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HISTORY AND SCOPE OF
MICROBIOLOGY
Dr.D.Arvind Prasanth
History
•1665 Robert Hooke observed
living plant tissues (20X
mag.)
•“Little boxes” or Cells
•Used simple magnifying lens
...
Hooke's Microscope
1665
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
was inspired by this
publication
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
(1677) (“layu-wen-hook”)
–First observation of living cells
(200-300X mag.)
–“Animalcules”
–Single...
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
• Bacteria
• Protozoa
• Sperm cells
• Blood cells
• Microscopic
worms
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’s
microscope
3-4” microscope
Required good
lighting and
patience
Spontaneous Generation
• The idea that life could arise
spontaneously from nonliving
matter
–Ex: Toads and Mice could aris...
History (cont.)
• 1668 Francesco
Redi
–1st one to
disprove
spontaneous
generation
Francesco Redi’s experiments
with meat
uncovered covered
Maggots No maggots
Disproved that maggots arise from decaying mea...
• Proved (??) spontaneous generation
in chicken broth
• Heated Nutrient Fluids and poured
them into covered flasks
British...
Italian priest Lazzaro
Spallanzani (1765)
• Similar to Needham’s
Experiments
• He showed that heating a
sealed flask of me...
The Golden Age of
Microbiology!
•Louis Pasteur (finally disproved
spontaneous generation after many years
of debate)
•Robe...
Pasteur—Father of
microbiology
•1857- Louis Pasteur saves France’s wine
industry
•Napoleon III begged Pasteur (a chemist
b...
Louis Pasteur
–Spontaneous Generation finally
disproved
–Boiled broth in long-s-shaped necked
flasks (unsealed)
•Remained sterile
•Prove...
Swan neck flask experiment disproved spontaneous generation(1861)
History (cont.)
• 1861 Pasteur
–Proved Microorganisms are present in
nonliving matter
–Microbes can be destroyed by heat
•...
1857-Louis Pasteur saves
France’s wine
1)Good wine contained yeast
2)Sour wine contained bacterium (Bacteria
that use alco...
Pasteur’s Tomb in the Crypt of the Pasteur Institute in Paris
Germ Theory of Disease
• Pasteur proposed that wine
spoiling in an analogy for
disease (bacterial growth made the
wine “si...
Edward Jenner (country doctor)
–Milkmaid didn’t get smallpox b/c they
contracted the milder form of cowpox
–Immune system ...
Protection from a
disease from
vaccination
Immunity
Robert Koch (1843-1910)
• German country physician who developed
microbiology into a science
• Developed pure culture tech...
Bacillus anthracis
Pure Culture Key to Studying
Microbes
Definition: Pure culture is a
population of organism, all of which
are the progeny o...
AGAR
•Is a complex polysaccharide derived from
seaweed
•Was suggested by Fannie Hesse wife of
Koch’s co-worker Walther Hes...
Koch’s postulates
1)Specific microorganism is present in all
cases of the disease
2)Organism can be obtained in pure
cultu...
Koch’s findings
Koch and his coworkers discovered that
bacteria caused
•TUBERCULOSIS
•CHOLERA
•DIPTHERIA
•TYPHOID FEVER
•G...
Paul Ehrlich-hospital
dermatologist
• Chemotherapy-
Treatment using
chemical substances
• 1910 Paul Ehrlich
-”Magic bullet...
Alexander Fleming –scottish
researcher--1928
• Discovered Penicillin (fungus) by
accident
• Was convinced that nasal mucus...
Founders of Microbiology
(Review)
•First observed microbes—
Leeuwenhoek
•Proved living cells can arise only from
other liv...
Scope of microbiology
Bacteria
•Medical importance
–Gastroenteritis
–Syphilis
–Tetanus
–Lyme disease
–Plague
Bacteria (cont.)
• Industrial importance
–Food supplements
•Amino acids & Vitamins
–Organic solvents
•Acetone
Bacteria (cont.)
• Pharmaceutical
importance
–Antibiotics
•polymyxin
–Hormones
•Insulin
Biotechnology and
Recombinant DNA
• Biotechnology:
–The use of microorganisms, cells, or
cell components to make a product...
