USA-Indonesia Governmental


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USA-Indonesia Governmental

  1. 1. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) Tammy Tiffany GenebertyAmerican Government Class (Spring Semester) Indonesia
  2. 2. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) UNITED STATES OF AMERICA REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA (2) (1) Republic of Indonesia is a nation as a most diverse country in the world.United States of America (USA) has a very diverse population. With Approximately, there are around 300 native ethnicities in Indonesia, andthirty one ancestry groups that exist in USA, makes this nation as a 742 different languages and dialects in this nation. With so many languages and dialects that exist in Indonesia, this nation unite undermelting pot country of many people with different backgrounds. Under one national language, bahasa Indonesia. Indonesia also has a nationone country’s dictum “E Pluribus Unum” which means “Out of many, slogan that nearly has same meaning with USA’s dictum which isOne,” United States of America has national language which is English. “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika” which means “Unity in Diversity.” Civil rights in United States of America has made progress very rapidly. As a diverse country, USA provide and guarantee civil rights for the people of United States especially starting from the struggle of Martin Luther King, Jr. in order so every American citizen have the same rights, specially for the minorities (the colored people, red). Indonesia as the most diverse country in the world still struggle to provide and guarantee civil rights and same rights for each of their citizen. Even though in the regulations and policies Government guarantee civil rights for Indonesian people, but practically there are some cases when the government and military violating civil rights. 1) 2)
  3. 3. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.comUNITED STATES OF AMERICA REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA (1) (2)The United States of America founded as a progress of rebellion Long time before the Founding Fathers proclaimed theagainst British kingdom. “In 1776, the Second Continental Congress independence of Indonesia in 1945, there’s a moment in Octoberappointed a committee consisting of Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin 1928 where many Indonesian youths from many ethnicities andFranklin, Roger Sherman, John Adams, and Robert Livingston to islands gathered in a conference and proclaimed to unite underdraft a statement of American independence from British rule.” (3) one country, one language, and one nation. This youth movementThey arranged the foundation of their country which is the called “Sumpah Pemuda” (Youth Oath, red). After long struggleConstitution of United States. under colonialism, finally Indonesian founding fathers proclaimed the independence of Indonesia in 17th August 1945. Ir. Soekarno,Reflection: Dr. Mohammad Hatta, Sutan Sjahrir, and Tan Malaka are the founding fathers of Indonesia. With other revolutionists, theyThe establishment of these two nations has same intention, which is arranged the constitution of Indonesia that recognize asresistance against collonialism or occupation. Formed within great “Pancasila” and UUD 1945.diversity, these two nations has similarity which to declare theirindependency as a united society and stepped in democracy. (1) (2) Ir. Soekarno Facebook Page:!/photo.php?fbid=125668390785&set=a.125667495785.138178.122761545785 (3) We The People: An Introduction to American Politics, Seventh Edition; page. 30.
  4. 4. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) http://www.simpopdf.comUNITED STATES OF AMERICA REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA (1) (2)The central government of United States, known as the Federal The central government of Indonesia, that based in the capitalgovernment, lead by the President of The United States. Usually the city Jakarta, lead by the President of Republic of Indonesia.cabinet of the president consist with less than 20 ministers. Each time Usually the cabinet of the president consist with more than 35the new president elected, in the federal government there is no ministers. And each time the new president elected, coalitioncoalition to choose who will be seated in the cabinet position. does occur.Reflection: The federal government in United States has it own part to regulate regulations in the country and in the states, when there issome parts that federal government can not interfere states regulations. But there is also merge between federal government and stategovernment in United States which is contextual for the people of United States in each state. The central government in Indonesia is stilllearning yet to govern the nation as a whole after coup’d etat of New Order regime in 1998. Before 1998, all provinces in Indonesia controlledby the central government. But after 1998, the province’s government across Indonesia have authorization to make regulation and controllocal area.(1)
