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1
Time Management
2
Learning Objectives
• When you have completed this module you
will be able to define the key concepts
associated with Ti...
3
Learning Objectives
• Understand a range of tools, techniques and
concepts for Time Management
• Use these techniques to...
4
Introduction
5
Time Management & The Organization
• Looking at time management from the perspective of
the organization what are the be...
6
– Improved planning and control of business
systems through time based management
– Better alignment of activities by
in...
7
Introduction
What is Time
Management?
What is Time
Management?
Time as a
Commodity
Time as a
Commodity
Essential HabitsE...
8
What is Time Management?
• Time management has five main aspects:
– Planning & Goal Setting
– Managing Yourself
– Dealin...
9
Time as a Commodity
• Time is the most precious thing we have
• Time is ultimately the most valuable resource
• Time and...
10
Essential Habits
• Essential habits for good time management
are:
– Know where the hours are going
– Keep focused on th...
11
Types of Time
• Time can be categorized into two types:
– Fast time
• when absorbed in, or enjoying an activity
– Slow ...
12
Over- & Under-estimating Time
• Time for tasks or activities can be over-
or under-estimated due to
– Intensity of acti...
13
Effects of Estimating Time Incorrectly
• Under-estimation of time
• Stress due to committing to too many tasks
• Poor q...
14
Time Management Principles
15
Time Management Principles
Time Management PrinciplesTime Management Principles
Spent Time MatrixSpent Time Matrix
Quad...
16
Time Management
• Covey identified 4 waves in time
management
– 1 Notes and Checklists
– Recognition of the demands on ...
17
Spent Time Matrix
Q1
Q3
Q2
Q4
Crises
Deadlines
Prevention
Relationship Building
Planning
Recreation
Interruptions
Some ...
18
Quadrant 1
• Being in Quadrant 1 brings
– Stress
– Burnout
– Crises management
– Firefighting
– Focus on the immediate
19
Quadrant 3
• Being in Quadrant 3 brings
– Short term focus
– Crises management
– Low value on goals
– Feeling of victim...
20
Quadrants 3 & 4
• Cycling between Quadrants 3 & 4
brings:
– Total irresponsibility
– High dependency on others for basi...
21
Quadrant 2
• Being in Quadrant 2 brings:
– Vision
– Perspective
– Balance
– Discipline
– Control
The Seven Habits of Hi...
22
Characteristics of a Quadrant 2 Person
• There are six basic criteria to allow a
person to function in Quadrant 2:
– Co...
23
Quadrant 2 Requirements
The basic requirements to reach Quadrant 2 are:
• Clear definition of organizational roles and ...
24
Saying No and Quadrant 2
• To stay within Quadrant 2, there is a
requirement that you must say no:
– In a professional ...
25
Time-Based Management
• Fundamentals:
– Focus is on time and resources
– Pre-analysis of performance
– Analysis of goal...
26
Focus on Time & Resources
• For effective management of time there needs to be a reasonable
attempt made to look at the...
27
Pre-Analysis Of Performance
• The ability to learn from past experience allows time
management to improve performance
•...
28
Analysis of Goals & Objectives
• By setting goals that relate to business
performance and conform to SMART criteria
the...
29
Systemization of Processes
• The ability to design and implement
processes that allow consistency of
– Input
– Output
–...
30
Time-based Management
• Need to look at
– Is the allotted time for completion of plans realistic
for the person / team?...
31
Productive Work
32
Productive Work
Busy V’s ProductiveBusy V’s Productive
Indecision & DelayIndecision & Delay
OverworkOverwork
Urgency V ...
33
Busy Work
• Just because you are busy does not
mean that you are productive
• Differentiate between
– Effectiveness -- ...
34
Busy v Productive Work
• Problem No 1: Procrastination
• Putting off doing the things that you should be
doing at this ...
35
Dealing with Indecision or Delay
• When faced with a task - decide to deal with it
according to one of the following ac...
