Sp4 spanish grammar book


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Sp4 spanish grammar book

  1. 1. Libro de Gramática Español Bianca Dominick
  2. 2. Indice Tema Página1. El Presente 3 • Stem-Changing Verbs 4 • Irregular Yo Forms 5 • Irregular Verbs 62. Ser y Estar 73. Verbos Como Gustar 84. Nouns, Articles, Adjectives 95. Preterito vs Imperfecto 10-116. El Subjunctivo 12 • In Noun Clauses 13-14 • In Adjective Clauses 157. Mandatos 168. Object Pronouns 179. Possessive Adjectives 1810. Possessive Pronouns 1911. Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns 2012. Reflexive Verbs 2113. Por y Para 22-2314. To Become 24
  3. 3. El Presente• Regular –ar, -er, -ir verbs Bailar Comer Batir Bailo Bailamos Como Comemos Bato Batimos Bailas Bailáis Comes Coméis Bates Batís Baila Bailan Come Comen Bate Baten• Used to express actions or situations that are going on at the present time and to express general truths• Used to express habitual actions or actions that will take place in the near future (acabar)
  4. 4. El presente: Stem-Changing Verbs No Stem change in the nosotros or vosotros form. Hervir (e-ie) Dormir (o-ue) Servir (e-i) Jugar (e-ue)Hiervo Hervimos Duermo Dormimos Sirvo Servimos Juego JugamosHierves Hervís Duermes Dormís Sirves Servís Juegas JugáisHierve Hierven Duerme Duermen Sirve sirven Juega Juegan Construir, destruir, incluir, and influir add a y before the personal endings (but not in the nosotros or vosotros forms) Incluir Incluyo Incluimos Incluyes Incluís Incluye incluyen
  5. 5. El Presente:Hacer Hago Irregular Yo FormsPoner Pongo Caber Quepo Conocer ConozcoTener Tengo Saber SéValer Valgo Ver Veo Conducir ConduzcoDecir Digo Dar Doy Escoger EscojoSalir SalgoVenir Vengo Estar Estoy Dirigir Dirijo Oír Oigo Ir Voy Seguir SigoCaer Caigo Ser SoyTraer Traigo
  6. 6. El Presente: Irregular Verbs Dar • doy, das, da, damos, dais, danDecir (e-ie) • Digo, dices, dice, decimos, decís, dicen Estar • Estoy, estás, está, estamos, estáis, están Ir • Voy, vas, va, vamos, váis, van Oír • Oigo, oyes, oye, oímos, oís, oyen Ser • Soy, eres, es, somos, sóis, sonTener (e-ie) • Tengo, tienes, tiene, tenemos, tenéis, tienenVenir (e-ie) • Vengo, vienes, viene, venimos, venís, vienen
  7. 7. Ser y Estar “To Be” • Location or spatial • Nationality and place of relationships origin • Health • Profession or occupation • Physical states and conditions • Characteristics of people, animals, and • Emotional states things • Certain weather Ser: • Generalizations • Possession Estar: expressions • Ongoing actions (progressive tenses)Permanence • Material of composition Temporality • Results of actions (past • Time, date or season participles) • Where or when an • *use estar with event takes place “muerto/a”* Many times, either can be used, but he meaning of each statement is different. Some adjectives have different meanings depending on which verb you use.
  8. 8. Verbos Como Gustar Gustar: to please Aburrir: to boreThe thing or person that pleases is the Caer bien/mal: to (not) get along with subject, so gustar agrees in person and Disgustar: to upset number with it. Doler: to hurt, to acheWhen followed by 1 or Encantar: to like very much more infinitives, thesingular form is always Faltar: to lack, to need used. Fascinar: to fascinate Gustar is often used in Hacer falta: to miss, to need the conditional (me gustaría) to soften a Importar: to be important to, to matter request. Interesar: to be interesting to, to interest A personal: a + Molestar: to bother, to annoy [noun/prepositionalpronoun] can be used to Preocupar: to worry emphasize who is pleased, bothered, etc. Quedar: to be left over, to fit (clothing) Sporender: to surprise Apetecer: to crave, to long for
  9. 9. Nouns, Articles, AdjectivesNouns have gender and Articles must agree in gender Masculine or feminine? Singular or plural? number and numberPlural/feminine: las, unas Plural/masculine: los, unos Singular/feminine: la, una Singular/masculine: el, un Some adjectives end in an eAdjectives must agree in (triste, alegre, etc.)  stays Masuline: end in o Feminine: end in a gender and number an e regardless of the gender of the noun Some nouns are not clear about their gender becauseNow have fun describing they do not end in o or a Plural: end with an s Singular: no s stuff! ^_^ (amistad, español, etc.)  look up their gender before describing them
  10. 10. Preterito vs Imperfecto -ar -ar-é -amos -aba -ábamos-aste -asteis -abas -abais-ó -aron -aba -aban El Pasado Preterito Imperfecto -er/-ir -er/-ir-í -imos -ía -íamos-iste -isteis -ías -íais-ió -ieron -ía -ían
