English grammar a2 z by tanbircox

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English grammar a2 z by tanbircox

  1. 1. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comঅ঩নায আ−ফুক ফা pdf রযডারযয Menu Bar এয View ঄঩঱নরি তে রিক করয Auto /Automatically Scroll ঄঩঱নরি র঳ররক্টকরুন (঄থফা ঳যা঳রয তমরে  Ctrl + Shift + H )। এফায ↑ up Arrow ফা ↓ down Arrow তে রিক করয অ঩নায ঩ড়ায ঳ুরফধা঄নু঳ারয স্ক্রর স্পীড রিক করয রনন।Words divided into different kinds or classes are called Parts of Speech. According to their uses; that isaccording to the work they do in a Sentence.In the parts of speech section, we will discuss identification, formation, and usage of every part of speech. Butyou should be seriously careful about the usage and this is very important for your preparation. Everywhere youwill face the questions related to correct usage. So be serious about usage.Different Kinds of Part of Speech: Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Prepositin Conjunction Interjection
  2. 2. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comNoun is a naming word of any place, thing, action, quality or nation etc.There are some clues to identify a Noun.Ø A word used as the subject or object of a verb is Noun.Beauty is truth I see a bird.Ø The object of Gerund, Participle or Infinitive is a Noun.To tell the truth is hard.Reading books is always amusing.Seeing a tiger, I turned pale.Ø If you see a word used after the preposition, it is a Noun.Love came from Heaven.He believes in God.Ø If you see only a word after articles (a, an, the) it is a Noun.He is a genius.The rich are not always happy.
  3. 3. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comএকরি ভূর word এয ঳ারথ suffix ঄থফা prefix মুক্ত ঴রে রফরবন্ন parts of speech এ ঩রযণে ঴ে। োআ একরি word এয঳ারথ রকবারফ suffix ঄থফা prefix মুক্ত ঴রে রফরবন্ন parts of speech এ ঩রযণে ঴ে, ো রনরেয example রি তেখররবারবারফ ফুঝরে ঩াযরফ- Communicate (V. তমাগারমাগ যক্ষা কযা)Communication (N. তমাগারমাগ)► Verb এয ত঱রল tion/ion তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃexpress – expression emancipate–emancipationapply – application eradicate - eradication► Verb এয ত঱রল ment তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃcommit – commitmentembezzle –embezzlementdisappoint – disappointment► Verb এয ত঱রল iour তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃBehave = Behaviour► Verb এয ত঱রল age তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃBlock = Blockage, Cover = Coverage► Verb এয ত঱রল or তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃVisit = Visitor, Act = Actorinspect – inspector invent – inventor► Verb এয ত঱রল ce তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃPresent = Presence, Absent = Absence► Verb এয ঳ারথ er/r (Suffix) তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃSpeak = Speaker, Make = Maker, sing – singer► Verb এয ঳ারথ ee/e তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃ
  4. 4. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comPay = Payee, Examine = Examinee► Verb এয ত঱রল ery তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃBake = Bakery► Verb এয ত঱রল ar তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃBeg = Beggar► Verb এয ত঱রল th তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃGrow = Growth, Deep = Depth► Adjective এয ত঱রল ship তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃHard = Hardship► Adjective এয ত঱রল ity তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃContinuous – continuity, garrulous – garrulity► Adjective এয ত঱রল ism তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃDynamic – dynamism optimistic – pessimismEuphemistic – euphemism► Verb এয ত঱রল al তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃRefuse = Refusal, Propose = Proposal► Verb এয ত঱রল y তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃDiscover = Discovery► Verb এয ত঱রল ance/ ence তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃEloquent – eloquence coherent – coherenceCompetent – competence► Verb এয ত঱রল sion/ion তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃ
  5. 5. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comExpress = Expression, Divide = Division► Adjective এয ত঱রল ness তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃGreat – greatness conscious– consciousness.► Adjective এয ত঱রল cy তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃEfficient = Efficiency, Proficient = Proficiency► Adjective এয ত঱রল y তমাগ করয Noun গিন কযা মােঃHonest = Honesty, Modest = ModestyRule # 01: Subject এফং Object র঴র঳রফ তকান word তক ফযফ঴ায কযরে ঴রর ঐ word রিরক Noun এ ঩রযফেতন করযফযফ঴ায কযরে ঴রফ।For Example:Happiness means different things to different people.We have already evaluated your performance.Allocation of resources is the main theme of Economics. [Not allocate or allocated]Coherence is necessary for writing.Fill in the gap with any one of the following -_ ______ is an ancient source of energy.(A) The wind (B) WindsP (C) Wind (D) A windRule # 02: Preposition এয ঩য noun ফর঳ -For Example:He was craving for affection.
  6. 6. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comEnglish is used for communication.He is good in English.Rule # 03: Article এফং Determiner এয ঩য মরে শুধু একরি word থারক েরফ ঐ word রি ঄ফ঱যআ Noun ঴রফ -করেকরি ঳ুত্রঃ(i) Determiner + Noun : The communication(ii) Determiner +Adjective + Noun: The communicative systemRule # 04: The + Noun + Preposition + Determiner + Noun : The possession of this roomFor Example:The poverty of people in the rural areas is not as visible as that of people in the city.The history of this genetic engineering is not very old.The work of many people made the project a success.Fill in the gap with any one of the following-_ The ------ of pollution in the cities should not be overlooked by the authorities.(D Unit 1996 – 1997)A. affects B. effectingC. affect PD. effectsRule # 05: Possessive, Infinitive, Gerund এফং Participle এয ঩য মরে তকান word ফযফহৃে ঴ে ো঴রর ঑ ত঳আ wordরিরক Noun এ form করয use কযরে ঴রফ।For Example:Building house is very costly.Seeing a child drawing, he jumped into the river.I wanted to know the destination.
  7. 7. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comTo tell a lie is a great sin.Rule # 06: এভনরক Preposition গুররায ঩রয মরে তকান Verb ঑ অর঳ ো঴রর ঐ verb গুররারক - ing তমারগ Gerund করয঄থতাৎ Noun এ form করয use কযরে ঴রফ।For Example:He is wearing the shirt for going to University.He saved the child after jumping in the river.He boasts of accomplishing everything individually.A Pronoun is a word used instead of a Noun;John is absent, because he is ill.SubjectPronounObjectPronounPossessiveAdjectivePossessivePronounI Me My MineWe Us Our OursYou You Your YoursYou You Your YoursHe Him His HisShe Her Her HersThey Them Their TheirsIt It Its Its
  8. 8. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comRule - 01:Verb এয Subject র঴র঳রফ মরে তকান Pronoun অর঳ ো঴রর Nominative form ঴রফ অয verb এয objectর঴র঳রফ মরে তকান Pronoun অর঳ ো঴রর objective form ঴রফ।For Example:He and they followed me and her.I saw her at the play.Rule - 02:Infinitive, Gerund রকংফা Participle এয Object র঴র঳রফ মরে তকান Pronoun অর঳ ো঴রর ঐ Pronoun রিরকobjective form করয use কযরে ঴রফ।For Example:They tried to follow me.After dropping Sujana and her, I came here.Rule - 03:Subject + verb + Objective pronoun/noun + Infinitive (to+verb). ঄থতাৎ tell, order, oblige, compel, allow,permit, teach, instruct, warn, urge, advise, tempt, encourage, request, forbid, show, how, remind, etc এয঩য Object + Infinitive ফর঳।For Example:The commander ordered them to go.She showed them how to play on harmonium.Rule - 04:Preposition এয object র঴র঳রফ মরে তকান Pronoun অর঳ ো঴রর ঐ Pronoun রিরক objective form এ use কযরে঴রফ।
  9. 9. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comFor Example:He always looks after me.You can depend on him and her.Rule - 05:Be verb (am, is, are, was, were etc.) এয complement র঴র঳রফ মরে তকান Pronoun অর঳ ো঴রর ঐ Pronoun রিNominative form ঴রফ।For Example:It is he who did this.Hers is she.Rule - 06:Who/Whom এয ফযফ঴ায :Who + Verb ------Whom + Noun/ Pronoun-----Verb এয Subject র঴র঳রফ তকারনা প্রকায রেন্তাবাফনা ছাড়াআ who use কযরে ঴রফ। অয Noun/pronoun এয ঳ারথ whomuse কযরে ঴রফ কাযণ এরক্ষরত্র whom রি verb এয object ঴ে।For Example:I know the man who is waiting for you.You are the lady whom he wants.For Example:Tell this who/whom looks confident.Tell this who/whom you find.Tell this who/whom you think is confident.
