Tibet's history

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Here is a well documented presentation about the situation in Tibet, all information has been verified as to be truth. You'll see the manipulation that some media are making about history. Sun Tze said that the winner can arrange history on his way...

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Tibet's history

  1. 1. TIBET/XIZANG Improve your knowledge… Aurélien Avignon Benoit Vanmoer
  2. 2. What do you know about it? <ul><li>Superlative Tibet </li></ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Demography </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Economic view </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural particularities </li></ul><ul><li>A controversial issue </li></ul>
  3. 3. Superlative Tibet <ul><li>World's highest mountain? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mount Qomolangma ( ཇོ་མོ་གླང་མ ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mount Everest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mount Sagarmatha ( सगरमाथा ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mount Shèngmǔ Fēng ( 圣母峰 ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>All ! 8840m </li></ul>3,679 ascents, by 2,436 individuals… and 210 deaths
  4. 4. Superlative Tibet <ul><li>Highest altitude monastery ? </li></ul><ul><li>Rongbo Monastery 5100m </li></ul>Mount Everest Monastery and Pagoda
  5. 5. Superlative Tibet <ul><li>World's longest epic poem: King Gesar </li></ul><ul><li>120 volumes, more than 1 million verses, over 20 million words </li></ul>
  6. 6. Geography EVEREST Lhassa Tibet Autonomous Region Belgium
  7. 7. Geography <ul><li>Superficy : 2.5 billion m² ( 84x Belgium) </li></ul><ul><li>Borders : India, Nepal, Buthan </li></ul><ul><li>Region capital : Lhassa </li></ul>
  8. 8. Geography <ul><li>A Star of China </li></ul>Ouïghurs Hans Mongols Mandchous Tibetans
  9. 9. Demography <ul><li>Population of Tibet Autonomous Region </li></ul>2,616,000 inhabitants 93% of Tibetans 6% of Hans 1% other (Mongols…)
  10. 10. Demography <ul><li>Tibetan, one of the 55 Chinese ethnic minorities </li></ul>
  11. 11. Demography <ul><li>Bilingual education in Tibet? </li></ul>1950-1957 : Bilingual education 1958-1977 : Chinese-monopolistic language policy 1978-present : Back to bilingual education, also at an high level
  12. 12. History 127 B.C. 846 A.D. 1260 A.D. Songtsen Gampo (6l7-698 A.D.) Golden Age Married Princess Wencheng (introduction of Buddhism) Introduction of Tibetan writing Empire 645
  13. 13. History <ul><li>World 820 A.D </li></ul>
  14. 14. History 127 B.C. 846 A.D. 1260 A.D. Uprise Buddhism persecution Division into several kingdoms Empire 846
  15. 15. History <ul><li>World 1200 </li></ul>846
  16. 16. History <ul><li>Ghengis Khan conquests </li></ul>
  17. 17. History 127 B.C. 846 A.D. 1260 A.D. Conquest by Khans Appointement of Sakya Pandita Viceroy of Tibet Vassal state of Mongols Tibet spiritual influence><Mongol military influence Empire 1260
  18. 18. History 1368 1644 1912 First Dalai Lama 1391 1385 First Panchen Lama 1839-1901 Opium Wars 1645 Potala
  19. 19. History 1368 1644 1912 1950 English expedition from India to Tibet Execution of remaining Sino-Mongol protection forces ~12,000 killed Forced to pay compensations & to trade with England 1904
  20. 20. A friendly theocratic Serfdom? Aristocrats in Lhassa The Three rulling categories Aristocrat house
  21. 21. A friendly theocratic Serfdom? Serfs harvesting barley in the burning sun Serf with eyes gouged by owners Hands cut by serf owners Beg with shackles Instrument of torture
  22. 22. History 1368 1644 1912 1950 <ul><li>10 th Panchen Lama => ask for liberation </li></ul><ul><li>Mao Zedong => People's Liberation Army </li></ul><ul><li>Local government & Dalai Lama => against </li></ul><ul><li>May 1951 agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet </li></ul>1950
  23. 23. History 1368 1644 1912 1950 <ul><li>Rebellion led by Dalai Lama, and former privileged class (Indian and English influense, CIA Weapons) </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction of Central Government for unity </li></ul><ul><li>Dalai Lama and former privileged class => exile to India </li></ul>1959
  24. 24. History 1368 1644 1912 1950 <ul><li>Creation of Tibet Autonomous Region </li></ul><ul><li>Ngabo Ngawang as Governor </li></ul><ul><li>cabinet member under the Dalai Lama </li></ul><ul><li>commander of the Tibetan army in 1950 </li></ul>1965
  25. 25. Nowadays
  26. 26. Politics <ul><li>Autonomous Region Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~95% of participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emancipated serfs and slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illiterate (beans) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>95% of Tibetan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exiled Government in India </li></ul><ul><li>Based on former aristocratic society </li></ul><ul><li>Only men, former serfs non-eligible until 1991 </li></ul>
  27. 27. Economic view <ul><li>2006 GDP : 29 Billion Yuan (2.9Billion €) </li></ul><ul><li>Major sectors: </li></ul><ul><li>Subsistence agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>2.5billion yuan invested each year by Chinese Government </li></ul>
  28. 28. Cultural aspects <ul><li>Religions </li></ul><ul><li>Bön => ancient Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Tibetan Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Dalai & Panchen Lama </li></ul><ul><li>Islam (Sunni) </li></ul><ul><li>From Kashmir, Kabul </li></ul><ul><li>&Samarkand </li></ul>Mosque in Lhassa
  29. 29. Cultural aspects <ul><li>Tibetain art </li></ul><ul><li>Painting => </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture => Adapted to the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Music => Religious </li></ul><ul><li>Origami? </li></ul>Thangka Mandalas Thangka Mandalas
  30. 30. A controversial issue <ul><li>Chinese view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vassal state since 1360 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live improvment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right of self-determination assured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economical development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saved from Monks and Aristocrats dictatorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems created by English, nourrished by the U.S. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. A controversial issue <ul><li>A problem nourrished by the U.S.? </li></ul><ul><li>THE CIA ACTIVITY REPORT 1964-1968 </li></ul><ul><li>- ”political action, propaganda, and paramilitary activity” </li></ul><ul><li>-”support subsidy to the Dalai Lama's entourage at Dharmsala, India” </li></ul><ul><li>Total--$ 1,735,000/year </li></ul><ul><li>“ Educational program for 20 selected junior Tibetan officers-- $ 45,000” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Expenses of covert training site in Colorado--$ 400,000” </li></ul>http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/vol_xxx/337_343.html
  32. 32. A controversial issue <ul><li>“ The purpose of the program at this stage is to keep the political concept of an autonomous Tibet alive within Tibet and among foreign nations”… </li></ul>http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/vol_xxx/337_343.html
  33. 33. A controversial issue <ul><li>About misinformation </li></ul>
  34. 34. A controversial issue <ul><li>About misinformation </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>&quot;Our conflict with the Dalai clique is not an ethnic problem, not a religious problem, nor a human rights problem. It is a problem either to safeguard national unification or to split the motherland,&quot; Hu Jintao 胡锦 涛 </li></ul><ul><li>General Secretary of the Communist Party of China </li></ul>
  36. 36. A controversial issue <ul><li>Exiled Government view: </li></ul><ul><li>Historical point of view </li></ul><ul><li>No freedom of speaking </li></ul><ul><li>No freedom of religion </li></ul><ul><li>No freedom of Government </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion by the Han </li></ul>
  37. 37. Thanks for your attention

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