Creating better user interfaces for libraries catalogues: how to present and interact with (FRBR-based) bibliographic data? (ELAG 2013 Workshop)
Creating better user interfaces forlibrary catalogueshow to present and interact with(FRBR-based) bibliographic data?ELAG WorkshopGhent, 26. - 28. 5. 2013
Workshop LeadersMaja Žumer, PhDProfessorUniversity of Ljubljana, Sloveniamaja.firstname.lastname@example.orgTanja Merčun, PhDResearch AssistantUniversity of Ljubljana, Sloveniatanja.email@example.com
ELAG Workshop• not a tutorial• identification of issues, trends, and possible solutions• sharing of experience from different institutions• discussion on future work
Workshop OutlineOverview– missing features in library catalogues– FRBR & its potentials– FRBR-inspired library catalogue implementations &experiments– implementing FRBR-based displays
Generalwhat kind of search andexploration features do wewant/need to offer our users?• user needs• catalogue objectivesWorkshop OutlineDiscussion TopicsFRBRhow will FRBR-based userinterfaces look like?• how to make the best use ofFRBR-based data?• what will have to beconsidered in designingFRBR-based user interfaces?
Workshop Participants186610 5 10 15 20I am interested in the topic of librarycatalogue user interfaces.I want to learn more about FRBR.I want to discuss issues related toimplementing FRBR.No particular reason, it just soundedinteresting.Why did you decide to attend this workshop?
Workshop Participants612400 2 4 6 8 10 12 14I am not familiar with FRBR.I have basic understanding of FRBR.I am quite familiar with FRBR.I have in-depth knowledge of FRBR, itsissues and current developments.How familiar are you with FRBR?
Workshop Participants516YesNoHave you personally been involved in any projects involving theimplementation of FRBR in a library catalogue?
Workshop Participants35950 2 4 6 8 10Yes, we have already made some FRBRimplementations in our catalogue.Yes, it is one of our ongoing projects.We are thinking about it.No, not at this moment.Is FRBR-based catalogue redesign something you aredealing with or are thinking about in your institution?
Workshop ParticipantsTopics suggested for discussion:- alternatives to WEMI- advantages of FRBR-based catalogue redesign- user navigation / user expectations
Library Catalogueits troubles & current statusOVERVIEW
Why Change?• the information environment is changing– libraries are facing competition for the first time– new technologies, new approaches to knowledgeorganization, new generations of users– changes are becoming a reality also in libraries(new cataloguing rules, new formats)
Why Change?• issues with current catalogues– not perceived as intuitive (compared to other tools andservices)– users actively avoid using the catalogue– do not fully support users in their information seeking process– do not fulfil their main objectives– fail to bring out the richness and value of bibliographic data
Theory: catalogue objectives(2009) Statement of International Cataloguing PrinciplesThe catalogue should be an effective and efficient instrument thatenables a user:to find bib. resources in a collection as the result of a search using attributesor relationships of the resource :- to find a single resource- to find sets of resources representingall resources belonging to the same workall resources embodying the same expressionall resources exemplifying the same manifestationall resources associated with a given person, family, or corp. bodyall resources on a given subjectall resources defined by other criteria (language, date, contenttype, carrier, etc.)
Theory: catalogue objectives(2009) Statement of International Cataloguing Principlesto identify a bibliographic resource or agent (to confirm or to distinguish);to select a bibliographic resource that is appropriate to the user’s needs;to acquire or obtain access or to access, acquire, or obtain authority orbibliographic data;to navigate within a catalogue and beyond (…presentation of relationshipsamongworks, expressions, manifestations, items, persons, families, concepts,…).
Theory: catalogue objectives(1876) Cutter: Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalog(1961) Paris Principlesknown-item search discoveryenable a person to find aknown-item specified byauthor, title, or some otheridentificationenable a person to discover:• which works by a particularauthor• which editions of a particularwork• what works on a specificsubjectare in the library.
RealityHow well does your library catalogue answer basicquestions about the library collection:– What works by Charles Dickens does the library hold?– Which is the latest work (!not edition) by Haruki Murakami?– Which works in the library collection have been performed byand which composed by Vladimir Horowitz?– What English translations of Iliad can you choose from?– Borrowing Pinocchio, whose illustrations can I choose from?