  10. 10. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comRule - 07:Relative Pronoun (who, which, that) এয ঩রয verb ঳ফ঳ভে োয antecedent ঄নুমােী ঴রফ ঄থতাৎ relativepronoun এয immediately অরগ তম Noun ফা pronoun অরছ ত঳িা ঄নুমােী ঴রফ।For Example:It is you who are responsible for this.I have lost the books which were bought from this storeIt is I who am your friend.[Here the verb after the relative pronoun is determined by I]Rule - 08:Relative Pronoun ঳ফ঳ভে োয antecedent এয ঩ার঱আ ফর঳।For Example:Inc: The man will be punished who has done thisCorr: The man who has done this will be punishedRule - 09:ফাংরাে (অরভ, েুরভ ঑ ত঳) ফরা ঴ে, রকন্তু আংরযরিরে (েুরভ, ত঳ ঑ অরভ) এবারফ ফযফহৃে ঴ে।For Example: You, he and I are to organize the show._ Which one of the following sentences is correct? (C Unit 1999-2000)A. Selim, you and I shall be punished.B. I, you and Selim shall be punished.C. You, me and Selim shall be punished.
  11. 11. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comPD. You, Selim and I shall be punished.অফায তোল স্বীকায কযরর (অরভ, েুরভ ঑ ত঳) এবারফআ ফযফহৃে ঴ে।For Example: I, you and he are in the wrong.An adjective is a word, which modifies a Noun or a Pronoun.You know Adjective is a qualifying word. You can identify any adjective in the following ways:-► তোভযা ঩ূরফতয তরকোরয noun তক identify কযরে র঱রখছ। এআ noun রিয immediately অরগ ঄ফরিে তকান word তকমরে তোভায identify কযরে ঴রর ঐ word রিরক ঄ফ঱যআ Adjective র঴র঳রফ identify করযা।This is an honorary degree.Any succinct essay is appreciable.► Linking Verb এয complement র঴র঳রফ ফযফহৃে তকান word তক identify কযরে ঴রর রনরিরন্ত ঐ word রিরকadjective র঴র঳রফ identify কযরে ঴রফ।He became very much effusive.What is intangible can be perceived only.► Possessive Pronoun র঴র঳রফ ঳াধাযণবারফ অভযা মারেযরক রেরন, োযা অ঳রর sentence এ Adjective র঴র঳রফ use঴ে। ঳ুেযাং মরে কখরনা এযকভ তকান possessive pronoun তক identify কযরে ঴ে, ত঳রক্ষরত্র এরেযরক Adjective র঴র঳রফidentify করযা।Your installment must be refunded.His instability is really irritable.
  12. 12. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comIn the first lecture you have seen how some adjectives become noun. In the place of adjectives it isalso right._ Noun এয ত঱রল ous তমাগ করয Adjective গিন কযা মােঃMonotony – monotonousHarmony – harmoniousCourtesy – courteous►Noun এয ত঱রল ent তমাগ করয Adjective গিন কযা মােঃExcellence – excellentIndifference – indifferentInadvertence – inadvertent► Noun এয ত঱রল al তমাগ করয Adjective গিন কযা মােঃArtifice – artificialConvention – conventionalBenefit – beneficial► Noun এয ত঱রল -full or –less তমাগ করয Adjective গিন কযা মােঃBeauty – beautifulCare – careless/careful► Verb এয ত঱রল able তমাগ করয Adjective গিন কযা মােঃ
  13. 13. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comPermeate – permeableConsolé – consolableDispense – dispensable► Noun এয ত঱রল ic তমাগ করয Adjective গিন কযা মােঃArtist – artisticHero – heroic► -bility মুক্ত Noun তক ble তমাগ করয Adjective গিন কযা মােঃIncredible – incredibilityIncorrigible – incorrigibilityInvisible – invisibility► –tion or –sion মুক্ত Noun তক –tive or –sive তমাগ করয Adjective গিন কযা মােঃDeception – deceptiveApprehension – apprehensiveRule - 01:Adjective একরি রনরেতষ্ট order তভরন েরর। তমভন- Determiner + Modifier + Headword.For Example:The active participantA young inactive lazy boyA round Italian pizza dish
  14. 14. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comRule - 02:Noun এয ঩ূরফত মরে তকান Word তক use কযরে ঴ে তম word রি ঐ Noun এয ফযা঩ারয কথা ফরর, ো঴রর ঐ word রিরকAdjective এ form করয use কযরে ঴রফ।For Example:I saw thatI do not know theRule - 03:঳াধাযণবারফ Verb এয ঩রয ফা complenent র঴র঳রফ Adverb use ঴ে। রকন্তু Linking Verb এয complement র঴র঳রফAdverb ফযফহৃে না ঴রে Adjective use ঴ে। এখারন প্ররোিনীে এফং গুরুত্ব঩ূণত কেগুররা Linking Verb তক list র঴র঳রফতেো ঴ররা।Be become feel appearsmell stay sound tastelook seem remainHe works silently.রকন্তু He remains silent.He drives carefully.রকন্তু He looks careful.রকন্তু Linking Verb এয ঳ারথ মরে Preposition থারক রকংফা Linking Verb এয Object থারক ো঴রর অফায Adverb use঴রফ।For Example:
  15. 15. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comHe looks after carefully.I tasted that soup hungrily.Rule - 04:঄রনক তক্ষরত্রআ Noun ফারকযয ভরধয Adjective র঴র঳রফ use ঴রে ঩ারয।For Example:I saw a beautifulI saw a beautiful girl.রকন্তু এরক্ষরত্র ভরন যাখরে ঴রফ তম, Noun মরে তকান Sentence এ Adjective র঴র঳রফ কাি করয, ো঴রর ঐ Noun রিকখরনাআ plural ঴ে না।For Example:This book contains ten pages. (Noun)This ten-page book is interesting. (Adj.)Give me a ten page book. (adj)Rule - 05:Noun এয অরগ enough ফর঳ রকন্তু Adjective ঄থফা Adverb এয ঩রয enough ফর঳।enough + nounFor Example:You can love if you have enough money to spend for women.adjective/ adverb + enoughFor Example:You are beautiful enough to satisfy me.