36
Busy v Productive Work
• Problem No 2: Paralyzing perfectionism
– This is a failure to recognize the difference between...
37
Busy v Productive Work
• Problem No 3: Setting unchallenging objectives
– Objectives need to be set that challenge you ...
38
Overwork
• Overwork can have effects that may be
classified as
– Psychological
– Physiological
• People are overloaded ...
39
Overwork
• To deal with over-work, try the following
– Understand your pressures
– Don’t get worked up or panicked
– Do...
40
Urgency V Importance
• Differentiating between
– Urgent tasks
• assume importance as they demand immediate
attention
– ...
41
Prioritization Grid
Importance
Urgency
Priority 1Priority 2
Priority 3Priority 4
42
Prioritization
• The main aim of prioritization is to avoid a crisis
• To do this then you must
Schedule your Prioritie...
43
Crisis Management
44
Crisis Management
Proactive V ReactiveProactive V Reactive
Why Crises OccurWhy Crises Occur
Anticipating & Preventing
C...
45
Proactive v Reactive Work
• Reactive work - concentrates on getting things
done
– Handling daily routines
– Dealing wit...
46
Proactive v Reactive Work
• Proactive work - concentrates on making
things happen
– Developing plans and schedules
– Fo...
47
Why Crises Occur
• Checklist of reasons:
– Failure to recognize the crisis
– Underestimation of time required
– No cont...
48
Anticipating & Preventing Crises
• The most effective way to anticipate
and prevent crises is to:
– Set deadlines and s...
49
Planning
50
Planning
What is a Plan?What is a Plan?
Information & PlanningInformation & Planning
Time Management SystemsTime Manage...
51
Planning in Time Management
Rule No 1
Failing to Plan
is Planning to Fail
52
What is a Plan?
A plan is a road map set in
real time to reach an
objective or set of objectives
through the use of def...
53
Information & Planning
Essential information:
• You need to know what you have to plan
• Once this is established
– Bre...
54
Time Management Systems
• There are certain key criteria that need to be
applied to a time management system:
– Functio...
55
Time Management Systems
Pitfalls
• Totally dis-organized ‘system’
– Nothing can be located when required
• Perfectly ma...
56
Time Management Systems
• Key components
– Appointments
– Dated deadlines
– Tasks - to do and work in progress
– Ideas ...
57
Goals & Time-spans
• A time management system is ineffective if defined
goals are not available to work towards
– Strat...
58
Checklist for Goals
• Checklist for Goals
– Are they realistic and challenging?
– Have they been agreed with the manage...
59
Cascading
• Planning levels should cascade as follows:
– Yearly overview plan
– Monthly Plan
– Weekly Plan
– Daily Plan...
60
The Daily Plan
• The Daily Plan should cover three main
areas:
– Scheduled activities for the day showing time
allocate...
61
The Daily Plan
• When setting out the daily plan pay
attention to the following points:
– When do you perform best, sui...
62
The Daily Plan
• Guidelines continued
– Leave room for unexpecteds
– Don’t stack meetings back to back
– Batch telephon...
63
Tips & Techniques
64
Tips & Techniques
Time LogsTime Logs
Quality TimeQuality Time
Managing DocumentsManaging Documents
Managing Interruptio...
65
Time-logs
• A time-log is an effective way to see where your time
actually goes to during the working day Record the
in...
66
Quality Time
• Quality time is where you can plan to do the
most important high priority tasks
• It allows for deep con...
67
Dealing with Documents
• Document handling can steal a vast quantity
of time from our working day
• Improve your docume...
68
Dealing with Documents
• Have a good system for handling your documents
that allows you to:
– Define what you need to k...
69
Managing Interruptions
• Try to reduce the number of interruptions by
applying the following techniques:
• Create a vis...
70
Managing Your Workspace
• How our workspace is organized has an impact
on how efficient we are - try the following to
i...
71
Managing Your Phone
• The telephone can be responsible for eating vast quantities
of time - control the phone by using:...