Bacteria (cont.)
• Environmental importance
–Biodegradation
•Oil spills
•Wastewater treatment
Gram positive
S. aureus
Gram negative
E. coli
Fungi
•Medical importance
–Valley fever
–Candidiasis
–Athlete's foot
Fungi (cont.)
• Industrial importance
–Fermentation
•Wine
•Beer
•Bread
Fungi (cont.)
•Pharmaceutical importance
–Antibiotics
•Penicillin
Fungi (cont.)
• Environmental importance
–Wastewater treatment
–Degradation of complex
organic matter
•Lignin in wood
Viruses
• Medical importance
–HIV
–Influenza
–Rabies
–Common cold
History and scope
History and scope
History and scope
History and scope
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History and scope

M. Sc., Microbiology Study Material (Semester-I, General Microbiology)
Department of Microbiology, School of Bioscience,
Periyar University, Salem.

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History and scope

  1. 1. HISTORY AND SCOPE OF MICROBIOLOGY Dr.D.Arvind Prasanth
  2. 2. History •1665 Robert Hooke observed living plant tissues (20X mag.) •“Little boxes” or Cells •Used simple magnifying lens •Suggested all living things are made of cells
  3. 3. Hooke's Microscope 1665 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was inspired by this publication
  4. 4. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1677) (“layu-wen-hook”) –First observation of living cells (200-300X mag.) –“Animalcules” –Single lens Microscope (Self made)—simple microscope –Tooth plaque –Rain water –Diarrheal feces
  5. 5. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek • Bacteria • Protozoa • Sperm cells • Blood cells • Microscopic worms
  6. 6. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’s microscope 3-4” microscope Required good lighting and patience
  7. 7. Spontaneous Generation • The idea that life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter –Ex: Toads and Mice could arise from soil –Until the 18th century this believe existed
  8. 8. History (cont.) • 1668 Francesco Redi –1st one to disprove spontaneous generation
  9. 9. Francesco Redi’s experiments with meat uncovered covered Maggots No maggots Disproved that maggots arise from decaying meat!!
  10. 10. • Proved (??) spontaneous generation in chicken broth • Heated Nutrient Fluids and poured them into covered flasks British clergyman John Needham’s experiments (1745) Hot Mutton gravy Turbid broth “...my phial swarm’d with life...”
  11. 11. Italian priest Lazzaro Spallanzani (1765) • Similar to Needham’s Experiments • He showed that heating a sealed flask of meat broth prevented growth of organism • Skeptics claimed—lack of O2 prevented growth!!
  12. 12. The Golden Age of Microbiology! •Louis Pasteur (finally disproved spontaneous generation after many years of debate) •Robert Koch (proof of germ theory) •Other pioneers in Microbiology
  13. 13. Pasteur—Father of microbiology •1857- Louis Pasteur saves France’s wine industry •Napoleon III begged Pasteur (a chemist by training) to help solve a problem •Sailors were mutinying b/c their wine was spoiling after only a few weeks at sea •Pasteur armed with his trusty microscope accepted the challenge
  14. 14. Louis Pasteur
  15. 15. –Spontaneous Generation finally disproved –Boiled broth in long-s-shaped necked flasks (unsealed) •Remained sterile •Proved that microorganisms are present in air, but air does not create microbes –Beginning of the golden age of microbiology Louis Pasteur (1861)
  16. 16. Swan neck flask experiment disproved spontaneous generation(1861)
  17. 17. History (cont.) • 1861 Pasteur –Proved Microorganisms are present in nonliving matter –Microbes can be destroyed by heat •Aseptic Technique • Fermentation mediated by yeast, not air –Pasteurization to prevent wine and beer spoilage (by bacteria)
  18. 18. 1857-Louis Pasteur saves France’s wine 1)Good wine contained yeast 2)Sour wine contained bacterium (Bacteria that use alcohol and produce acetic acid spoil wine by turning it to vinegar (acetic acid). 3)He reasoned that if wine is heated to destroy the harmful bacteria it wouldn’t spoil (process known as