  5. 5. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) UNITED STATES REPUBLIC OF AMERICA OF INDONESIA (1) (2) Democracy opens the way for every people to experience the same civil rights without discriminate people regardless their race, gender, beliefs, disabilities, or sexual preference. United States already made rapid progress regarding civil rights and justice for the people, but actually there is a price that paid for the social and politic progress. One of example in the history of United States is the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s. The Georgian native from Atlanta is well-known for his struggle for the equality rights for black people in America. He was a Southern Baptist minister, known as a figure of advancement in civil rights in United States and around the world that using non-violent approach following by the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. In 1964, he became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to end racial segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and other non-violent approach to protest the government. He also famous for his speech “I Have a Dream,” given in huge mass march in Washington DC. But his struggle in thirteen years in the civil rights movement ended because of assassination in April 4, 1968. Reflection: The struggle for civil rights for the people of Indonesia is still ongoing. And it turns out that the civil rights movement in Indonesia demand one of the well-known figure’s blood. One of the cases that emerged in the public is the death of Munir, human rights activist, caused by poisoned. Munir is an Indonesian from Arab descendant that became the founder of Kontras, an organization that handled reportings of missing person under Soeharto’s regime. His struggle under regime for injustice and working class people brings him noted as one of 20 young politic leaders in Asia by AsiaWeek in October 1999. He also awarded for Right Livelihood Award 2000 in Sweden for his dedication in human rights and military’s control in Indonesia. But it turns out that his struggle must stop because of planned murdered in 2004 when he was in a journey on the plane from Jakarta to Amsterdam. He died because of he poisoned with arsenic and the court found out the mastermind in his murder. Eventhough he’s not alive anymore, but his dead proves the bad of political landscape in Indonesia.(1)
  6. 6. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) UNITED STATES REPUBLIC OF AMERICA OF INDONESIA (1) (2) Public opinion is people power that can influence government’s decisions or regulations. In United States, public opinion brings much influence to the country’s movement. Proven with many research and survey organizations that exist in United States and works to gather public opinion in United States’ society. The results of the research and survey describes about the views of Americans about some issues and how it will influence the government. Rules and laws that issued by the Supreme Court also influenced by public opinion, because the Courts agenda of course reflects the societal agenda. Reflection: Americans are free to express their opinion to the government (as we can see in image 1), which actually same thing that happen in Indonesia (as we can see in image 2). But slightly different than what happen in United States; in Indonesia, we can say the government do not really care about the public opinion in the country. More often (3) the decisions, such as regulations and laws, are unilateral decisions made by the government. Indonesians, specially after entering the democracy era in 1998 are free to express their opinion. But do still in a baby in democracy, there’s still some mass organizations that express their opinion with anarchism (as we can see in image 3)1) a-demonstration-in-jakarta-in-this-april-2000-photo-christians-are-now-considered-most-persecuted.jpg?w=633&h=411
  7. 7. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) UNITED STATES REPUBLIC OF AMERICA OF INDONESIA (1) (2) From many of historical events, mass media proven become one of tools for changing history. Even it is as a propaganda tool for shaping public opinion about some issues, or as an image maker for politicians. Although maybe the media are not used in positive form, but people do need media as free press. As what happen in United States where media divide in 2 views which are for conservative and liberal views, people still need the media as a transparency tool to observe and analyze what happen in the government. Reflection: People of Indonesia can experience the freedom of press specially after the collapse of Soeharto’s regime in 1998. Because before that year, under Soeharto’s command, some media that oppose his governance and speak out loudly to oppose him got banned. After 1998, people of Indonesia can walk in democracy and experience the freedom of press. But as like a new baby-born try to walk in democracy, the freedom seems like to be pierced. The people of Indonesia still need to learn to respect different opinions and views and also need to honing their own political views, because the people of Indonesia no longer dictated by the government as dictator.1)
  8. 8. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) UNITED STATES REPUBLIC OF AMERICA OF INDONESIA (1) (2)United States of America known as its two biggest political party system which are Republicanparty and Democratic party. Republican party known as its conservative values that related toChristianity and the Democrat party known as its liberal values. Beside these two parties, there areanother major third parties that have different values from the two of them and enliven thepolitical landscape in United States. From many elections that happened United States, the peoplecan see the democracy atmosphere and transparency of the results.Reflection:Before 1998, the parties in Indonesia consisting only from three parties that actually only filled bythe same people under Soeharto’s regime and always bring the same results which is Soehartobecame the president of Indonesia for almost 32 years. After 1998 when the democracy enteredRepublic of Indonesia, we can see the atmosphere of democracy from many new political partiesestablished, even it reaches more than 50 new parties. Transparancy is still a test and challenge forthe people of Indonesia.1)