72
Summary
73
Summary
• Have a great planning system and use it
• Take on realistic goals an schedule accurately
• Do not over-commit...
74
Summary
• Don’t procrastinate – Manage Your Time Today
• Define and use periods of quality time in your
schedule
• Lear...
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Time management training_ppt

  1. 1. 1 Time Management
  2. 2. 2 Learning Objectives • When you have completed this module you will be able to define the key concepts associated with Time Management and you will be able to: • Identify the main obstacles to effective Time Management in your daily role • Understand the nature of Time Management
  3. 3. 3 Learning Objectives • Understand a range of tools, techniques and concepts for Time Management • Use these techniques to build an effective Time Management process that will enhance your productivity and lower your stress • Explain the benefits of having an effective Time Management process
  4. 4. 4 Introduction
  5. 5. 5 Time Management & The Organization • Looking at time management from the perspective of the organization what are the benefits: – Improved productivity through improved use of time by the personnel – Better performance in terms of on time delivery to customers – Increased profitability through better use of the human and non-human resources
  6. 6. 6 – Improved planning and control of business systems through time based management – Better alignment of activities by incorporating a time bound system for co- ordination of tasks and projects in the business – Reduction of stress that arises due to crisis management by reducing the incidence of crises by better planning Time Management & The Organization
  7. 7. 7 Introduction What is Time Management? What is Time Management? Time as a Commodity Time as a Commodity Essential HabitsEssential Habits Types of TimeTypes of Time Over & Under Estimation of Time Over & Under Estimation of Time
  8. 8. 8 What is Time Management? • Time management has five main aspects: – Planning & Goal Setting – Managing Yourself – Dealing with Other People – Your Time – Getting Results – The first 4 all interconnect and interact to generate the fifth - results
  9. 9. 9 Time as a Commodity • Time is the most precious thing we have • Time is ultimately the most valuable resource • Time and how we spend it within the organization must be managed effectively • Time is totally perishable • Time cannot be stored up for use later
  10. 10. 10 Essential Habits • Essential habits for good time management are: – Know where the hours are going – Keep focused on the end result – Work to defined priorities – Schedule time for important issues – Delegate routine tasks and responsibility for them – Confront your own indecision and delay – Take the stress out of work – Keep applying the essential habits!
  11. 11. 11 Types of Time • Time can be categorized into two types: – Fast time • when absorbed in, or enjoying an activity – Slow time • when bored with an activity or having a bad time • when scared
  12. 12. 12 Over- & Under-estimating Time • Time for tasks or activities can be over- or under-estimated due to – Intensity of activity – Level of brain function – Length of gaps between enjoyments – Fear or ecstasy
  13. 13. 13 Effects of Estimating Time Incorrectly • Under-estimation of time • Stress due to committing to too many tasks • Poor quality output • Deadlines may be missed • Over-estimation of time • Stress due to people pressing to have activities completed • Poor quality output • Deadlines set may not match requirements
  14. 14. 14 Time Management Principles
  15. 15. 15 Time Management Principles Time Management PrinciplesTime Management Principles Spent Time MatrixSpent Time Matrix Quadrant 2Quadrant 2 Time-Based Management Time-Based Management
  16. 16. 16 Time Management • Covey identified 4 waves in time management – 1 Notes and Checklists – Recognition of the demands on energy & time – 2 Calendars and appointment books – Scheduling with some focus on the future – 3 Prioritization – Comparison of the relative worth of activities – 4 Self management – Realization that time cannot be managed - it is ourselves that we have to manage! The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Covey,1989
  17. 17. 17 Spent Time Matrix Q1 Q3 Q2 Q4 Crises Deadlines Prevention Relationship Building Planning Recreation Interruptions Some Meetings Popular Activities Pleasant Activities Busy Work Time Wasters Trivia Urgent Not Urgent Important Not Important
  18. 18. 18 Quadrant 1 • Being in Quadrant 1 brings – Stress – Burnout – Crises management – Firefighting – Focus on the immediate