  19. 19. Pasteur’s Tomb in the Crypt of the Pasteur Institute in Paris
  20. 20. Germ Theory of Disease • Pasteur proposed that wine spoiling in an analogy for disease (bacterial growth made the wine “sick”) • He hypothesized in 1857 that microorganisms are responsible for infectious diseases
  21. 21. Edward Jenner (country doctor) –Milkmaid didn’t get smallpox b/c they contracted the milder form of cowpox –Immune system cannot distinguish btw cowpox/smallpox –Scratched a farmboy w/ a needle bearing fluid from cowpox –Small pox Vaccine - -Vacca-cow - Vaccination w/ cowpox provided immunity for smallpox
  22. 22. Protection from a disease from vaccination Immunity
  23. 23. Robert Koch (1843-1910) • German country physician who developed microbiology into a science • Developed pure culture techniques (used potato slices to grow bacteria) developed agar later on • Proof of the germ theory • Work with anthrax • Koch’s postulates
  24. 24. Bacillus anthracis
  25. 25. Pure Culture Key to Studying Microbes Definition: Pure culture is a population of organism, all of which are the progeny of a single organism -In nature, microbes almost never occur as pure cultures
  26. 26. AGAR •Is a complex polysaccharide derived from seaweed •Was suggested by Fannie Hesse wife of Koch’s co-worker Walther Hesse •“why do your jellies and pudding stay solid in warm weather”? •AGAR-AGAR had been used as a gelling agent in Asia for centuries •Fannie learned to use AGAR-AGAR from a Dutch neighbor in New York who spent time in Asia
  27. 27. Koch’s postulates 1)Specific microorganism is present in all cases of the disease 2)Organism can be obtained in pure culture outside of the host 3)Organism when re-inoculated into host causes the same symptoms 4)Organism can be isolated in pure culture from experimentally infected host
  28. 28. Koch’s findings Koch and his coworkers discovered that bacteria caused •TUBERCULOSIS •CHOLERA •DIPTHERIA •TYPHOID FEVER •GONORRHEA •PNEUMONIA
  29. 29. Paul Ehrlich-hospital dermatologist • Chemotherapy- Treatment using chemical substances • 1910 Paul Ehrlich -”Magic bullet” –Salvarsan (arsenic derivative) •Preparation 606 –Syphilis
  30. 30. Alexander Fleming –scottish researcher--1928 • Discovered Penicillin (fungus) by accident • Was convinced that nasal mucus had antibacterial effects • Left his Staphylococcus culture on an agar plate for 2 weeks-went on vacation-came back &found mold on his plate which prevented bacterial growth (a mycology lab underneath him had this rare spore drift)
  31. 31. Founders of Microbiology (Review) •First observed microbes— Leeuwenhoek •Proved living cells can arise only from other living cells---Pasteur •Confirmed the Germ Theory of Disease --Koch
  32. 32. Scope of microbiology
  33. 33. Bacteria •Medical importance –Gastroenteritis –Syphilis –Tetanus –Lyme disease –Plague
  34. 34. Bacteria (cont.) • Industrial importance –Food supplements •Amino acids & Vitamins –Organic solvents •Acetone
  35. 35. Bacteria (cont.) • Pharmaceutical importance –Antibiotics •polymyxin –Hormones •Insulin
  36. 36. Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA • Biotechnology: –The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product –Foods, antibiotics, vitamins, enzymes • Recombinant DNA Technology: –Insertion or modification of genes to produce desired proteins
  37. 37. Bacteria (cont.) • Environmental importance –Biodegradation •Oil spills •Wastewater treatment
  38. 38. Gram positive S. aureus
  39. 39. Gram negative E. coli
  40. 40. Fungi •Medical importance –Valley fever –Candidiasis –Athlete's foot
  41. 41. Fungi (cont.) • Industrial importance –Fermentation •Wine •Beer •Bread
  42. 42. Fungi (cont.) •Pharmaceutical importance –Antibiotics •Penicillin
  43. 43. Fungi (cont.) • Environmental importance –Wastewater treatment –Degradation of complex organic matter •Lignin in wood
  44. 44. Viruses • Medical importance –HIV –Influenza –Rabies –Common cold

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