  16. 16. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comHe has enough strength to lift this.01) When your body does not get — it cannot make the glucose it needs. (C Unit 2004 – 2005)A. food as enough B. food enoughlyC. enough the food PD. enough foodE. food enough02) Choose the suitable option to fill in the gap.The tiny print on the poster is — small to be read easily. (B Unit 2004 - 2005)A. so B. much C. very PD. tooRule - 06:Little এফং Few এযা রনরিযাআ Negative ফরর এরেয ঳ারথ কখরনাআ তকান ধযরনয Negation use ঴রফ না।For Example:You have little money. [Not few money]He has not few friends. [Incorrect]He has few friends. [Correct]রকন্তু a little, the little রকংফা a few, the few-এযা অফায Positive ঄থত প্রকা঱ করয।I have a little money.এখারন অরযকিা কথা ভরন যাখািা িরুযী তম only এয ঳ারথ কখরনা শুধু little রকংফা few use ঴রফ না। মরে use কযরে ঴েো঴রর ত঳রক্ষরত্র a little রকংফা a few ঴রফ।For Example:Only few students are lazy (Incorrect)Only a few students are lazy (Correct)
  17. 17. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comWe will need only little food (Incorrect)We will need only a little food (Correct)01. Although Southern California is densely populated, ----- live in the northern part of the state. (DUnit 2003 – 2004)A. a little people PB. only a few peopleC. some of the people D. many people.02. ------- is currently available to researchers and physicians who study the indigenous life ofBangladesh. (D Unit 2003 – 2004)A. A little information B. Few informationP C. Little information D. A few information.Rule - 07:Another, other, the other এফং some, others, the others এয ফযফ঴ায ঳ম্পরকত একিা বাররা ধাযণা যাখািা িরুযী।রনরেয example গুররা তখোর করযাঃFor Example:I have two dresses. One is red and the other is blue.I have two types of marbles. Some are red and the others are blue.
  18. 18. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comVerb প্রথভে: েুআবারগ বাগ কযা ঴রেরছ। মথা:Finite Verb andNon Finite verb.তম Verb দ্বাযা ফারকযয ঄থত ঩ূণত ঴ে েথা তম Verb ফারকযয ঄থত ঩ূণত করয োরক Finite Verb ফরর। Finite Verb অফায েুআপ্রকায। মথা:Principal Verb and Auxiliary Verb.তম Verb রনরি ফারকয গিন করয এফং Auxiliary Verb এয ঳া঴াময রনরে঑ ফাকয গিন করয োরক Principal Verb ফরর।তমভন, we drink tea. We are drinking tea.তম Verb Tense, mood, Voice ফা ফাকয গিরন Principal Verb তক ঳া঴াময করয এফং এরেয তকান তকানরি অফায কখরনারনরি ফাকয গিন কযরে ঩াযরর঑ োরেয রনিস্ব তকান ঄থত তনআ োরক Auxiliary verb ফরর। তমভন, He is eating rice. I ama student. প্রথভ ফাকযরিরে ―is‖ eat তক ফাকয গিরন ঳া঴াময করযরছ। অফায রদ্বেীে ফারকয ―is‖ রনরি ফাকয গিন করযরছ।Auxiliary Verb তভাি ২৭ রি। মথা:Am, is, are, was, were, be, been, being (These are called to be verb); have, has, had (These are called tohave verb); do, did, done (These are called do verb); may, might, can, could, shall, should, will, would,ought to, dare, need, must, used to(These are called modal auxiliaries) and the first fourteen arecalled Primary Auxiliaries.
  19. 19. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comCASUATIVE VERBSতম verb এয ভাধযরভ subject object তক রেরে কাি করযরে তনে ত঳িআ ঴রে casuative verb ফা প্ররমািক রিো। কেগুররাverb এয casuative form রনরে প্রেত্ত ঴রঃSimple verb Causative VerbEat FeedLearn TeachKnow InformDive DipRise RaiseDrink DrenchSee ShowSuck SuckleRemember RemindFall Fell঄রধকাং঱ verb এয casuative form তনআ। অয তম ঳ফ verb এয casuative form তনআ ত঳গুররক have, get, make, let,help-এ ঳কর verb এয ভাধযরভ casuative কযরে ঴ে। রনরে এ ঳কর verb এয ফযফ঴ায তেখারনা ঴রঃØ I had or got the letter written by him.Ø I got him to write the letter.
  20. 20. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comAdverb is the word that qualifies the word except Noun and Pronoun. Therefore, it may qualify anyVerb, Adjective, and Adverb, Phrase or a full sentence.He runs fast. [Modifier of Verb]He is always late. [Modifier of Adjective]He runs very fast. [Modifier of Adv.]Evidently the figures are incorrect. [Modifier of a sentence]Formation:Adverbs are usually formed by adding -ly to an Adjective.Frequent – frequentlyHorrible- horriblyMerry – merrilyUsage/Rules:Rule - 01:Adjective এয অরগ মরে তকান Word তক use কযরে ঴ে ো঴রর ঐ word রিরক Adverb এ form করয োয঩যuse কযরে ঴রফ।For Example:She looksHe wanted an extremely large amount of money.Rule - 02:মরে তকান word verb তক modify করয ো঴রর ঐ word রিরক Adverb এ form করয use কযরে ঴রফ।
  21. 21. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comFor Example:He speaks English fluently.He walks silently.01. Point out the sentence with correct use of adverb— (C Unit 1997 - 1998)üA. Write the essay in brief.B. Write the essay briefly.C. Write the essay in short.D. Write the essay shortly.Rule - 03:Preposition মুক্ত Noun/Pronoun; Adverb এ ঩রযনে ঴ে।For Example:In time, in the morning, at this moment, day by day, etc.01. the government, _______UN Millennium Development Goals, finalized, approved and has startedimplementation of the full-PRSP.(C Unit 2009 - 2010)A. as dictated by üB. in line withC. as a support to D. consistent with theRule - 04:Adverb of Manner, Adverb of Place রকংফা Adverb of Time –এযা ঳ফাআ sentence এয ত঱রল ফর঳। রকন্তুমরে এযা একরত্র ফর঳ ত঳রক্ষরত্র এরেয রনরিরেয ভরধয একিা order ফা ধাযা maintain কযরে ঴ে।Manner ® Place ® Time.For Example:He works sincerely in his office everyday.
  22. 22. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comShe went there at 9.00 pm.Rule - 05:রকছু Adverbs (always, often, usually, generally, Just, quite, already, almost, ever, never, hardly,barely, rarely, scarcely, seldom) ঳ফ঳ভে main verb এয immediately অরগ ফর঳। এভনরক মরে তকান auxiliaryverb রকংফা modal থারক ত঳রক্ষরত্র auxiliary verb ফা modal এয ঩রয রকন্তু main verb এয অরগ ফর঳।For Example:He often visits our house.I hardly watch movies.He has already completed this.He has just arrived.Exception: have to রকংফা used to এযা modal ঴঑ো ঳রে঑ এআ adverb গুররা এরেয ঩রয না ফর঳ ঳ফ঳ভে অরগ ফর঳।For Example:I always have to do my work.He often used to wear unusual dress.01. Choose the appropriate alternative: (B Unit 1997 - 1998)A. I already twice have read this book.üB. I have already read this book twice.C. I have read already twice this book.D. I twice have already read this book.Rule - 06:Hardly, Barely, Rarely, Scarcely, Seldom– এআ Adverb গুররা রনরিযাআ Negatives. অয একাযরণআ এরেয঳ারথ তকারনা প্রকায negation ঄থতাৎ (no, not রকংফা never) use ঴রফ না।For Example:
  23. 23. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comI could not hardly solve this problem (Inc)I could hardly solve this problem. (Cor)01. Identify the correct translation: (B Unit 1999 - 2000)঳রেযকারযয পু র঑ ঴েরো এয তেরে খুফ একিা তফর঱ ঳ুগরি ঴রো না।A. Real flowers hardly could have smelt better.üB. Real flowers could hardly have smelt better.C. Real flowers could have smelt better hardlyD. Real flowers could smelt better hardly.Rule - 07:Hardly, Barely, Rarely, Scarcely, Seldom – এরেযরক রেরে মরে তকারনা sentence শুরু ঴ে ো঴রর ত঳রক্ষরত্রsentence এয অরগ verb েরর অর঳। মরে auxiliary verb ফা modal থারক ো঴রর োযা ফর঳। অয মরে এযা না থারকত঳রক্ষরত্র tense ঄নুমােী do, does রকংফা did ফ঳রফ।For Example:Rarely are you found in the room.Scarcely did I reach there when it began rain.Hardly could I solve this problem.Rule - 08:Negative Emphasis প্রোনকাযী রকছু Adverbs (not once, Not only, not untill, never, never again, onlyafter etc.) গুররায তফরাে একআ রনেভ প্ররমািয।For Example:Never again will they stay in the hotel.Not until the late middle ages did glass become a major construction material.