  19. 19. 19 Quadrant 3 • Being in Quadrant 3 brings – Short term focus – Crises management – Low value on goals – Feeling of victimization / lack of control – Shallow relationships
  20. 20. 20 Quadrants 3 & 4 • Cycling between Quadrants 3 & 4 brings: – Total irresponsibility – High dependency on others for basics – Short career path in the organization
  21. 21. 21 Quadrant 2 • Being in Quadrant 2 brings: – Vision – Perspective – Balance – Discipline – Control The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Covey,1989
  22. 22. 22 Characteristics of a Quadrant 2 Person • There are six basic criteria to allow a person to function in Quadrant 2: – Coherence – Balance – Focus – An ability to get on with people – Flexibility – Portability
  23. 23. 23 Quadrant 2 Requirements The basic requirements to reach Quadrant 2 are: • Clear definition of organizational roles and specifically your own role • Selection of and focus on SMART goals • Development and utilization of schedules • The practice of daily adapting in work role
  24. 24. 24 Saying No and Quadrant 2 • To stay within Quadrant 2, there is a requirement that you must say no: – In a professional manner – When items are associated with Quadrant 3 or Quadrant 4 activities • Not important not urgent • Not important but urgent • Will not deliver competitive advantage
  25. 25. 25 Time-Based Management • Fundamentals: – Focus is on time and resources – Pre-analysis of performance – Analysis of goals and objectives – Systemization of processes
  26. 26. 26 Focus on Time & Resources • For effective management of time there needs to be a reasonable attempt made to look at the time and resources required to complete a task: • The quality of the outcome is directly influenced by the resources and time constraints involved Quality TimeResources
  27. 27. 27 Pre-Analysis Of Performance • The ability to learn from past experience allows time management to improve performance • The discipline of reviewing past performance allows the organization to: – Debug projects before initiation and subsequent waste of resources – Define critical points in processes which need to have particular attention paid to them – Improve the overall utilization of resources by capturing and implementing best practice
  28. 28. 28 Analysis of Goals & Objectives • By setting goals that relate to business performance and conform to SMART criteria the organization will improve productivity: – S -- specific and well defined objectives – M -- measurable outputs and inputs – A -- achievable in terms of resources available and expectations – R -- relevant to the overall business strategy – T -- time bound with an operational schedule
  29. 29. 29 Systemization of Processes • The ability to design and implement processes that allow consistency of – Input – Output – Training and skill transfer – Consistency allows for time to be gauged accurately for activities which assists in the scheduling aspect of capacity planning in the organization
  30. 30. 30 Time-based Management • Need to look at – Is the allotted time for completion of plans realistic for the person / team? – In the effort to achieve results, is efficient use made of the available time? – For teams - how can the time available be used to generate the optimal results? – Is task-related time management appropriate and realistic in the situation?
  31. 31. 31 Productive Work
  32. 32. 32 Productive Work Busy V’s ProductiveBusy V’s Productive Indecision & DelayIndecision & Delay OverworkOverwork Urgency V ImportanceUrgency V Importance PrioritizationPrioritization
  33. 33. 33 Busy Work • Just because you are busy does not mean that you are productive • Differentiate between – Effectiveness -- doing the right things – Efficiency -- doing the right things correctly
  34. 34. 34 Busy v Productive Work • Problem No 1: Procrastination • Putting off doing the things that you should be doing at this point! • Solution • List all tasks that you are currently putting off • Remove two from the list by doing them now! • Plan and set a schedule for dealing with the rest • Reward when tasks are completed • Punish when tasks are not completed on schedule
  35. 35. 35 Dealing with Indecision or Delay • When faced with a task - decide to deal with it according to one of the following actions: – Do it – Delegate it – Dump it – Deadline it – Dissect it
  36. 36. 36 Busy v Productive Work • Problem No 2: Paralyzing perfectionism – This is a failure to recognize the difference between excellence and perfection • Excellence • Achievable • Healthy • Satisfying • Realistic • Perfection • Unattainable • Frustrating • Unrealistic