Reality• library catalogues– library catalogues are edition-centric– not very efficient or useful for inquiries beyond known-item search– Wikipedia as the resource for the fastest and mostcomplete answer to some questions
Reality• librarians– libraries are not questioning (enough) their tools– rely on tradition– often focused on minor issues, but forget to think aboutthe big picture• what questions should a library catalogue be able to answer• what kind of information seeking behaviour should itsupport
Reality• users– relatively satisfied with the current state/design ofcatalogue– current user expectations shaped (limited) by existingsystems– do not expect to find such information in a librarycatalogue
Theory vs. Reality• Don‘t we want to be THE source for such information?• Aren‘t libraries supposed to be the source of SUCHinformation? (not only library catalogues, also nationalbibliographies)• What is the added value of current bibliographicinformation systems?
FRBR Basic ConceptsFRBR conceptual model: entities, relationships & attributes1: products of intellectual or artistic endeavourWORKEXPRESSIONMANIFESTATIONITEM- an intellectual or artistic creation- an intellectual or artistic realization of a work- a physical embodiment of one or more expressions- a single exemplar of the manifestation
Many Interesting Aspects…• conceptual model• FRBR family of models• frbrization – transformation of legacy data• identifiers• FRBR & catalogization (rules, standards, formats)• FRBR & catalogue user interface
Why FRBR & User Interfaces?• moving towards implementing FRBR in our cataloguesBUT– FRBR-based data is not a solution to library catalogueproblems in itself– pitfall = only partial implementation of FRBR that will failto bring the desired effect
Why FRBR & User Interfaces?• current library catalogue linear display approach is notsuited to the FRBR entity-relationship model• need to design a new type of display to take advantage ofthe richness (relationships!) and possibilities of FRBR-based data• knowing the end result we want to achieve help identify what is needed help develop the right set of rules, standards & tools help to implement a better library catalogue
FRBR Potential• create better bib. info. system user interfaces– meaningful clustering & exploration– different levels of abstraction• verified by user studies
VTLS• hierarchical layout• WEMI• also expressions• reverse tree
FrbrVis• Motivation:– presentation of and interaction with FRBR-based data = unexplored– bibliographic universe complex network of entities– traditional user interface displays too limited• displaying FRBR structures & relationships• insight, exploration & discovery of bibliographic data– different approaches needed• allow exploration• overview of entities and relationships– develop, implement and evaluate an alternative model
FrbrVismissing attributesunidentified entitiesinconsistent catalogingconsistent use of descriptiveidentificationusing field linkingrelating attributes and agents to correctentities when there are more works orexpressions within a manifestationadding relator codesdistinguishing between the roles ofagents and connecting them toappropriate primary entity levelcreating relationshipsbetween primary entitiesmissing W-W, E-E, M-M relationshipsIDENTIFIED PROBLEMS RECORD IMPROVEMENTS
0010080200411002402452603003363373383806557007007007761101410111108263064953081203s2008 nyua sb 000 0 eng d$a9780307272119$aeng $hswe$aLarsson, Stieg $d1954-2004 $4aut$aMillenium $n1 $pMan som hatar kvinnor $leng$aThe girl with the dragon tattoo $cby Stieg Larsson ; translated from theSwedish by Reg Keeland$aNew York $bAlfred A. Knopf $c2008$a1 online resource (465 p.)$atext$abook$aelectronic$aNovel$acrime fiction$aKeeland, Reg $d1943- $4trl$isequel $aLarsson, Stieg $d1954-2004 $tMillennium $n2 $pFlickan somlekte med elden $kNovel $4aut$iadapted as $tLuftslottet som sprängdes $kMotion picture$ielectronic reproduction of $aLarsson, Stieg, 1954-2004 $tThe girl with thedragon tattoo $b1st United States ed $dNew York : Alfred A. Knopf, 2008$h465 p. ; 25cm $z9780307269751CONSISTENT USE OFDESCRIPTIVE IDENTIFICATIONRELATOR CODESCREATING RELATIONSHIPS
00100802004124526030033633733838038052052060065565570070070070001012121211000589797940128s1994 enk b 000|1 eng$a0192827650$aeng$aLittle women $cLouisa May Alcott ; with an introduction by Valerie Alderson$aOxford $bOxford University Press $c1994$axxxvi, 489 p. $c19cm$atext $81 $82 $83$abook$aprint$aNovel $81 $82$aForeword $83$aThe joys and sorrows of the four March sisters as they grow into youngwomen in nineteenth-century New England. $81$a Three years on from "Little Women", the March girls and their friend Laurieare young adults with their futures, full of trials ahead of them. $82$aAlcott, Louisa May $d1832-1888 $tLittle women $kNovel $4aut $83$ayoung adult fiction $81 $82$anon-fiction $83$aAlcott, Louisa May $d1832-1888 $tLittle women $leng $4aut $81$aAlcott, Louisa May $d1832-1888 $tGood wives $leng $4aut $82 $84$aAlderson, Valerie $t[Introduction to Little women] $leng $4aui $83$isequel to $aAlcott, Louisa May $d1832-1888 $tLittle women $4aut $84FIELD LINKING