  24. 24. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.com01. Not until the Triassic Period ------.(D Unit 2003 - 2004)A. the first primitive mammals did developüB. did the first primitive mammals developC. did develop the first primitive mammalsD. the first primitive mammals develop.Rule - 09:মরে঑ adverb এয ঳ারথ ঳াধাযণে: -ly থারক, রকন্তু রকছু words (fast, late এফং hard) অরছ মারেয ঳ারথ by থাকা঳রে঑ এযা রনরিযাআ adverb। ঳ুেযাং এরেয তফরাে fastly, hardly রকংফা lately use কযা মারফ না। েরফ রবন্ন ঄রথত hardlyরকংফা lately Adverb র঴র঳রফ use ঴রে ঩ারয।For Example:Helen types fast and efficiently.He arrived late because of bad weather._ Choose the correct option:Although he felt very-----, he smiled-----(B Unit 2003 - 2004)A. angrily, friendly B. angry, friendlyC. angrily, in a friendly üD. angry, in a friendly way.
  25. 25. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comA Preposition is a connecting word used before a noun or a pronoun or a phrase and makesrelationship with other words.To distinguish between preposition and conjunction always remember one thing, Preposition connects aword or phrase but conjunction connects a clause.I arrived at the office after him.[Here after is preposition]I arrived at the office after he did.[Here after is conjunction]But very few Conjunctions are used as prepositions. It is not very much frequent in English.A conjunction connects two clauses and makes relationships with other words.Rule # 01:তকান word রকংফা phrase তক join কযরে ঴রর preposition রেরে join কযরে ঴রর conjunction রেরে join কযরে ঴ে।উো঴যণস্বরূ঩: as/like এয কথা ধযা থারক: as ঴রে conjunction ঄থতাৎ clause তক join করয অয like ঴রেpreposition ঄থতাৎ তকারনা word ঄থফা phrase তক join করয।For Example:He looks like me [Like is preposition]It was done, as you wanted [As is conjunction]He did as I instructed.
  26. 26. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comHe instructed like my father.01. Like Tarek, Masud was caught by mistake. (C Unit 2005-2006)üA. Like Tarek B. Like Tarek‖s captureC. Just as Tarek was caught D. Similar to TarekE. As did Tarek02. Complete the sentence:There can be no invention ---- an inventor. (D Unit 2001 - 2002)A. except B. norüC. without D. beforeoccur because a misunderstanding03. Complete the sentence:The moon is not a planet ----- the planets in many respects. (C Unit 1995 - 1996)A. to resembleB. which resemblesC. despite its resemblanceüD. although it resembles_ পু ররি যরক্তয ভে রার। (C Unit 1991 - 1992)üA. The flower is red like bloodB. The flower is blood like redC. The Flower is as red as bloodD. The flower is bloody
  27. 27. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comRule # 02:(Not only –– but also, No sooner ---than, both –– and, either –– or wKsev neither –– nor) এরেয঩ুরযা঩ুরয expressien রি একরত্র conjunction র঴র঳রফ কাি করয। ঳ুেযাং এরেয তকারনা ঄ং঱রক কখরনা ঩রযফেতন করয useকযা মারফ না।For Example:He is both a footballer as well as a cricketer. (Inc)He is both a footballer and a cricketer. (Cor)Rule # 03:Similar Theme এয েুরি clause তক join কযরে and use কযা ঴ে এফং opposite theme এয েুরি clause তক joinকযরে but use কযরে ঴ে।For Example:I went there and found him.I went there but did not find him.Rule # 04:In case ঄থত মরে অফায If ঄থত ঑ মরে। রকন্তু এরেয ভরধয রকছুিা ঩াথতকয অরছ। এ ঩াথতকযিা িার঱ তমবারফ ফুঝারনা ঴রফ ত঳বারফতফাঝায তেষ্টা কযরফ।For Example:You should take an umbrella in case it rains.You should not go outside if it rains.Rule # 05:঳াধাযণে: মরে sentence রি affirmative ঴ে ো঴রর as ----- as use কযা ঴ে অয মরে sentence রি negative ঴েো঴রর so ----- as use কযা ঴ে।
  28. 28. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comFor Example:Stephen is as sharp as a tack.Assembling this equipment is not so difficult as it may appear.Grammar এয তফরাে অভযা Sentence-এয Meaning এয োআরে Rule গুররারকআ প্রাধানয রেরে থারক। রকন্তু রফরবন্নPreposition ফযফ঴ারযয ঳ভে অভযা Rule এয ঩া঱া঩ার঱ Meaning তক঑ রফরফেনা কযফ। এরে করয Preposition রনফতােনকযািা ঄রনক ঳঴ি ঴রে মারফ।অভযা মখন Appropriate Preposition রনরে অররােনা কযফ কখন তোভযা Preposition এয ফযা঩ারয ঳াভরিক একিাধাযণা ঩ারফ। রকন্তু োয঩য঑ এআ তরকোরয অভযা করেকরি Preposition এয ফযফ঴ারযয ফযা঩ারয তোভারেযরক একিু ধাযণারেরে।Between এফং Among এয ফযফ঴ায:Between এফং Among উবেআ Preposition র঴র঳রফ ফযফহৃে ঴ে। েুআরেয ভরধয রনফতােন কযায তক্ষরত্র Between ফযফহৃে঴ে অয েুআরেয ঄রধক Noun ঴রর রকংফা Plural Noun ঴রর ত঳রক্ষরত্র among ফর঳।For Example:In a federal form of government, power is divided among the legislative, executive and judicialbranches.Although both teams were from the same country, there was cut throat competition betweenthem.The work is distributed between the secretary and the receptionist.Divide the money among the players.Besides এয ফযফ঴ায:
  29. 29. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comBesides ঑ একরি Preposition র঴র঳রফ কাি করয ঄থতাৎ Word রকংফা Phrase তক মুক্ত করয। ―঩া঱া঩ার঱‖ রকংফা ―ছাড়া঑‖঄রথত Besides এয ফযফ঴ায ঳ফ঳ভে রক্ষয কযা মাে। ভরন যাখরে ঴রফ তম, Beside ঱ব্দরিয ঄থত ঴রে ―রনকিফেতী‖। ঳ুেযাংBesides এয ঩রযফরেত কখরনাআ beside ফযফ঴ায কযা মারফ না।For Example:Besides studies, Students should be involved in social activities.(঄থতাৎ ঩ড়াশুনায ঩া঱া঩ার঱ র঱ক্ষাথতীরেয ঳াভারিক কারি ঳ম্পৃক্ত ঴঑ো উরেে।)(রকংফা, তরখা঩ড়া ছাড়া঑ র঱ক্ষাথতীরেয ঳াভারিক কারি ঳ম্পৃক্ত ঴঑ো উরেে।)Besides our dog, we have two cats.We sat beside the teacher.Such as এয ফযফ঴ায:Such as ঑ একরি Preposition র঴র঳রফ কাি করয ঄থতাৎ Word রকংফা Phrase তক ঳ংমুক্ত করয। অভযা তকান েৃষ্টাভত্মিানরে রকংফা ফাংরা ―তমভন‖ ঄থত তফাঝারে Such as ফযফ঴ায করয।For Example:There are different kinds of newspapers such as dailies, weeklies and monthliesSome birds, such as robins and cardinals, spend the winter in the North.Instead of এয ফযফ঴ায:Instead of একরি Preposition র঴র঳রফ ফযফহৃে ঴ে ঄থতাৎ মথাযীরে এরি একরি Word ফা Phrase তক ঳ংমুক্ত করয। ফাংরা―঩রযফরেত‖ ঄থত তফাঝারেআ এয ফযফ঴ায রক্ষযণীে।For Example:We went to Kuakata instead of abroad.You can take physics instead of biologyChoice between ―Despite‖ and ―In spite of‖:
  30. 30. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comএ েুরিাআ Preposition র঴র঳রফ কাি করয ঄থতাৎ তকান Word রকংফা Phrase তক ঳ংমুক্ত করয। অরযকিা রক্ষযণীে ফযা঩াযdespite এয ঳ারথ কখনআ of ফযফ঴ায কযা মারফ না।For Example:Despite his denial, we know that he was guilty.In spite of his denial, we know that he was guilty.Despite his physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman.In spite of his physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman.Jane will be admitted to the university despite her bad grades.Choice between ―because‖ and ―because of‖:Because একরি Conjunction র঴র঳রফ কাি করয ঄থতাৎ অরযকরি Clause তক ঳ংমুক্ত করয। রকন্তু because of একরিpreposition র঴র঳রফ কাি করয ঄থতাৎ একরি word ফা phrase তক ঳ংমুক্ত করয।For Example:He was absent because her cold was worse.He was absent because of her cold.
  31. 31. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comAn Interjection is a word, which expresses some sudden feeling or emotion.01. Hurrah! We have won the game. (আনন্দ)02. Alas! I am undone. (বিষাদ)03. What a beautiful scenery it is ! (বিষ্ময়) Ah ! Oh! Ha ! (বিষ্ময়)04. Bravo! You have done well. (অনুম াদন)05. Fie! Fie! (বিরষ্কার িা ঘৃণা)06. Hi! Hello! আহিান07. Humph! Hess (সমন্দহ)
  32. 32. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comThe tense is the change of from in a verb to express the time of an action. There are three tenses.a. Present Tenseb. Past Tensec. Future TenseEach of these principal tenses is again subdivided into 4 forms: Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect, andPerfect continuous.঳াধাযণে তকান কাি ফেতভারন ঴ে ফুঝারর ফা ঄বযা঳গে ঳েয ফুঝারর ফা রেয঳েয ফুঝারর Present Indefinite Tense ঴ে। এআTense-এ ফাংরাে ভূর রিো এফং আংরযরিরে঑ শুধু ভূর verb ফযফহৃে ঴ে। েরফ আংরযরি ফারকয subject third person,singular number ঴রর verb এয ত঱রল s ফা es তমাগ ঴ে।Structure:Subject + main verb (ভূর verb) + ........Subject + main verb + s/es + ............Note: Present Indefinite Tense -এ subject এর ঩রর be verb (am, is, are) থাকর঱ negative এবংinterrogative করার ঴ময় do/does বযবহৃত ঵রব না। Present Indefinite Tense - এ subject এর ঩রর have verb (has, have) থাকর঱, do verb বযব঵ার কররnegative এবং interrogative করা যায়। Present indefinite tense is used to denote following types of action- বতত মান ঴মরয়র ককান কাজ, অবস্থা, ঘটনা, তথয প্রকাল কররত :
  33. 33. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comThat cake smells good.I believe that you are right. To show habitual action-repetition or non-repetition of the same act (অভ্যা঴ বুঝারত):The Browns do not was their windows every week. ঴াধারণ ঴তয বা চির঴তয বুঝারত :Parallel lines never meet. ভ্চব঳যরতর ককান ঘটনা চনশ্চয়ই ঘটরব এরূ঩ ধারণা বুঝাবার জরনয :When does the college reopen?Her father sails for America next Sunday. উদ্বৃচত বযব঵ারর, ঩ররাক্ষ উচিরত, বযাখ্যা প্রদারনর ঴মরয়:Plate B replaces A plate in the old model, as shown in Diagram 2.They tell me that you are a fool, (Reporting) অতীত ঘটনা ঴ুমুজ্জ্ব঱ করর বণতনা কররত:Defeated in battle, the king now turns towards his capital.Darwin presents evidence for the development of life from lower to higher forms.The author of the textbook explains the problems clearly. ভ্চব঳যৎ ঴ম্ভাবনা বুঝারত লতত রবাধক ও ঴ময় চনরদতলক clause-এ:I shall give you 50 dollars if I like your work, (condition)I shall give her 50 dollars when I see her. (time) আরদল, উ঩রদল, অনুররাধমূ঱ক বারকয:Post the letter.
  34. 34. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comDon‖t run in the sun.Stand up on the bench. here, there চদরয় চকছু ঴ংখ্যক exclamatory বারকয:Here comes the bus!There goes the ball!Choose the correct option:Shaheen ––––– tennis once or twice a week.A. is playing usually B. is usually playingüC. usually plays D. plays usuallyফেতভারন/এখন তকান কাি েররছ এরূ঩ ফুঝারর presnt continuous tense ঴ে। ফাংরাে রিোয ত঱রল তেরছ, তেছ, তেরছ, রছআেযারেয ফযফ঴ায তেরখ এআ tense তেনা মাে। অয আংরযরিরে এআ tense-এ subject এর ঩রয subject ঄নু঳ারযam/is/are ফর঳ অয ভূর verb-এয ঳ারথ- ing তমাগ কযরে ঴ে।Structure:Subject + am/is /are+ [verb+ ing] .................The present continuous tense is used ¾ বতত মান ঴মরয় ককান কাজ ি঱রছ বুঝাবার জরনয:It is raining/snowing/sleeting.Shofera is dancing at this moment. to describe a future action (ভ্চব঳যরতর কাজ বণতনা করার জরনয) :They are going to a concert tomorrow night.We are repeating the experiment next month.
