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EE6404 - MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION
Prepared By
Tamilnesan P
AP/KCET
KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING
ANDTECHNOLOGY
UNIT I
INTRODUCTION
Why M&I:
• Electrical Measurements and Instrumentation Engineering
deals with the design of devices to measure physical
quantities such as pressure, flow and temperature , etc... It
basically focuses on the study and application of electricity,
electronics, and electromagnetism.
• Industries with automated processes, such as chemical or
manufacturing plants require Electricity and Instrumentation
Engineering graduates for improving system productivity,
reliability, safety, optimisation, and stability.
KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING
ANDTECHNOLOGY
Role and Application of Measurement
and instrumentation
???
KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING
ANDTECHNOLOGY
SCOPE OF MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION
· Maintenance Engineer
· Service /Erection Engineer
· Design / Project Engineer
 Project Engineer – If your company got a project of erecting a
plant automation, your job is to study the plant and prepare
documentation for procuring necessary instruments and
automation systems
 Design Engineer – After the Project engineer proposal agreed
you have to design the plant automation system.
 Erection (Installation) Engineer - After the Design guy finished
the layout and project will procure the items required. Then it
will be your job to install them.
 Maintenance engineer – Maintaining the instrumentation in
manufacturing / production plant. (Diary industries, paper
industry, oil and gas industry and so on)
 Service engineer – If the maintenance doesn’t know how to
troubleshoot a certain instrument, they will call for service
engineer’s help.
KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING
ANDTECHNOLOGY
Top 15 Test & Measurement players in India
Rank Company Name
1 Yokogawa India Ltd
2 Agilent Technologies India Pvt Ltd
3 Rohde & Schwarz India Pvt Ltd
4 Aimil Ltd
5 Aplab Ltd
6 Rishabh Instruments Pvt Ltd
7 Tektronix (India) Pvt Ltd
8 Scientech Technologies Pvt Ltd
9 JDSU India Pvt Ltd
10 Synergy Measurement Technologies Pvt Ltd
11 Scientific Mes-Technik Pvt Ltd
12 Qmax Test Equipments Pvt Ltd
13 Spirent Communications (India) Pvt Ltd
14 Meco Instruments Pvt Ltd
15 TTL Technologies Pvt Ltd
KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING
ANDTECHNOLOGY
Functional Elements Of An Instrument:
• As you can see, the block diagram provides you with the basic
idea of what you are going to see in detail.
• Lets start up with the first thing in the block diagram. I think you
probably don't need any explanation for this. The variable that
you want to measure is mentioned here. It is called as the
"Measurand". For example, If you want to measure current, then
current is the measurand.
KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING
ANDTECHNOLOGY
Most of the measurement system contains following main
functional elements as shown in Previous figure
 Primary Sensing Element.
 Variable Conversion Element
 Variable Manipulation Element
 Data Transmission Element
 Data Presentation Element
Primary Sensing Element:
 Next comes the Primary Sensing Element, as shown in the block
diagram. You can remember it better if i mention it as "First
Sensing Element". Thats right.
 The Element (Part) of an instrument which makes first contact
with the measurand is called the primary sensing element.
 For example, In Ammeter (which is used to measure current), the
coil carrying the current to be measured is the primary sensing
element.
KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING
ANDTECHNOLOGY
Variable conversion Element:
 The output of the Primary sensing element may not be
suitable for the actual measurement system.
 For example, in ammeter, the output from the coil is current,
so there we place a magnet to get a deflection due to the
current passing in the coil. So here the magnet acts as a
variable conversion element, converting current into physical
movement which is the deflection and by measuring the
amount of deflection we can measure the amount of current.
 Note: Some instruments do not need this variable conversion
elements, whereas some instruments need more than one.
Also keep in mind, that the original information about the
measurand must be retained during the process of such
conversion.
KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING
ANDTECHNOLOGY
Variable Manipulation Element:
 This is the tricky part. The level of the output from the Variable
conversion element may not be enough for the next stage.
 For example, in case of ammeter if the amount of current to
be measured is so small , it may not be enough to cause any
deflection in the magnet. So here a transformer can be used
to increase the voltage to get enough deflection. So in this
case the transformer will be the Data Manipulation Element.
 Note: The Variable conversion element and the variable
manipulation element are together called as Data conditioning
element since they help to obtain the signal in pure and
acceptable form from highly distorted form.
KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING
ANDTECHNOLOGY
Data Transmission Element:
 If the elements of the system are physically separated, it is
necessary to transmit the data from one stage to the other. So
we need this Data Transmission element. The data
conditioning and the Data transmission are together called as
the intermediate stage of an Instrument.
Data Presentation Element:
 So now the measuring is done and we need to present the
data in a suitable form so that it is easily understood by the
observer and for this the Data Presentation Element is used.
 In case of our Ammeter Example, it is the Pointer and the
scale arrangement that acts as the Data presentation element.
If the output data is to be monitored, a visual display can be
used and if needs to be recorded then magnetic tapes ,
recorders or hard disk drives can be used. The Data
Presenting Stage may be called as the Terminating stage of
an instrument.
KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING
ANDTECHNOLOGY
KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING
ANDTECHNOLOGY
Block schematic of an ammeter:
Block diagram of pressure gauge:
KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING
ANDTECHNOLOGY
Block Diagram of Thermometer:
Block Diagram of Galvanometer:
KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING
ANDTECHNOLOGY
Performance characteristics:
 Static characteristics
 Dynamic characteristics
Static Characteristics:
 The set of criteria defined for the instruments, which are
used to measure the quantities which are slowly varying
with time or mostly constant, i.e. do not vary with time, is
called static characteristics.
