in summary...The following states asnoted in Chapter 2 arewilling to boost fundingbased on the Plan ofAction...
Legislature is needed2004- Arkansas legislature imposed a new schoolfunding formula to include all resources forcomprehensive professional development2006- Wyoming legislature imposed a new schoolfunding formula to include all resources in the Plan ofAction from Chapter 12009- South Dakota imposed a new school fundingformula that includes bulk of resources from Chapter 1’sPlan of Action
Legislature2004- Arka□sa□ legislatureimp□□□□ a new sc□□□l fundingf□rmu□□ to i□□lude all resourcesfo□ comprehensive pr□□□□□□o□aldevelopmentactivity from www.textivate.com
Legislature2006WyominglegislatureimposedanewschoolfundingformulatoincludeallresourcesinthePlanofActionfromChapter1activity from www.textivate.com
State legislature is willingto...fatten up funding based on thePlan of Action which is designed tosignificantly improve student learningall of this is dependent on specifyingthe resource needs of that plan-not allschool systems are created equal
How are resourcesdetermined?Whatareyourthoughts?
http://www.lpicus.comAllan Odden suggests the finance adequacyschool studies of Lawrence O. Picus andAssociates have helped to develop strategiesthat have been researched with favorableevidence as it relates to resource needs for aPlan of Action (Let’s take a look at some casestudies..)The suggestions offer a look at strategicresourcing allocations.
Core Recommendations Formula-based on Table 2.1Full day kindergartenRegular class sizes of 15 students K-3 & Classsizes of 25 students 4-12Specialist teachers-art/music/physical ed./careertech with numbers adequate to cover:6 period day in middle schools5 period day for high schools4-90 minute block periods in high schools withteachers teaching 3 blocks per day
Core Recommendations Formula-based on Table 2.1-continued...at least one planning period (45-60 mins.) [Chptr.3 will talk about collaboration time.]student support staff1 guidance counselor/250 students (middleand high schools)1 nurse in every elementary school1 position for every 100 at risk students in anelementary school that is a social worker andfamily liaison
Core Recommendations Formula-based on Table 2.1-continued...a full-time librariana full-time principal + 2 secretaries in prototypicalsetting:elementary school- 432 studentsmiddle school- 450 studentshigh school- 600 studentssometimes an additional AP in HS
Core Recommendations Formula-based on Table 2.1-continued...1 instructional coach per 200 studentsat least 10 staff development days additionalto the 180 teacher school year-extendedteacher school year$100/student for professional developmentdivided amongst core and elective teachers towork collaboratively for 45-60 minutes per daysupervisory aides to cover recess, lunch, hallmonitoring, bus loading and unloading
Core Recommendations Formula-based on Table 2.1-continued...MONEY$175/student for instructional materials,formative assessments and supplies$250/student for technology and equipment$250/student for activities (sports, clubs, etc.)GIFTED & TALENTED-$25/STUDENT
Core Recommendations Formula-based on Table 2.1-continued...TIER 2 intervention strategies to help studentswith additional instructional time and assistanceto help meet state proficiency standards1:1 tutoring8-9 week summer campsummer school resourcesELL teacher/100 students1 teacher + .05 aid position for every 150students with mild-moderate disabilities
Core Recommendations Formula-based on Table 2.1-continued...Substitute teacher for each teacher for10 daysCentral office staffcovering...superintendent, businessoffice, curriculum and student support,technology and maintenance directorfigure for prototypical 3,500 studentsFoodservices/Transportation/Maintenance
Resources needed forPlan of Action• This is evidence and best-practice-basedstarting points• Solid place to begin deliberations• Helps to frame strategic budgeting exercises
Back to the beginning...• Arkansas and Wyoming tweaked theformula to what they felt best for their needsas it related to staffing and student needs.Arkansas-data was used to implement anew nationwide foundation expenditurelevelWyoming-incorporated school basedstaffing allocations into the formula basedon size of school/district
Wrapping it up nationwideOdden states, “...if the country took a morenational perspective of how it would fund itsschools-like it is taking with adopting CommonMath and Reading Standards and theunderstanding that good education is key tothe country’s economic health-it would nothave to provide much more funding to ensurean adequate level of resources in all schools(p.41).”
on a final note• Connecticut, New Hampshire, NewJersey and New York provide resourcesabove recommendations=strategic cutswould not impact students’ performanceAlabama, Arizona, California, Florida,Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee, Texasand Utah provide resources belowrecommendations=strategic cuts will bediscussed in the following chapters.......