  35. 35. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comWhat are you doing tomorrow evening? অভ্যা঴গত ককান কাজ যা অ঩ছন্দনীয়, অননুরমাদনরযাগয:They are always asking for special favours.That little girl is always biting her finger nails. উন্নয়নলী঱, ঩চরবতত নলী঱ অবস্থা বুঝাবার জরনয:The population of the world is rising very fast.That child‖s getting bigger everyday.Note : Present continuous tense-এ now, right now, at present, at this moment এ ধররনর adverb ও adverbphrase বযবহৃত ঵য়।I am having meal now. চকছু Verb কখ্রনা Present progressive tense -এ বযবহৃত ঵য় না অথবা খ্ুব কমই Present tense -এবযবহৃত ঵য়।Want, desire, refuse, see, feel, think, forgive, wish, live, hate, like, hear, smell, recognize, realize,understand, know, seem, etc.I see a birdতকান কাি এআভাত্র ত঱ল ঴রেরছ রকন্তু োয পর ফেতভান অরছ ফুঝারর Present Perfect Tense ঴ে। ফাংরা ফারকয রিোয ত঱রলআোরছ, আোছ, আরেরছ আেযারেয ঳া঴ারময এআ tense তেনা মাে। আংরযরি ফারকয এআ tense-এ subject এর ঩রযhave/has ফর঳, োয঩য ভূর verb-এয past participle form ফর঳।Structure:Subject + have/has+ [verb in the past participle] .................The present continuous tense is used- Present Perfect is used with an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past.
  36. 36. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comJohn has travelled around the world. (We dont know when.) A common error is to substitute the present indefinite tense for the present perfect tense. Present indefinitetense should not be used in place of present perfect. The latter is used when the action, which began in thepast, still continues.I am in Delhi for seven years. (Incorrect)I have been in Delhi for seven years. (Correct) We use present perfect with today / this morning / this evening etc. when these periods are not finished atthe time of speaking.I haven‖t seen you this morning.Have you had a holiday this year. The following adverbs can be used with present perfect.Just, already, since, for, yet (in questions andnegations), So far, till now, never, often, ever (inquestions only)Note : It should never be used with adverbs of past time.He has just come here yesterday. (Wrong)He has just come here. (Right) Choice Between YET/ALREADYThe adverbs yet and already are used to indicate that something has happened (or hasnt happened) atan unspecified time in the past. These adverbs are often used with the present perfect.He has just - out.üA. gone B. wentalready - affirmative sentencesyet – negative sentences and questions
  37. 37. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comC. going D. gettingতকান কাি ঩ূরফত অযম্ভ ঴রে এখন঑ েররছ এরু঩ ফুঝারর Present Perfect Continuous Tense ঴ে। এআ tense-এ Subjectএয ঩রয have been / has been ফর঳, োয঩য ভূর verb-এয -ing ফর঳।Structure:Subject + have/has+ been + [verb + ing] .....................It has been raining for two hours.I‖ve been watching television since 2 o‖clock.The present perfect continuous tense is used ঩ূবত কথরক আরম্ভ ঵রয় এখ্নও ি঱রছ:They have been playing since 4 p.m.Our car has been giving us trouble recently.She has been looking everywhere for you. for + duration of timeFor five hours, for thirty years, for ten minutes. since + beginning timeSince 1975, since five oclock, since January.঄েীেকারর তকান কাি ঘরিরছর, তকান ঄রবয঳ রছর আেযারে ফুঝারে Past Indefinite Tense ঴ে। এআ Tense-এ ফাংরােরিোয ত঱রল প্রােআ ―র‖ তেখা মাে। অয আংরযরিরে subject এর ঩রয verb-এয Past Tense- এয form ফর঳।Structure:
  38. 38. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comSubject + verb in past form...............................Alfred arrived last night.I received her letter yesterday.Note: অতীত অরভ্য঴ বুঝার঱ used to বযবহৃত ঵য়।Used to/would + verb (মূ঱ verb).........She used to bathe in the river every morning.He used to play cricket every afternoon.He would wait for her outside the office everyday.Simple past tense is used অতীত ঘটনা বণতনা করার কক্ষরে:Regularly every summer, Janet fell in love.She was in Pakistan ten years ago. conditional বারকয if clause-এর ঩রর ককান অ঴তয ঘটনা, অথবা ঘটনা যা ঘটরব না বুঝাবারকক্ষরে:If you loved me, you would not leave now.If he wore a blue tie with that jacket, it would look better. to express a past habit / Characteristic (predictable) behavior in the past (অতীত অভ্যার঴র বণতনারকক্ষরে):He would wait for her outside the office (everyday)She would often go all day without eating.1. Complete the following sentence:They certainly ––––– the right person for the job.A. choose B. choosen
  39. 39. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comC. had choose üD. cshose2. The first bridge –––– built –––– probably a wooden bridge.A. ever being, had B. that stands, isüC. that was, was D. had fallen, was.3. This book ––––– first published in 1985.A. has been üB. wasC. is D. was being4. I ––––– to his house yesterday but could not meet him.üA. went B would goC have gone D was gone঄েীেকারর তকান কাি েররছর ফুঝারে Past continuous tense ফযফহৃে ঴ে। Past continuous tense প্রােআ simplepast tense-এয ঳ারথ Complex sentence এ ফযফহৃে ঴ে, অয subordinate clause রি When, while দ্বাযা শুরু ঴ে।ফাংরাে রিোয ত঱রল তেরছর, তেরছরর, তেরছরাভ আেযারে Past progressive tense রেনরে ঳া঴াময করয। আংরযরিরে subjectএয ঩রয was/were ফর঳, ো঩য ভূয verb-এয ঳ারথ -ing ফযফহৃে ঴ে।Structure:Subject + was/were + [verb + ing].................I was painting all day yesterday.The Past continuous tense is used- অতীতকার঱ ককান কাজ ি঱চছ঱, কারজ অগ্রগচত ঵রয়চছ঱ চকন্তু কল঳ ঵য়চন:This time last year I was living in Brazil.I was painting all day yesterday. ককান কাজ অতীরত ি঱চছ঱ যখ্ন অনয আর একটি কাজ ঘরটচছ঱ বুঝাবার জরনয:
  40. 40. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comWhile Tania was watching television lightning struck the house.The cook was not watching the pot when it he sauce boiled over.Choose the correct word to complete the sentence:01.I quickly lost interest in Mr. Rahim’s story because he was ––––– himself.A. repetitions B. repeatedüC. repeating D. repeatedly02. Complete the sentence with correct verb form:Taher ––––– his hand when he was cooking dinner.A. burn üB. burntC. is burning D. was burning঄েীেকারর েুরি ঳ম্পন্ন কারিয ভরধয তমরি অরগ ঘরিরছর ত঳আ কািরি past perfect tense ঴ে। অয verb-এয ঩যফেতীকািরি simple past tense ঴ে। subject এর ঩রয had, োয঩য verb-এয past participle-এয form ফর঳।Structure:1. Subject + had + [verb in the past participle] + before + simple past2. Subject + simple past + after + subject + past perfectThe patient had died before the doctor came.The doctor died after the patient had come.Note: ঴াধারণত বারকযর clause দুটি before বা after দ্বারা ঴ংযুি ঵র঱ past perfect tense before- এর ঩ূরবত এবংafter- এর ঩রর বর঴।The past perfect tense is used ¾