  9. 9. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) Human Rights Watch is one of the leading western independent organizations dedicated to defending and protecting human rights. According to the Human Rights Watch website, “Human Rights Watch is a nonprofit, nongovernmental human rights organization made up of more than 280 staff members around the globe. Its staff consists of human rights professionals including country experts, lawyers, journalists, and academics of diverse backgrounds and nationalities. ” (1) REPUBLIC UNITED STATES OF INDONESIA OF AMERICA As developing country with many diversities, In United States, human rights is still anIndonesia has many issues that needs important issue even it is the foundation ofimprovement regarding the life of the citizens. this country. In this country, Human RightsEthnic and religious diversity can be a conflict Watch works very progressively towardthat cause human rights violation. And that is human rights issues that happen in thewhere the Human Rights Organization takes part report and analyze the conflicts. Human Rights Watch raises issues In Indonesia, Human Rights Watch has regarding workers, immigrants, children,reported violences caused by military and minorities’s rights. And works progressivelyextremist groups in some areas in Indonesia. to influence states government and federalAnother concrete way that they make is when government.US President Obama come to Indonesia, HumanRights Watch send a letter to him, urging him inhis visit opportunity to to reaffirm that humanrights and the rule of law are essential pillars ofUS engagement in Indonesia. (1)
  10. 10. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) UNITED STATES REPUBLIC OF AMERICA OF INDONESIA (1) (2) Congress in United States consists of two chambers, which are House of Senate and House of Representatives. House of Senate filled by senators of each state in United States that represented by two senators. Meanwhile House of Representatives filled by senators of each districts of each states in United States. In district system, each state elect their senator according to area and population of districts in each state. So each voter knows who are the candidates to be elected because they elect their own senators directly to be their representatives. It’s different situation in Indonesia. In the Republic of Indonesia, voters will choose the party that to be their representatives in the Congress, not individual of senators. After voters vote for the party they choose, then the elected party will announce who are the individuals of the party that will sit as congressmen or congresswomen. Reflections: Indonesia using Proportional system, while United States using District system. Somehow, there’s a main problem for the election in Indonesia. The problem is the party as people’s representative that does not accountable and responsible for the voters. Indonesia still need to re-thinking the system of the Congress.1.
  11. 11. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) The Hot Seat of Presidency United States of America Republic of Indonesia United States has 43 presidents, and now, the forty fourth president is serving the country. As a superpower country, being President of United States positiones as one of powerful ruler of the world. To be President of United States, they must be: a natural born citizen of the United States; be at least thirty-five years old; have been a permanent resident in the United States for at least fourteen years. A person who meets the qualifications is still disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions from under Twenty-second Amendment, under Article 1, Section 3, Clause 7, and under Section 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment. (1) In Indonesia The Presidential candidate must be: Believe in the one and only God; an Indonesian citizen since his/her birth, who has not willingly become a citizen in another nation; has not betrayed the nation, and has not involved in any corruption or other criminal; physically and mentally capable of performing the duties; a permanent resident in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia; already report his/her wealth to the Corruption Eradication Commission; has not any debt individually or collectively that can make the state has a loss; has not been declared bankrupt by the court decision; never involved in any despicable act; registered as a voter; registered as the tax payer and already pay the tax for at least for the last five years; never assuming office as President for two terms before; faithful to the Pancasila, the 1945 Constitution, and the vision of the Indonesian Declaration of Independence; never sentenced to the jail for more than five years; not be less than 35 years of age; attended school at least to the Senior High School or others with the same level; never be a member of the Communist Party of Indonesia or the mass organization of that party; has a vision, mission, and programs to executing the office of President. (2)1. Reflection:
  12. 12. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) Republic of Indonesia United States of America (2) (1) Bureaucracy in Indonesia still need to be reformed Bureaucracy is an issue that most Americans does not from the top to bottom position. According to the survey like. As big nation with Federal and State government rules of expatriate business executives by the Political and and one of the best country to live in, most Americans still Economic Risk Consultancy (PERC), Indonesia’s not feel comfortable to deal with bureaucracy. Eventho bureaucracy is among worst in Asia. Recognized as the bureaucracy is a very exhausted process to deal with, inefficient, with red tape a constant blight to citizens and but United States’ bureaucracy is one of effective deterrent to foreign investment.(3) bureaucracies than other countries. Reflection: Indonesia still need to reform the bureaucracy. The inefficiency bureaucracy can cause foreign investors step back and the domestic situation doesn’t improve. Indonesia still need a leader that willing and able to reform the bureaucracy in the government.(1)
  13. 13. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) United States Republic of of America Indonesia (1) (2) The Constitution gives Congress the Federal Courts in Indonesia calledpower to create federal courts other than the “Mahkamah Agung.” This highest court in theSupreme Court and to determine their country officiate to handle cassation,jurisdiction. Federal Courts in United States authorize to adjudicate disputes, reviewhandle Civil cases, Criminal cases, Bankruptcy judicial permanent legal decision, makecases, and The Appeals process. decision for admiralty issues. The judges in Federal Court system are In Mahkamah Agung, there arenominated by the President and confirmed by maximum 60 judges that can be chosenthe Senate. Types of cases heard in Federal based on career system (judges circle) but orCourts are cases that deal with the not (from professionals or academics circle).constitutionality of a law; cases involving the Supreme judges candidates nominated bylaws and treaties of the US; cases involving Judicial Commision to the House ofambassadors and public ministers; disputes Representatives (in Indonesia called “Dewanbetween two or more states; admiralty law; Perwakilan Rakyat”), then can be approvedbankcruptcy; and habeas corpus issues. and confirmed as Supreme Court judges by the president. Reflection: Federal courts as a law system tool in Indonesia still be a problem. The Indonesia legal system should carry out their duties without compromise, but it still happened in many cases where justice is not enforced and the law enforcement compromise with the crime makers. Unbalanced law also happen in Indonesia. One of example where some corruptors that corrupt billion dollars and harm country’s money that got sentenced under one year in jail, but thieves or fraud could get sentenced for seven years in jail.1.
  14. 14. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) Republic of United States of Indonesia America (1) (2) There’s so many controversial domestic Domestic policies in United States arepolicies that arise in Indonesia. Eventhough supervised by the Domestic Policy Council leadIndonesia is a secular democratic country by the President of United States. The Domesticwith biggest Muslim population, but Policy Council (DPC) coordinates the domesticsometimes there’s some policies that related policy-making process in the White House andwith religious values. offers advice to the President. The DPC also One of example is polygamy domestic supervises the execution of domestic policy andpolicy and hundred domestic policies in represents the President’s priorities tosome provinces that discriminate against Congress.(3)women. Reflection: Adopting how domestic policies made in United States, it will be good if Indonesia also has government institutional same like the Domestic Policy Council to supervise each domestic policies that made in all provinces in Indonesia to ensure all of citizens without discrimination and the domestic policies is parallel with the spirit of the foundation of Indonesia.(1)
  15. 15. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) Republic of United States of Indonesia America (1) (2) Under colonialism for under more America’s “great leap” into foreign than 400 years, Indonesia gain the policy occurred following World War II, independency from many diplomacy when pressure for a new tradition came efforts between Indonesia and Holland into direct conflict with the old. The values kingdom. of the new tradition were all apparent during the Cold War. The government era in Indonesia United States embrace have change specially after 1998, the step multilateralism, a foreign policy that seeks down of dictatorship Soeharto brought to encourage the involvement of several different main duties than before, which nation-states in coordinated action, usually are: prevent nation disintegration in relation to a common adversary, with potential, attempt to help economic terms and conditions usually specified in a recovery, attempt to improve the image of multicountry treaty. Indonesia, improve the quality of serving The instruments of modern and protecting the citizens of Indonesia.(3) American foreign policy include diplomacy, money, and military force. (4) Reflection: Missions of Indonesia’s foreign diplomacy currently to strengthening and improving the image of Indonesia (nation branding) specially in the midst of conflicts in some areas and also terrorism. These things that happened may brings bad influence for Indonesia travel and tourism industry. But that is what Indonesian diplomatics do and struggle to break the image that Indonesia is a terrorist country.(1) “We The People: an Introduction to American Politics” Chapter 14/Foreign Policy, page 448.