  11. 11. Preterito vs Imperfecto Preterito Imperfecto• Ayer • A menudo• Anteayer • A veces• Anoche • Cada día• Desde el primer momento • Cada semana• Durante dos siglos • Cada mes• El otro día • Cada año• En ese momento • Con frecuencia• Entonces • De vez en cuando• Esta mañana • En aquella época• Esta tarde • Frecuentemente• La semana pasada • Generalmente• El mes pasado • Muchas veces• El año pasado • Mucho• Hace dos días • Nunca• Hace tres años • Por un rato• Ayer por la mañana • Siempre• Ayer por la tarde • Tantas veces • Todas las semanas • Todos los días • Todo el tiempo • Varias veces
  12. 12. El Subjunctivo • Wishing/wantingW Attitudes, Uncertain, H ypothetical Subjunctive Mood • EmotionsE Main Clause + Structure Connector + Subordinate Clause • DoubtD • DisbeliefD e, es, e, emos, en -ar conjugation • Impersonal ExpressionsI -er conjugation a, as, a, amos, an • NegationN • God/griefG Dar (Dé), Estar (Esté), Ir (Vaya), Saber Irregulars (Sepa), Haber (Haya), Ser (Sea)
  13. 13. El Subjunctivo: Importar : be Aconsejar: to important, to matter In noun clauses Inistir (en): No es Dudar: to doubt advise to insist (on) Negar (e-ie): verdad: it’s to deny not true Expressions Verbs of ofSugerir (e- ie): to suggest will and Mandar: to order No es doubt, disb Es Influence seguro: it’s not certain elief, and imposible: it’s impossible Rogar (o-ue): to beg, to Prohibir: to denial prohibit plead No es cierto: Es Recomendar Alegrarse (e-ie): to it’s not improbable: (de): to be true, it’s not it’s recommend happy certain improbable Ojála (que): Esperar: to I hope hope, to (that), I wish wish (that) Expressions Sentir (e- Es triste: it’s of Emotion ie): to be sad sorry, to regret Temer: to Soprender: be afraid, to to surprise fear
  14. 14. El Subjunctivo: In noun clausesImpersonal ExpressionsEs bueno que…Es mejor que…Es malo que…Es importante que…Es necesario que…Es urgente que…
  15. 15. El Subjunctivo: In adjective clauses Antecedent of the subordinate clause is unknown •subjunctiveQuestion with adjective Antecedent is a negativeclause – speaker is trying pronounto find out something (nadie, ninguno/a)he/she is uncertain of •subjunctive•subjunctive Direct object is “nadie” Direct object represents or “alguien” a hypothetical person •use personal “a” (even if •do not use personal “a” existence is uncertain)
  16. 16. Mandatos Tú: drop the s Usted/Ustedes: put in Irregulares: yo form and change Nosotros:Affirmativos ten, ven, ve, di, sal, sé to opposite vowel same as , haz Irregulares: TVDISHES Usted and DOP + IOP + se can attach to an affirmative Ustedes -------------------------------------- DOP + IOP + se must go Irregulars: before the negative Tú: put in yo TVDISHESNegativos form, change to and Usted/Ustedes: same opposite vowel, ad monos as above an s verbs Irregulares: TVDISHES Irregulares: TVDISHES
  17. 17. Object Pronouns•To whom? •Receive the action of the verb•For Whom? •What?•Me, te, le, nos, os, les •Me, te, lo/la, nos, os, los/las•Come before the conjugated verb •Come before the conjugated verb•Can be attached to an infinitive, a gerund •Can be attached to an infinitive, a gerund (ando/iendo), or an affirmative command (ando/iendo), or an affirmative command (probably have to add an accent) (probably have to add an accent •“lo” is used for an abstract idea or something with no gender Indirect Direct Object Object Pronouns Pronouns Double Prepositional Object Pronouns Pronouns•A + [prepositional pronoun] is used for •Indirect object pronoun comes before the clarity or emphasis Direct object pronoun when they are used•Mí: me, myself Ti: you, yourself Usted: together you, yourself Él: him, it Ella: her, it Sí: •Le and les change to se when they are himself, herself, itself Nosotros/as: used with lo, la, los, or las us, ourselves Vosotros/as: you, yourselves •Le lo  se lo Ustedes: you, yourselves Ellos: them Ellas: •Les la  se la them Sí: themselves •Les los  se los•[mí, tí, sí ]+ con  •Le las  se las [conmigo, contigo, consigo]•Entre, excepto, incluso, menos, salvo, seg ún are used with tú and yo
  18. 18. Possessive Adjectives Belongs toBelongs nosotros Singular Masculine nuestro Singular mi to yo Belongs Belongs to Singular Feminine nuestra Plural mis nosotros to yo Belongs to Plural Masculine nuestros nosotrosBelongs Belongs Singular tu to Plural Feminine nuestras to tú nosotros Belongs Plural tus to tú Belongs to Singular Masculine vuestro vosotros Belongs to Singular Feminine vuestraBelongs to vosotrosél, ellos, ell Singular sua(s), usted( es) Belongs to Plural Masculine vuestros vosotros Belongs to él, ellos, ella(s), Plural sus usted(es) Belongs to Plural Feminine vuestras vosotros