  41. 41. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.com অতীরত দুরটা ঴ম্পন্ন কারজর কভ্তর কযটি ঩ূরবত ঵রয়চছ঱, ক঴ই কাজটি বুঝাবার জরনয:When I went home, I found that someone had stolen my fur coat.I realised that we had met before. verbs of saying and thinking-এর ঩রর অতীরত ঴ংঘটিত ককান কারজর বণতনা কদওয়া প্র঴রেI thought I had sent the cheque a week before.She said that she had done the work last month. Choice Between BEFORE/AFTERThe past perfect tense stands before the word ―before‖ and after the word ―after‖ in the sentencecontaining ―before or after‖.The patient had died before the doctor came.OrThe patient died after the doctor had come.1. Complete the sentence, "He bought a new car because his old one—down." with the suitable option.A. broke üB. had brokenC. has broken D. was broken2. My friend - before I came.A. would be leaving B. had been leavingüC. had left D. will leave঄েীেকারর তকান কাি তকান রফর঱ল ঳ভরে অযম্ভ ঴রে তকান রনরেতষ্ট ঳ভরে ঳ম্পন্ন ঴রেরছর রকন্তু উরেরখে ঳ভে ঩মতন্ত েররছরফুঝারে Past Perfect continuous tense ঴ে। এখারন মরে েুরি রিোয উরেখ থারক ো঴রর তম কািরি অরগ তথরক েররছর
  42. 42. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comত঳রি Past Perfect continuous tense ঴ে এফং তমরি ঩রয ঴রেরছর ত঳রি simple past tense ঴ে। এআ tense-এ subject-এয ঩রয had been ফর঳, এয঩রয ভূর verb-এয ঳ারথ -ing ফ঳রফ।Structure:Subject + had been + [verb + ing] ............I‖d been working hard all day.The past perfect Continuous tense is used - অতীরতর ককান ঘটনা চকছুকা঱ ধরর ি঱চছ঱ বুঝারত:At that time we had been living in the caravan for about six months.When I found Mary, I could see that she had been crying.01. When I finally arrived at the party at 10 pm. Mita was annoyed with me because I was late and she–––– for a very long time.A. had been waiting B. waitedC. is waiting D. has waitingবরফলযরে তকান কাি কযা ঴রফ ফুঝারে Future Indefinite tense ঴ে। ফাংরা রিোয ত঱রল ফ থারক এফং আংরযরিরে subjectএর ঩রয shall/will ফযফ঴ায কযা ঴ে। রিরি঱ আংরযরিরে ঳াধাযণে First person I/we- এয ঩রয shall, second personyou, third person he/she, they আেযারেয ঩রয will ফর঳। অরভরযকান আংরযরিরে তম তকান person-এয ঩রয ঳াধাযণেwill ফযফ঴ায কযা ঴ে।Structure:Subject + shall/will + main verb......................I shall prepare my lesson this evening.Next year will be different.The Future Indefinite tense is used ককান খ্বর কদওয়া/চজরে঴ করা/ অনুমান করা/ভ্চব঳যদ্বাণী করার ঴ময়:
  43. 43. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comAll the family will be at the wedding.Tomorrow will be warm. লতত যুি ভ্াব প্রকারলর ঴ময় :If it rains, I shan‖t go.He‖ll have an accident if he goes on driving like that.বরফলযরে তকান কাি েররে থাকরফ ফুঝারর Future Continuous Tense ঴ে। আংরযরিরে subject এয ঩রয shall be / willbe ফর঳, এয঩রয ভূয verb- এয ঳ারথ ing তমাগ ঴ে।Structure:Subject + shall be/will be + [verb + ing]...........I shall be leaving Dhaka by this time tomorrow.The future progressive/Continuous tense is used¾ ককান কাজ ভ্চব঳যরত ককান চবরল঳ মু঵ূরতত ঩যতন্ত ি঱রত থাকরব বুঝারত:This time tomorrow I shall be lying on the beach.I shall be reading the book then. ককান কাজ চনধতাচরত আরছ বা স্বাভ্াচবকভ্ারব ঘটরব এরূ঩ প্রতযালা করা যায় বুঝারত:Professor Alfred will be giving another lecture on poetry.বরফলযরে তকান রনরেতষ্ট ঳ভরে তকান কাি ঳ম্পন্ন ঴রফ ঄থফা েুরি কারিয ভরধয ঩ূরফত ঳ম্পন্ন ঴রফ ফুঝারে future perfecttense ঴ে। এআ tense –এ আংরযরি ফারকয subject এর ঩রয shall have/will have ফর঳, োয঩রয ভূর verb-এয pastparticiple-এয form ফ঳রফ।Structure:
  44. 44. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comSubject + shall have/will have + past participle form of the verb.........I shall have done the work before my father comes.The Future perfect tense is used- ভ্চব঳যরত ককান এক ঴ময় ককান কাজ ঴ম্পন্ন ঵রব বুঝারত:The builders say they‖ll have finished the roof by Tuesday.01. By 2010, I-------for this firm for 15 years.A. will be worked B. will workC. have worked üD. will have workedবরফলযৎকারর তকান ঳ভরেয ভরধয তকান কাি েররে থাকরফ ফুঝারর Future perfect Continuous tense ঴ে। এখারন আংরযরিফারকয subject এয ঩রয shall have been/will have been ফর঳, োয঩য ভূর verb এয ঳ারথ ing তমাগ ঴ে।Structure:Subject + shall have been/will have been + [verb + ing] ........I‖ll have been doing the work before my father comes.By eight o‖clock he will have been walking for three hours
  45. 45. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comএকিন ফযরক্ত তকান একরি কাি কযর এফং ঄নুরূ঩ কািরি অফায ঄নয একিন কযর।এরক্ষরত্র ঄ণুরূ঩কািরি প্রকা঱ কযায িনয এফং Repetition ফা ঩ুনযাফৃরত্ত েূয কযায িনয sentence এয রদ্বেীে ঄ংর঱so ঄থফা too ফযফ঴ায কযা ঴ে। অয আ঴া ফযফ঴ারযয িনয তম order রি maintain কযা ঴ে োরকAffirmative agreement ফরর।এ agreement এয তক্ষরত্র First clauseএ তম Tense ফা verb এয ফযফ঴ায কযা ঴রফ secondclause এ঑ ত঳আ Tense ফা verb এয Form ফযফ঴ায কযা ঴রফ।Affirmative statement+and+subject+beverb/auxiliary+too.so+be verb/auxulary+subject.I am happy, and you are too.I am happy, and so are you.They will work in the lab tomorrow and you will too.They will work in the lab tomorrow and so will you.Jane goes to the school, and my sister does too.Jane goes to the school, and so does my sister.
  46. 46. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comNEGATIVE AGREEMENTAffirmative agreement এয ভেআ Negative sentence এয ‗঄নুরূ঩‘ কাি প্রকার঱য তক্ষরত্র secondclause এয ত঱রল Either এফং neither ফযাফ঴ায কযা ঴ে-Negative statement + and +Subject+ negative auxiliary or be verb+ either.Neither +positive auxiliary or be verb+ subject.I don‖t see Monju this morning, and Lion didn‖t either.I don‖t see Monju this morning, and neither did Lion.Musa hasn‖t seen the new movie yet, I haven‖t either.Musa hasn‖t seen the new movie yet, and neither have I.EXERSISES1. My friend does not like terrorism and ---------a) Neither I do,b) Neither do I,(ans)c) I do either,d) I do.2. Which one of the following is correct?a) She took pictures, and I did so.b) She took pictures, and so I did.
  47. 47. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comc) She took pictures, and I so did.d) She took pictures, and so did I.(ans)3. Which one of the following correct?a) Pioneer men and women endured terrible hardships, and so do their children.b) Pioneer men and women endured terrible hardships, and so do their children.c) Pioneer men and women endured terrible hardships, and also the children.d) Pioneer men and women endured terrible hardships, and so did theirchildren.(ans)Countable singular nouns:1. “A” is used before consonant sounds and “An” is used before vowel sounds. Both ofthem are used before countable singular nouns.Example:I need a pen to sign here.She imported a new car.An animal drove him out of the Sundarbans.