Dynamic Characteristics:
 The set of criteria defined based on such dynamic
differential equations is called dynamic characteristics.
KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING
ANDTECHNOLOGY

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Unit 1

  • 1. EE6404 - MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION Prepared By Tamilnesan P AP/KCET KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING ANDTECHNOLOGY
  • 2. UNIT I INTRODUCTION Why M&I: • Electrical Measurements and Instrumentation Engineering deals with the design of devices to measure physical quantities such as pressure, flow and temperature , etc... It basically focuses on the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. • Industries with automated processes, such as chemical or manufacturing plants require Electricity and Instrumentation Engineering graduates for improving system productivity, reliability, safety, optimisation, and stability. KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING ANDTECHNOLOGY
  • 3. Role and Application of Measurement and instrumentation ??? KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING ANDTECHNOLOGY
  • 4. SCOPE OF MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION · Maintenance Engineer · Service /Erection Engineer · Design / Project Engineer  Project Engineer – If your company got a project of erecting a plant automation, your job is to study the plant and prepare documentation for procuring necessary instruments and automation systems  Design Engineer – After the Project engineer proposal agreed you have to design the plant automation system.  Erection (Installation) Engineer - After the Design guy finished the layout and project will procure the items required. Then it will be your job to install them.  Maintenance engineer – Maintaining the instrumentation in manufacturing / production plant. (Diary industries, paper industry, oil and gas industry and so on)  Service engineer – If the maintenance doesn’t know how to troubleshoot a certain instrument, they will call for service engineer’s help. KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING ANDTECHNOLOGY
  • 5. Top 15 Test & Measurement players in India Rank Company Name 1 Yokogawa India Ltd 2 Agilent Technologies India Pvt Ltd 3 Rohde & Schwarz India Pvt Ltd 4 Aimil Ltd 5 Aplab Ltd 6 Rishabh Instruments Pvt Ltd 7 Tektronix (India) Pvt Ltd 8 Scientech Technologies Pvt Ltd 9 JDSU India Pvt Ltd 10 Synergy Measurement Technologies Pvt Ltd 11 Scientific Mes-Technik Pvt Ltd 12 Qmax Test Equipments Pvt Ltd 13 Spirent Communications (India) Pvt Ltd 14 Meco Instruments Pvt Ltd 15 TTL Technologies Pvt Ltd KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING ANDTECHNOLOGY
  • 6. Functional Elements Of An Instrument: • As you can see, the block diagram provides you with the basic idea of what you are going to see in detail. • Lets start up with the first thing in the block diagram. I think you probably don't need any explanation for this. The variable that you want to measure is mentioned here. It is called as the "Measurand". For example, If you want to measure current, then current is the measurand. KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING ANDTECHNOLOGY
  • 7. Most of the measurement system contains following main functional elements as shown in Previous figure  Primary Sensing Element.  Variable Conversion Element  Variable Manipulation Element  Data Transmission Element  Data Presentation Element Primary Sensing Element:  Next comes the Primary Sensing Element, as shown in the block diagram. You can remember it better if i mention it as "First Sensing Element". Thats right.  The Element (Part) of an instrument which makes first contact with the measurand is called the primary sensing element.  For example, In Ammeter (which is used to measure current), the coil carrying the current to be measured is the primary sensing element. KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING ANDTECHNOLOGY
  • 8. Variable conversion Element:  The output of the Primary sensing element may not be suitable for the actual measurement system.  For example, in ammeter, the output from the coil is current, so there we place a magnet to get a deflection due to the current passing in the coil. So here the magnet acts as a variable conversion element, converting current into physical movement which is the deflection and by measuring the amount of deflection we can measure the amount of current.  Note: Some instruments do not need this variable conversion elements, whereas some instruments need more than one. Also keep in mind, that the original information about the measurand must be retained during the process of such conversion. KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING ANDTECHNOLOGY
  • 9. Variable Manipulation Element:  This is the tricky part. The level of the output from the Variable conversion element may not be enough for the next stage.  For example, in case of ammeter if the amount of current to be measured is so small , it may not be enough to cause any deflection in the magnet. So here a transformer can be used to increase the voltage to get enough deflection. So in this case the transformer will be the Data Manipulation Element.  Note: The Variable conversion element and the variable manipulation element are together called as Data conditioning element since they help to obtain the signal in pure and acceptable form from highly distorted form. KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING ANDTECHNOLOGY
  • 10. Data Transmission Element:  If the elements of the system are physically separated, it is necessary to transmit the data from one stage to the other. So we need this Data Transmission element. The data conditioning and the Data transmission are together called as the intermediate stage of an Instrument. Data Presentation Element:  So now the measuring is done and we need to present the data in a suitable form so that it is easily understood by the observer and for this the Data Presentation Element is used.  In case of our Ammeter Example, it is the Pointer and the scale arrangement that acts as the Data presentation element. If the output data is to be monitored, a visual display can be used and if needs to be recorded then magnetic tapes , recorders or hard disk drives can be used. The Data Presenting Stage may be called as the Terminating stage of an instrument. KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING ANDTECHNOLOGY
  • 12. Block schematic of an ammeter: Block diagram of pressure gauge: KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING ANDTECHNOLOGY
  • 13. Block Diagram of Thermometer: Block Diagram of Galvanometer: KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING ANDTECHNOLOGY
  • 14. Performance characteristics:  Static characteristics  Dynamic characteristics Static Characteristics:  The set of criteria defined for the instruments, which are used to measure the quantities which are slowly varying with time or mostly constant, i.e. do not vary with time, is called static characteristics. Dynamic Characteristics:  The set of criteria defined based on such dynamic differential equations is called dynamic characteristics. KONGUNADUCOLLEGEOFENGINERING ANDTECHNOLOGY