FrbrVis• hierarchical visualization techniques– not a perfect match for complex networks of bib. data– enables grouping based on rel. types and attributes– more effective and user friendly display– quick overviews and efficient navigation• missing horizontal and bottom-up relationships– partial solution = multiple views in a work record display
FrbrVis• FrbrVis prototype – beyond classical WEM display• established relationships within a broader work family• interactive exploration• particularly useful for complex work sets• future development: sunburst and indented list
Obstacles to Implementation• conservative views• model is perceived as ‘very abstract and theoretical’• open to interpretation (e.g. expression)• legacy data• no data model, no cataloguing rules
Group discussion• What do we need to do to design FRBR-based interfaces?– Are any questions/issues missing?– Which should be answered first?• Your solutions/ideas connected to any of the questions?
Future Library Cataloguea) Functional & Content Requirements– What functions should be supported?– Is the full implementation of the FRBR model what we need toachieve? Is it too much or too little?– What data do we need to enable the desired features? Is thisdata included in our catalogue records or will it be?– What entities, relationships, and attributes are important?– How much do functions and data depend on the type ofmaterial or the type of catalogue?
Future Library Catalogueb) Interaction Design & Information Architecture– How should entities be clustered? Will we adopt the FRBR WEMIapproach? Or maybe create less granular or more granularcategorizations?– How do we deal with the varying complexities of works and authors?Is there a one size fits all solution?– What will be presented to the user at what point in their search?
Future Library Cataloguec) Interface & Navigation Design– What kind of links-paths for exploration should be enabled at aparticular point in the catalogue?– How would we best display the hierarchical and networkrelationships in the data? Is visualization a viable option?
Strategydefine the jobs to be donesite objectivesuser needscontentrequirementsfunctionalspecificationsinformationarchitectureinteraction designinterface design navigation designvisual design(Garrett, 2002)
Scopedefine the data neededdefine the FRBRimplementation modelsite objectivesuser needscontentrequirementsfunctionalspecificationsinformationarchitectureinteraction designinterface design navigation designvisual design(Garrett, 2002)
Structure• define elements & clustering- for different complexities- for different types of data• define navigation pathsat different search/exploration pointssite objectivesuser needscontentrequirementsfunctionalspecificationsinformationarchitectureinteraction designinterface design navigation designvisual design(Garrett, 2002)
Discussion OutcomesWho is going to lead the development of FRBR-basedcatalogues?
Discussion Outcomes• libraries are thinking about implementing FRBR, butcurrently there is no centre, group or library to turn to– huge task– no forum for exchange of ideas, experience, implementationmodels– no tools available– do not even know what has been or is being done in individualinstitutions– most libraries cannot afford to develop everything from scratch
Discussion Outcomes• What should be the result set?Works, expressions, manifestations or a combination?• How to create intuitive displays that would not beconfusing to the users?• no one-size-fits-all solutions: different interfaces fordifferent purpuses, needs, circumstances
Discussion Outcomes• our first important mission is to get the data right• frbrization of records vs FRBR only in discovery layer• FRBR-born data need new interfaces to support FRBR-based catalogization• WEMI model might be too complicated
Discussion Outcomes• stop waiting for everything to be perfect & start with thechanges• incremental modelling and development approach• start with small steps to improve existing functionalityand data• we cannot solve all the problems, but we need to startsomewhere
thanks for participating!contact: firstname.lastname@example.org and the report prepared by Tanja Merčun and Maja Žumer