ For example, cutlery is made of stainless steel because stainless steel is shiny and does not rust.
  10. 10. ∗ Table 1 The composition, properties and uses of some alloys Alloy Composition Properties UsesBronze • 90% copper • Hard and strong • In the building of • 10% tin • Does not corrode statues or monuments easily • In the making of • Has shiny surface medals, swords and artistic materialsBrass • 70% copper • Hard than copper In the making of musical • 30% zinc instruments and kitchenwareSteel • 99% iron • Hard and strong • In the construction of • 1% carbon buildings and bridges • In the building of the body of cars and railway tracks
  11. 11. Alloy Composition Properties UsesStainless • 74%iron • Shiny • In the making cutlerysteel • 8% carbon • Strong • In the making of • 18% chromium • Does not rust surgical instrumentsDuralumin • 93% aluminium • Light • In the building of the • 3% copper • Stong body of aeroplanes and • 3% magnesium bullet trains • 1% manganesePewter • 96% tin • Lustre • In the making of • 3% copper • Shiny souvenirs • 1% antimony • Strong
  12. 12. Bronze
  13. 13. Brass
  14. 14. Steel
  15. 15. Stainless steel
  16. 16. Duralumin
  17. 17. Pewter
  18. 18. THE ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS IN ALLOYS∗ The presence of atoms of other metals that are of different size disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms in the metal.∗ This reduces the layer of atoms from sliding.∗ Thus, an alloy is stronger and harder than its pure metal.
  19. 19. Pure metal A Pure metal B Alloy The formation of alloy
  20. 20. Synthetic Polymers∗ Polymers are large molecules made up of many identical repeating sub-units called monomers which are joined together by covalent bonds.∗ Monomers are joined into chains by a process of repeated linking known as polymerisation.
  21. 21. polymerisationFormation of a polymer
  22. 22. A polymer may consist of thousands of monomers. Some polymersoccur naturally.Starch, cellulose, wool, protein, silk and natural rubber are someexample of naturally occuring polymers.Synthetic polymerare man-made polymers.The monomers used are usually obtained from petroleum aftergoing through the refining and cracking processes.The monomers used are usually obtained from petroleum aftergoing through the refining and cracking processes.
  23. 23. Synthetic polymers
  24. 24. Synthetic polymer
  25. 25. Synthetic polymers
  26. 26. Monomers in synthetic polymersSynthetic polymer Monomer UsesPolythene Ethene Plastic bags, shopping bags, plastic containers and insulation for electrical wiringPolypropene Propene Piping, bottle crates, carpets, car batteries and ropesPolyvinyl chloride, Chloroethene Artificial leather, water pipesPVC and records
  27. 27. Synthetic polymer Monomer UsesPerspex Methylmethacrylate Safety glass, reflectors, traffic signs and lensTerylene Hexane-1,6-diol Clothing, sails and ropes Benzene-1, 4-dicarboxylic acidNylon Hexane-1,6-diamine Ropes, clothing and Hexane-1, carpets 6-diodic acid
  28. 28. Synthetic polymer in daily lifeWith the increasing use of synthetic polymers, there are some drawbacks :Synthetic polymers are non-biodegradable. Disposal of synthetic polymerswill use up a large fraction of available landfill space.The raw materials for these polymers are obtained from petroleum, thusdepleting the supply of non-renewable source.Burning of synthetic polymers releases pollutant and toxic gases that areharmful to our health. For example, burning of PVC releases hydrogen chloridegas. Gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and oxideof nitrogen can cause the green house effect and acid rain.Improper disposal of synthetic polymers also destroy the beauty of thenature , causes flash flood and endanger the wildlife.
  29. 29. •To reduce the demand for landfill space, consumption of limited petroleum reserves and environmental pollution, we should :Reduce, reuse and recycle the non-biodegradable synthetic polymers.Use the biodegradable plastics (Bioplastic) such as polylactide acid (PLA)plastic and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) plastic.Educate users to the right disposal methods.
  30. 30. Synthetic polymer
  31. 31. Polythene
  32. 32. Nylon
  33. 33. Polypropene
  34. 34. Terylene
  35. 35. Perspex
  36. 36. Polyvinyl cholride, PVC
  37. 37. Biodegradable plastic bag
  38. 38. GlassThe major component of glass is silica or silicon dioxide, SiO2.Silicon dioxide is the second most abundant elements in the Earth’scrust. It is commonly found in sand.The most way common of preparing glass is to heat the sand to thetemperature of 1700 degree celcius. The molten liquid obtained is thecooled quickly so that it solidifies to produce glass.