  16. 16. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) Top 4 Important Things· Learning how US government works. Being in United States and learning how the government works is definetly expand my perspectives about how governmental issues definetly important to be understanding and not only criticize (when most young people are apatethic and only criticize without understanding and willingness to change it). To compare between this country, other countries that I could learn from my international friends, and my home country actually is interesting experience to learn and re-construct my way of thinking about how the ideal government should be exist in my country.· Learning the social politic issues in United States and how the people of United States react regarding their government issues. I learn how the people in United States are actually very opionated for their own opinion about their government. Public opinion, interest groups, and media shape this country and also direct or influence government decisions.· Sharing issues and conditions with other international students about our country and government. I think with the advance of technology nowadays and get information so easily about what happened in other countries definetly a different thing than before. But, to meet and get to know other people from other countries is a different way to learn about governmental issues in this world.· Interactive learning methods. It’s really nice to learn the ‘heavy’ topic about politic in fun and interactive learning methods such in this class. The materials to understand US politic like a game about Abraham Lincoln’s decisions, video about US Preamble, and other interactive media that been used in the class. ###
  17. 17. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) Example of Benefit· To learn and knowing how US government works in this country and also their relationship with their people, it brings more knowledge for me to differentiate what is good or bad decisions or action that the government in my country should do. I learn how it’s very easy for the people of United States to have contact or keep in touch with their government (spesificly their senators as their representatives) and express their public opinion and their government listen to them. It made me wonder and more realize which actually there’s a gap between the government and the people in my country. For me, this new knowledge brings more courage and boldness to speak up my opinion about the ideal how my country should be. Or even, speak up for the opressed that not able or don’t know where to express their problems as citizens.· The learning methods that have been used in this class is interesting for me. The discussions between teacher and other students, the use of video to teach material to the students, also some interactive game to explore some lesson materials are very interesting to me. For me, to experience these learning methods brings a new urge to familiarize this way of study for the people in my country. Maybe in small scope, I can bring this up to younger people that I know. That learning can be interesting, even for heavy topic such as politic like what I learned in this American Government class. ###
  18. 18. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) Perfect Society VisionIf I think about Perfect Society, for me it would be: · Diversity It’s a fact that this world is wide and diverse. Since birth, each people are different. In their life, each people can make different decisions. It’s wonderful if this world can respect those differences. People can and want respect other people without seeing the differences of races, religious belief, economic status, cultural, sexual orientation, or other things that can be a reason for dispute. · Education Access I believe knowledge and education is the key for each person to advance their own life. But I know not all people in the world could able access the knowledge and education. The problem could be because of low level infrastructure in their area (where people couldn’t build internet access or distribute books), or even, their government doesn’t take care this issue. It will be wonderful if every area in this world accessible to the tools for education and knowledge, so everyone in this world have opportunity to advance their standard of living. · Equality for All People As people can respect the differences between each other and educate themselves to advance their own life, society should understand to give same rights or equality for all people. People that recognized as marginalized because of disability, living as minority in one area (or country), gender issue, or maybe because different sexual orientation; should have same rights with other people. They should have same opportunities to work, to educate themselves, to express their opinion, or other basic rights as human life. · Trust and Hatred In The Society It’s wonderful if each people in the society can trust and living without hatred each other. It’s wonderful if the people of a country can trust their government, it’s wonderful when people have business relationship and they can trust each other and have fair agreement, it’s wonderful when developed countries bring business to developing countries without exploit the poor and lack of education people (as it means they respect them as human life), it’s wonderful when neighborhood can live together without being suspicious because of the differences that exist. I believe these are the values that each school and each families planting to the next generation, to respect differences, throw away hatred, and trust each other. · Money Issue As this world proves that money is a root of dissension and corruption, I realized even without the existence of money, it does not guarantee that this world will be peaceful. But, as this world increasingly sophisticated in technology, it is possible for this world to be cashless and it will
  19. 19. Created by Simpo PDF Creator Pro (unregistered version) reduce dispute and corruption in the society. But, eventhough practically this world is going cashless, people should instill thoughts that their value as human is not define by the amount of money, I wish these intangible thing that exist in human mind can encourage people to fight the urge to corrupt or greed.· Government As the government supervise and control society, in my thought, perfect society will be happen if we have trusted and reliable government. Yes, the government has the power, but they also a representatives of the people that they watch, they also the servant for the people that they control. It’s a position that has two sides. A perfect society is when the government wants to be listener for the oppressed and become their defender, a government that do not abuse people’s trust. ###