  37. 37. 37 Busy v Productive Work • Problem No 3: Setting unchallenging objectives – Objectives need to be set that challenge you in a realistic manner and take heed of resource availability Otherwise you are busy without any possibility of success • Use SMARTS criteria where the objectives are: – Specific – Measurable – Attainable – Realistic – Time-bound – Supported by the organization
  38. 38. 38 Overwork • Overwork can have effects that may be classified as – Psychological – Physiological • People are overloaded for two main reasons – The person or team does too much – The person or team have too much to do
  39. 39. 39 Overwork • To deal with over-work, try the following – Understand your pressures – Don’t get worked up or panicked – Don’t blame everything on yourself – Walk away – Estimate time as well as possible – Agree priorities and keep them – Remind yourself that there is a limited amount of time available to you
  40. 40. 40 Urgency V Importance • Differentiating between – Urgent tasks • assume importance as they demand immediate attention – Important tasks • May become urgent if left undone • Usually have a long term effect – To judge importance v urgency, gauge tasks in terms of • Impact of doing them • Effect of not doing them
  41. 41. 41 Prioritization Grid Importance Urgency Priority 1Priority 2 Priority 3Priority 4
  42. 42. 42 Prioritization • The main aim of prioritization is to avoid a crisis • To do this then you must Schedule your Priorities as opposed to Prioritizing your Schedule
  43. 43. 43 Crisis Management
  44. 44. 44 Crisis Management Proactive V ReactiveProactive V Reactive Why Crises OccurWhy Crises Occur Anticipating & Preventing Crises Anticipating & Preventing Crises
  45. 45. 45 Proactive v Reactive Work • Reactive work - concentrates on getting things done – Handling daily routines – Dealing with urgency – Resolving crises – Handling interruptions
  46. 46. 46 Proactive v Reactive Work • Proactive work - concentrates on making things happen – Developing plans and schedules – Focusing on key tasks – Achieving deadlines & targets – Managing projects
  47. 47. 47 Why Crises Occur • Checklist of reasons: – Failure to recognize the crisis – Underestimation of time required – No contingency plan is ready – No follow-up on delegated tasks
  48. 48. 48 Anticipating & Preventing Crises • The most effective way to anticipate and prevent crises is to: – Set deadlines and stick with them – Use interim targets and milestones to break the task or project into manageable chunks – Build the schedule so that it is realistic
  49. 49. 49 Planning
  50. 50. 50 Planning What is a Plan?What is a Plan? Information & PlanningInformation & Planning Time Management SystemsTime Management Systems Goals & Time SpansGoals & Time Spans CascadingCascading The Daily PlanThe Daily Plan
  51. 51. 51 Planning in Time Management Rule No 1 Failing to Plan is Planning to Fail
  52. 52. 52 What is a Plan? A plan is a road map set in real time to reach an objective or set of objectives through the use of defined resources
  53. 53. 53 Information & Planning Essential information: • You need to know what you have to plan • Once this is established – Break the task into manageable chunks – Gauge the time required for each chunk – Schedule each chunk into a logical sequence
  54. 54. 54 Time Management Systems • There are certain key criteria that need to be applied to a time management system: – Functional – Portable – Intelligible
  55. 55. 55 Time Management Systems Pitfalls • Totally dis-organized ‘system’ – Nothing can be located when required • Perfectly maintained system – Too much time is spent keeping the system in perfect condition as opposed to actioning the items contained within it
  56. 56. 56 Time Management Systems • Key components – Appointments – Dated deadlines – Tasks - to do and work in progress – Ideas and notes – Key task identification – Personal information – Financial planning records – Crises log – Project log – Contact list
  57. 57. 57 Goals & Time-spans • A time management system is ineffective if defined goals are not available to work towards – Strategic Goals - long term goals, perhaps out to five years – Tactical Goals - medium term goals, from 3 - 12 months ahead – Operational Goals - short term goals defining the exact action to be taken The schedule may cover hours or days
  58. 58. 58 Checklist for Goals • Checklist for Goals – Are they realistic and challenging? – Have they been agreed with the manager and linked to the performance appraisal system? – Do you know what it will look like when you have achieved the goal (visualization)? – Are the goals important to you? – Is there a time bound aspect to the goals? – Are the goals SMART? – What will the reward be once the goals have been achieved?