  39. 39. Silicon atom Oxygen atomStructure of silicon dioxide
  40. 40. During rapid cooling, the particles in the liquid do not have time to return toits original crystalline arrangement. They occupy randomly arranged latticesites and result s in an amorphus solid. This amorphus structure makes theglass brittle.The main characteristics of glass are : a. hard but brittle b. chemically inert c. transparent and impermeable (non-porous) d. withstand compression e. good heat and electrical insulators
  41. 41. Types, composition, properties and uses of glass1. There are four types of glasses : (a) Soda-lime glass (soft glass) * The most common and least expensive glass (b) Lead crystal glass (soft glass) (c) Borosilicate glass (hard glass) (d) Fused glass (hardest glass) * The simplest and most expensive glass
  42. 42. Type of Production Composition Properties Uses glass methodFused Silica is heated until • Silicon • Very high melting • Laboratoryglass it melts at 1 700 dioxide point glass rods degree celcius and • High transparency • Telescope cooled rapidly • Highest resistance mirrors to thermal shock • Optical (can be heated to fibres an extremely high • Lenses temperature and then plunged into icy, cold water without cracking)
  43. 43. Type of Production Composition Properties Uses glass methodSoda- Mixture of silica, • Silicon • Low melting point • Lightlime sodium carbonate dioxide • Easily shaped bulbsglass (soda lime) and • Sodium • High chemical • Window calcium carbonate oxide durability glass (limestone) is • Calcium • Does not withstand • Drinking heated to 1 500 oxide heat glass degree celcius and • High thermal • Mirrors cooled rapidly expansion coefficient (expand a lot when heated and contract a lot when cooled)
  44. 44. Type of Production Composition Properties Uses glass methodBorosilicate Boron (III) oxide • Silicon • High melting point • Oven glassglass is added to soda- dioxide • Resistant to thermal • Boiler gage lime glass • Sodium shock glassware oxide • Resistant to • Automobile • Calcium chemical attack headlights oxide • Low thermal • Boron (III) expansion oxide coefficient a little)
  45. 45. Type of Production Composition Properties Uses glass methodLead Lead (II) oxide is • Silicon dioxide • High density • Prismcrystal added to soda-lime • Sodium oxide • High refractive • Highglass glass • Lead (II) oxide index reflective • Soft and easy lenses to melt • Fine crystal tableware • Decorative glassware • Lead crystal glassware
  46. 46. Example of glass
  47. 47. Fused glass
  48. 48. Soda-lime glass
  49. 49. Borosilicate glass
  50. 50. Lead crystal glass
  51. 51. Special glassesSome special glasses have been made for specific purposes such asphotochromic glass, conducting glass and bullet-resistant glass.Silver chloride in photochromic glass darkens the glass when exposed tosunlight and protects the eyes from ultraviolet radiation.Indium tin oxide (ITO) in conducting glass is able to conduct electricity. Itis mainly used to make transparent conductive coatings for liquid crystaldisplay (LCD), flat panel display and plasma display.
  52. 52. Bullet-resisitant glass is usually constructed using a strong but transparentmaterials such as polycarbonate thermoplastic sandwiched between layersof regular glass. The plastic provides impact resistance while the glassflattens the bullet, thereby preventing penetration.
  53. 53. CeramicsCeramics are made from clay. Kaolin, a hydrated aluminosilicate,Al2O.2SiO2.2H2O is an example of clay.The major component of ceramic is silicate. Silicate is a chemicalcompound containing silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals.The common way of preparing ceramic is to heat the mouldedclay at avery high temperature.
  54. 54. Ceramic that has been hardened after heating cannot be melted again dueto its extremely high heat resistance.The main characteristics of ceramic are (a) extremely hard but brittle (b) chemically inert (c) opaque and porous (d) withstand compression (e) good heat and electrical insulators
  55. 55. Properties and uses of ceramics Properties Uses ExampleHard and strong Construction materials Tiles, cement, bricksWithstand high Construction materials Furnaces, nuclearpressure and heat reactorsResistant to chemicals, Ornamental articles Plates, bowls, vases,do not corrode and porcelain, toilet walllong-lasting tiles, floorGood electric and heat Electrical appliances Ovens, toasters, fuses,insulators spark plugsHave semiconducting Semiconductors Microchipsproperties and canstore charges
  56. 56. Ceramic
  57. 57. Special ceramicsBoron nitride is a lubricious ceramic that has high temperature and excellentelectrical resistance. It is used to make microwave tubes and low frictionseals.Silicon nitride ceramic that has relatively good shock resistance is used tomake skateboard bearings and ignition source of domestic gas appliances.Silicon nitride ceramic that has relatively good shock resistance is used tomake skateboard bearings and ignition source of domestic gas appliances.Perovskites, YBa2Cu3O7 is another new ceramic superconductor thatcontains yttrium, barium, copper and oxygen. It can conduct electricity withvirtually no loss of heat energy at 98K.