  48. 48. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comRemember: “O” and “U” sometimes produce consonant sounds and take “A” instead of“An”. Example- A one way ticket, a one sided argument, a university, a unique design, aunited force, a European coin, a U-tern etc.Similarly, “H” sometimes remains mute and take “An” instead of “A”. Example - An hour,an honorable person, a/an hotel etc.Also remember:An MA, an MP, an “h”, an “f”, an “l”, an “n”, an “r”, an x-ray, etc.2. When countable singular noun is preceded by a possessive pronoun(my/our/your/his/her/their/its) or a possessive noun (Rafiq’s/Sima’s) no article isused.He lived in my house.Shihab bought Rafiq’s car.Similarly, if a countable singular noun is preceded by singular demonstratives(this/that) no article is used.You need this pen to draw this picture.Her teacher asked her to buy that book.3. No article is used before a countable plural noun.She is imported new cars. Never: she imported anew cars.4. When a countable singular noun is first mentioned, a/an is used before it. But “the”is used before it whenever it is mentioned in the following sentences in the same pieceof writing:He has a cat and a dog.The cat’s name is Mini and the dogs name is Bhola.5. When a countable plural noun is first mentioned, no article is used before it. But“the” is used before it whenever it is mentioned in the following sentences in the samepiece of writing:Children play games. But the games often create quarrels among them.6. A/an in phrases: a little, a few, many a, half a dozen, fraction of a second/minute, apair of glasses/shoes, quarter of an hour, what a, etc.But the is used before ‘little’ when the whole of the little amount is meant:The little money he has is not enough for his treatment.
  49. 49. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comSimilarly, “the” is used before ‘few’ when of the small number is meant:The few books I have are all written in English.‘The’ is also used before other expressions of this group when they are madedefinite by post modifiers:The pair of shoes he has bought is made in Italy.7. Normally articles are not used before uncountable nouns. Here is a small list of thefrequently used uncountable nouns:Accommodation, behavior, baggage, luggage, paper, permission, fun, advice,knowledge, grass, equipment, work, travel, poetry, information, news, furniture, bread,traffic, scenery, luck, money, water, wool, energy, chess, coffee, tea, health etc.But “the” is used before some of them when they are made definite by post modifiers.Example-The information you gave was wrong.He talks about the fun that we had last year.8. “The” is used before the name of a thing which is a unique (only one) in nature.Such a thing is already known to all.-the sun, the moon, the mars, the sky, the cosmos, the Equator etc.sed before the weather because it is also a natural unique and known to all.Example- It is better to start conversation with reference to the weather.9. “The” is used before the names of seas, oceans, gulfs and poles. Example- theMediterranean sea, the read sea, the black sea, the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Persian Gulf,the South Pole, the North Pole, etc.10. “The” is used before the names of deserts. Example- the Sahara, theGobi etc.11. “The” is used before the names of rivers. Example- the Padma, theJamuna, the Ganges, the Nile, the Rine etc.12. “The” is used before the name of ranges of mountains. Example- theHimalayas, the Alps etc.13. “The” is used before the names of groups of islands. Example- the WestIndies, the Andamans etc.
  50. 50. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.com14. “The” is used before the names of Hotels, Restaurants andNewspapers. Example- The Pan Pacific Sonargaon Hotel, the Halvatia Restaurant, theLabamba Restaurant, the Daily Prothom Alo etc.15. “The” is used before the name of musical instruments. Example- thepiano, the violin, the aktara, the flute, etc.But “the” is often dropped before jazz, pop, saxophone, trumpet, etc. Example-He is an artist of jazz. Tapon was on trumpet in yesterday’s concert.16. “The” is used before television when it refers to the set (machine). Example-The old television has been sold. There is a layer of dust on the TV.But when the programs of TV are referred ‘the’ is not used. Example- TV is a goodsource of entertainment. I don’t watch TV regularly.17. “The” is used before (the) radio (medium). Example- I don’t find time tolisten to the radio. (The radio programs)But “the” is dropped before radio when it is refers to art form or profession. Example-She sings in radio.“A’’ is used when radio refers to the apparatus. Example- He always carries a radio.18. “The” is used before cinemas (halls), theatres (halls), ships. Example-Cinemas: the Madhumita, the Balaka, the Odeon, etc.Theatres: the Mahila Samity, the National theatrers, the Globel theatres, etc.Ships: the Titanic, the Sonar Bangla, etc.But “the” is dropped before ‘cinema’ or ‘theatre’ when it refers to art form orprofession. Example-There are many differences between cinema and theatre.Working in cinema is easier than working in theatre.
  51. 51. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.com19. “The” is used before the name of country or an area which has an adjective oradjectives and a noun in it: (adj+n). Example-The Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, the United Kingdom/the UK, the United states ofAmerica/the USA, the United Arab Emirate/the UAE, etc.But ‘the’ is dropped when the short form or alternative names of those countries areused. Example- Bangladesh, Britain, America or United States etc.‘The’ is also dropped if the name of a country or area is preceded by any of theseadjectives: North, South, East, West, Upper, Lower, Great and New. Example - NorthAmerica, South America, Great Britain, New Zealand etc.But remember: The South Pole, the North Pole.“The” is not used before the name of continents. Example- Asia, Europe,Africa, etc.However ‘the’ is used before the name of the following countries thoughthey have only the nouns as names:The Netherlands, the Philippines, the Maldives, the Lebanon, the Congo, the Argentine.20. ‘The’ is used before the nouns in apposition. Example- Dhaka, the capital ofBangladesh, is a cosmopolitan city. Dr. Ahmed, the Principal, is a great man.21. But if a proper noun is in apposition ‘the’ is not used before it. Example- thePrincipal, Dr. Ahmed, is a gentleman.22. “The” is used before adverbs and adjectives. Example-a) The then Prime Minister misled the nation.b) The above examples are taken from Shakespeare.c) The down train is late.23. “The” is used before ordinals in title. Example- Queen Elizabeth the second isstill alive.24. “The” is used to emphasize. Example- He is the big shot in the twon.
  52. 52. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.com25. “The” is used to express enthusiastic approval (usually with “that”).Example- That’s the word, that’s the tune.26. ‘The’ is used before adjectives when they function as nouns to mean thewhole class or group. Example - The poor, the blind, the rich, the old etc.27. ‘The’ is used before countable singular nouns to mean the whole species.Example - the cow, the whale etc.But remember ‘the’ is not used before ‘man’ & ‘woman’. Example - Man is mortal.However, “the” is used before man and woman when they are made definite by postmodifiers. Example- Rakib is the man who did it. We know the woman whoplayed well.28. “The” is used before the plural name of a family. Example- The sheridans. TheMondals. The Sarkers.29. “The” is used before comparatives. Example- the more the merrier, the soonerthe better.30. “The” is used before superlatives. Example- He is the best boy in the class.But “the” is not used before “most” when it is used to mean majority or almost all ofsomething or some people not as superlative. Example- Here, most newspapersuse erroneous English. Most of the people of our country are poor.31. No article is used before nature, society, space(vacuum):Nature is always not kind. Man live in society. Everybody dreams of flying in space.
  53. 53. Want more Updates  http://facebook.com/tanbir.ebooksfacebook /gmail/skype: - http://tanbircox.blogspot.comআন্টাযরনি ঴রে ঳ংি঴ীে http://techtunes.com.bd/tuner/tanbir_cox http://tunerpage.com/archives/author/tanbir_cox http://somewhereinblog.net/tanbircox http://pchelplinebd.com/archives/author/tanbir_cox http://prothom-aloblog.com/blog/tanbir_coxhttp://facebook.com/tanbir.coxhttp://facebook.com/tanbir.ebookshttp://tanbircox.blogspot.com

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