  59. 59. 59 Cascading • Planning levels should cascade as follows: – Yearly overview plan – Monthly Plan – Weekly Plan – Daily Plan • Note that in the cascade, the time span decreases whereas the level of complexity increases
  60. 60. 60 The Daily Plan • The Daily Plan should cover three main areas: – Scheduled activities for the day showing time allocated to each – Identification of key tasks for the day to allow them to be prioritized – Indication of who you need to contact during the day to allow you to complete tasks
  61. 61. 61 The Daily Plan • When setting out the daily plan pay attention to the following points: – When do you perform best, suit your bio- rhythm – Build in planning time at the start and end of the day – Prioritize actions into ‘musts, shoulds and coulds and focus on the ‘musts’
  62. 62. 62 The Daily Plan • Guidelines continued – Leave room for unexpecteds – Don’t stack meetings back to back – Batch telephone calls – Build in quality time
  63. 63. 63 Tips & Techniques
  64. 64. 64 Tips & Techniques Time LogsTime Logs Quality TimeQuality Time Managing DocumentsManaging Documents Managing InterruptionsManaging Interruptions Managing WorkspaceManaging Workspace Managing your PhoneManaging your Phone
  65. 65. 65 Time-logs • A time-log is an effective way to see where your time actually goes to during the working day Record the information for about 2 weeks to get a representative picture of time spent • By logging activities and the time taken to complete them, the time-log provides useful information that can identify • Accuracy of estimating time for tasks • Time stealing activities • Level of interruption • Loading during the day • Crises points / tasks
  66. 66. 66 Quality Time • Quality time is where you can plan to do the most important high priority tasks • It allows for deep concentration through eliminating interruptions • It imposes a structure on work • It allows you to move away from reactive work to proactive work
  67. 67. 67 Dealing with Documents • Document handling can steal a vast quantity of time from our working day • Improve your document handling by: • Handling documents only once by : – Act on what is required by the document – File the document for reference later – Dump the document
  68. 68. 68 Dealing with Documents • Have a good system for handling your documents that allows you to: – Define what you need to keep and for how long – Allows you to file materials easily and logically – Facilitates access to materials – Purge the files on a regular basis
  69. 69. 69 Managing Interruptions • Try to reduce the number of interruptions by applying the following techniques: • Create a visual barrier at your workspace to reduce the incidence of ‘drop-in’ visits • Don’t have extra chairs in your workspace - people do not hang around as long if they must stand • For important work - move to another space so the potential interruptors can’t find you! • Tell people that you are busy, explain why and arrange to contact them at a more suitable time
  70. 70. 70 Managing Your Workspace • How our workspace is organized has an impact on how efficient we are - try the following to improve efficiency – De-clutter your desk by clearing it at the end of each working day – File documents once they have been used – Purge files regularly – Organize a work flow system in your space
  71. 71. 71 Managing Your Phone • The telephone can be responsible for eating vast quantities of time - control the phone by using: – Batch your outward calls – Delegate calls that you don’t have to make personally to one of your team – Terminate calls once the business has been done – Set up a rota in your team for handling incoming calls
  72. 72. 72 Summary
  73. 73. 73 Summary • Have a great planning system and use it • Take on realistic goals an schedule accurately • Do not over-commit • Set and agree priorities to distinguish between urgent and important tasks • Build in some flexibility to cope with anything unexpected • Control your documents, workspace and phone
  74. 74. 74 Summary • Don’t procrastinate – Manage Your Time Today • Define and use periods of quality time in your schedule • Learn to say No in a professional manner • Stay away from perfectionism and aim for excellence • Build in time for personal development

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