  19. 19. Possessive Pronouns Yours Yours Mine (Yo) Yours (Tú) (Usted), His Ours (Nosotros) Yours (Vosotros) (Ustedes), Theirs (Él), Hers (Ella) (Ellos, Ellas) Los Los El Los El LosEl mío Los míos El tuyo El suyo El suyo El suyos tuyos suyos nuestro nuestros vuestro vuestros Las Las La Las La Las LasLa mía Las mías La tuya La suya La suya tuyas suyas nuestra nuestras vuestra vuestras suyas Agree in number and Subject  keep After the verb ser (like a gender with the thing the article Predicate Nominative)  get they are referring to adjective rid of the article adjective
  20. 20. Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns way over Near, This Far, That there, that over there Ese Este Aquel Esa Esta Aquella Esos Estos Aquellos Esas Estas Aquellas To make it a pronoun, put an accent on the first e Esto is neutral
  21. 21. Reflexive Verbs Acostarse (to go to bed) Aburrir (to bore)  aburrirse (to Acercarse [a] (to approach) Subject of the Afeitarse (to shave) be bored) Arrepentirse [de] (to repent [of]) verb both Bañarse (to take a bath) Acordar (to agree)  acordarse Atreverse [a] (to dare [to]) [de] (to remember) performs and Cepillarse (to brush *one’s Convertirse [en] (to become) hair/teeth]) Comer (to eat)  comerse (to eat receives the up) Darse cuenta [de] (to realize) action Despertarse (to wake up) are used with a reflexive pronoun Daily Routines and Personal Care Verbs that change meaning when they Always Reflexive Dormir (to sleep)  dormirse (to Enterarse [de] (to find out Dormirse (to go to sleep) fall asleep) [about]) Ducharse (to take a shower) Ir (to go)  irse [de] (to go away Fijarse [en] (to take notice [of]) Lavarse (to wash [oneself]) [from]) Morirse [de] (to die [of]) Maquillarse (to put on makeup) Llevar (to carry)  llevarse (to Olvidarse [de] (to forget [about]) carry away) Peinarse (to comb *one’s hair+) Preocuparse [por] (to worry Mudar (to change)  mudarse [about]) Ponerse (to put on [clothing])Reflexive Pronouns (to move [change residence]) Quejarse [de] (to complain Secarse (to dry off) Parecer (to seem)  parecerse [about]) Quitarse (to take off [clothing]) [a] (to resemble, to look like) Soprenderse [de] (to be surprised me nos Vestirse (to get dressed) Poner (to put)  ponerse (to put [about]) on [clothing]) Quitar (to take away)  quitarse (to take off [clothing]) te os se se Reflexive Plural  pronoun reciprocal comes before actions done the direct to one object another pronoun
  22. 22. Por y ParaMotion or general location(along, through, around, by) PorDuration of an action(for, during, in)Reason or motive for an Destination (toward, in theaction (because of, on direction of) Paraaccount of, on behalf of) Deadline/specific time inObject of a search (for, in the future (by, for)search of) Purpose or goal + [infinitive]Means by which (by, by way (in order to)of, by means of) [por Purpose + [noun] (for, usedteléfono, por tren] for)Exchange or substitution Recipient (for)(for, in exchange for) Comparison with others orUnit of measure (per, by) opinion (for, considering)Passive voice (by) Employment (for)
  23. 23. Por y ParaPor allí/aquí (around Porthere/here)Por casualidad (bychance/accident) No estar para bromasPor ejemplo (For Para (to be in no mood forexample) jokes)Por eso (therefore, for No ser para tanto (tothat reason) not be so important)Por fin (finally) Para colmo (to top I allPor lo general (in off)general) Para que sepas (just soPor lo menos (at least) you know)Por lo tanto (therefore) Para siempre (forever)Por lo visto(apparently)Por más/mucho que(no matter how much)Por otro lado/otraparte (on the otherhand)Por primera vez (forthe first time)Por si acaso (just incase)Por supesto (of course)
  24. 24. To BecomeHacerse Ponerse Volverse Llegar a ser• Followed by a noun • Followed by an • Followed by an • Followed by a noun or adjective adjective adjective or adjective• Indicate a change • Indicates an • Indicates a sudden, • Indicate a change brought about by involuntary physical profound change brought about by effort or emotional change • (went crazy, became effort• (became a doctor, be • (turned red from imposible) • (became a doctor, be came a lawyer, got embarrassment, got came a lawyer, got rich, became popular) sick) rich, became popular)