  58. 58. Composite materialsA composite materials is a structural material that is form by combining twoor more different substances such as metal, alloys, glass, ceramics andpolymers.A composite materials is a structural material that is form by combining twoor more different substances such as metal, alloys, glass, ceramics andpolymers.
  59. 59. Examples of composite materials
  60. 60. 1) Reinforced concreteConcrete is a composite material which consists of mixture of stones, chipsand sand bound together by cement.Concrete is strong but brittle and weak in tension. Steel has good tensilestrength.When concrete is reinforced with steel bars, steel wires of rods, it produces avery tough materials with more tensile strength called reinforced concrete.
  61. 61. Reinforced concrete
  62. 62. Reinforced concrete is relatively cheap and can be moulded into any shape.It is also stronger and better able to withstand tensile forces than concretealone.It is used in high-rise buildings, bridges, oil platforms and highway.
  63. 63. 2) SuperconductorA superconductor is capable to conduct electricity without any electricalresistance when it is cooled to an extremely low temperature.Metal such as mercury can be a superconductor in 4.2K but it is veryexpensive to maintain such extremely low temperature.Using a combination of metals and metal oxide, a ceramic composite isfound to be superconducting at temperatures higher than 30K.Perovskites is the latest ceramic superconductor that has zero resistanceat 95K.Superconductors have low power dissipation, high-speed operation andhigh sensitivity.Superconductors are used in bullet trains (maglev train), magneticresonance imaging (MRI), computer chips, generators and transformers.
  64. 64. Superconductor
  65. 65. 3) Fibre opticA fibre optic capable consists of a bundle of glass or plastic threads thatare surrounded by a glass cladding.It has high transmission capacity and chemical stability, but lowsusceptibility to interference and material costs.It is used in video cameras and local area networks for computers.Besides that, it is used in instruments for examining internal parts of thebody or manufactured structural products and to transmit data, voiceand image in a digital format.
  66. 66. Fibre optic
  67. 67. 4) Fibre glassGlass is hard, strong, has high density but it is relatively brittle. Plastic iselastic, flexible, has low density but it is not strong.When glass fibres are reinforced in plastic, a strong composite materialcalled fibre glass is produced.It has high tensile strength, low density, can be easily coloured,moulded and shaped. It can even be made into thin layers, yet verystrong.It is used in water storage tanks, badminton rackets, small boats andhelmets.
  68. 68. Fibre glass
  69. 69. 5) Photochromic glass∗ Silver chloride and copper (I) chloride crystal are embedded in glass to produce photochromic glass.∗ When photochromic glass is exposed to light , the chloride ions are oxidised to produce chlorine atoms by releasing electrons. Cl-(aq) Cl(s) + e-∗ The electron are transferred to silver ions. Silver ions are reduced by gaining electrons to produce silver atoms. Ag+(aq) + e- Ag(s)
  70. 70.  Silver atoms cluster together and block the transmittance of light. The glass turns dark.∗ When the glass is removed from light, chlorine atoms are reduced by copper (I) ions to form chloride ions and copper (II) ions. Cl(s) + Cu+(aq) Cl-(aq) + Cu2+(aq)∗ The copper (II) ions are further reduced by silver atoms to form silver ions and copper (I) ions. Cu2+(aq) + Ag(s) Cu+(aq) + Ag+(aq) The glass becomes transparent again when silver atoms are converted back to silver ions.∗ Photochromic glass is used in optical lenses, car windshields, lenses in cameras, optical switches and light intensity meters.
  71. 71. Photochromic glass
  72. 72. The uses of composite materials The needs for new materials for specific purposesWith the high demand of items with specificproperties, scientists have invented many newsubstances to replace many traditional ones.For example, plastics replace wood, optical fibresreplace copper wires and synthetic fibres replace cottonand wool.However, alloys, ceramics, glass, polymers producedstill have their disadvantages and do not meet certainrequirements in industry, communication, constructionand transportation.Therefore, composite materials are created forspecific application.
  73. 73. THE END

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