Fire fighting course


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Fire fighting course
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Fire fighting course

  1. 1. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE Welcome aboard! Fire Brigade Course Crew 871 – Egypt
  2. 2. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE Sorry! Fire Brigade Course Today From 5:30 to 6:45 pm Thanks for you cooperation...
  5. 5. 1.1 What is Fire ? Fire is a chemical reaction called combustion resulting in the release of heat and light. To initiate and maintain this chemical reaction, there are three factors which must be present at the same time in order for a fire to occur. They are the following; Fuel  Combustion substance either solid, liquid or gas. Oxygen  Air containing approx. 21% oxygen. Heat  The attainment of a certain temperature (a fire normally maintains its own heat supply). FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  6. 6. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE 1.2 THE FIRE TRIANGLE Fire will exist when all 3 elements of the fire triangle are present.
  7. 7. 1.3 Spreading’s ways of the Fire There are three ways for the fire for spreading: 1. Radiation 2. Conduction 3. Convection FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  8. 8. 1.3 Spreading’s ways of the Fire Radiation FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  9. 9. 1.3.3 RADIATION Combustible materials can be ignited if they are situated close to a radiation source. The heat energy is transferred from the source to the combustible material by means of electro-magnetic radiation. Electric fire. Sun's rays magnified through glass. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  10. 10. 1.3 Spreading’s ways of the Fire Conduction FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  11. 11. 1.3 HOW FIRE SPREAD 1.3.1 CONDUCTION Heat applied to a solid is conducted through the material to heat up its entire area. The heat energy is transferred from one molecule to the next throughout the entire area of the solid. Steel supporting beams which can transfer heat to numerous locations in a building. Contact between the beam and combustiblematerial at any point could start a fire. Pipework for heating systems in a building. Electrical wiring. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  12. 12. 1.3 Spreading’s ways of the Fire Convection FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  13. 13. 1.3.2 CONVECTION Convection helps to spread fire from one location to another. This is done by means of thermal air currents. Fire heats up the air causing it to expand and become less dense. The hot air rises and move away from the fire. At the same time, more cooler air is drawn towards to fire to aid combustion and it is heated up in the same way causing the process to continue. The result is a circulation and spreading of heat, hot gasses and possibly burning embers. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  14. 14. 1.4 FIRE CLASSIFICATION There are four main classes for fire: A - B - C - D These classifications depend on the nature of the material which is burning. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  15. 15. Class A  Solid materials: free burning combustibles such as wood, paper, fabric, plastic, etc... FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  16. 16. Class B  Flammable liquids: oils, petrol, alcohol, greases, paint, varnishes, etc. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  17. 17. Class C  Flammable gases: propane, butane, acetylene, etc… FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  18. 18. Class D  Combustible metals: magnesium, titanium, zirconium, aluminium powder, lithium, pothasium for which special consideration has to be given to the method of application, appliance and extinguisher media. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  19. 19. Class E  Electrical Fire: normally is produced by the heat generated by a short circuit or an electrical socket overcharged. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  20. 20. 1.5 FIRES INVOLVING ELECTRICAL RISKS One's personal safety is of paramount importance. Electric shock must be avoided. The electric supply must be disconnected, then the fire can be treated and extinguished according to its classification. In most cases it will be a class A fire. If the electric supply cannot be disconnected, a non conductive extinguishing agent such as CO2, vaporising liquids or dry powder must be used. Never use water or foam on electric fire !!! FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  21. 21. To extinguish a fire we need to remove just ONE of the elements. We must remove each element of the fire triangle by different means Heat  Removed by cooling. Oxygen  Removed by smothering. Fuel  Removed by starving. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE FIRE EXTINCTION
  22. 22. Fire will cease to exist when the heat is removed (cooling) FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  23. 23. COOLING Cooling absorbs sufficient heat in the fire (as the water turns to steam) so as to reduce the temperature below the fire point. There is not enough heat left to maintain combustion. Water is the most effective way to cool a fire FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  24. 24. Fire will cease to exist when the oxygen is removed (smothering) FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  25. 25. SMOTHERING At least 21% oxygen in the atmosphere is required to maintain combustion. This supply can be blocked off by smothering so as to extinguish the fire. Methods used to cut off the oxygen supply Blanketing the fire with dry powder. Use of a fire blanket to cover the fire (e.g. a chip pan fire). Application of foam on a liquid fire (which spreads over the surface of the burning liquid and gradually cuts off the oxygen supply). Displacing the oxygen FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  26. 26. Fire will cease to exist when the fuel is removed (starvation) FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  27. 27. STARVING This method is to extinguish the fire through starvation by removal of the fuel. Examples  Removal of surrounding combustible materials.  Turning off a gas supply.  Blanking of a pipeline. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  28. 28. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE Thanks for your attention today! Fire Brigade Course Crew 871 – Egypt
  30. 30. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE Classes Substance Extinguishing methods Water Foam CO2 Dry Powder A Solid materials Cooling; smothering X X X B Flammable liquids Smothering X X X C Flammable gases Starving X X Electrical hazards Cut off electric supply X X Vehicles Smothering X X
  33. 33. DRY POWDER FIRE EXTINGUISHER FIRE FIGHTING COURSE Control valve Discharge tube Nozzle Operating lever Carrying handle CO2 gas cartridge Powder
  34. 34. CARBON DIOXYDE FIRE EXTINGUISHER FIRE FIGHTING COURSE Control valve Discharge tube Liquid CO2 Operating lever Carrying handle Gaseous CO2 Nozzle
  36. 36. 4.1 THE CONTROL OF FUELS The fuel side of the fire triangle can result from uncontrolled usage or storage of combustible materials. Combustible fuels (solid, liquid or gas) must be controlled in usage and storage in order to reduce or eliminate the risk of fire occurring. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  37. 37. 4.1.1 SOLIDS Uncontrolled usage and storage of large quantities of paper, furnishings, fittings may result in the initial ignition of a fire or supply sufficient fuel for the development of a serious fire following ignition. All managers and supervisors should ensure that: Paper and files should be stored in presses (ideally non combustible metal cupboards) away from sources of ignition. Unwanted stocks of paper, boxes or any unwanted fittings / furnishings are be removed and disposed. Paper does not accumulate on floors or in rooms with electronic equipment, computers, battery charging equipment, etc… No unapproved storage area is used to store solid combustibles. Regular cleaning of all areas under supervision is carried out and that rubbish removed is disposed of safely. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  38. 38. 4.1.2 LIQUIDS The ability of flammable liquids, such as petrol, to ignite at ambient temperatures requires strict control regarding storage and use. All managers and supervisors should ensure that: Petrol or its by-products are only transported in approved metal containers. Petrol or its by-products are only stored in approved metal containers at a safe distance from any camp set up. Cleaning sprays or liquids labelled as 'highly flammable' are kept to the minimum quantity necessary, and stored in metal presses or approved cupboards out of direct sunlight. Cooking oils are only used in approved areas (kitchens) and heated up only by competent persons under supervision. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  39. 39. 4.1.3 GASES Fire or explosions involving the storage or use may result from the ignition of leaking gas or following the heating of cylinders under fire conditions. All managers and supervisors should ensure that: Cylinders are not stored in buildings or vehicles overnight. Cylinders are securely stored in approved cages or compounds when not in use. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  40. 40. Cylinders containing oxygen or air are stored separately from combustible gases such as propane or butane. Damaged or defective cylinders are returned to the supplier. Staff using LPG or other combustible gases should ensure that: Hoses and connections are in sound condition. Only approved connections are used in conjunction with cylinders. Cylinders are kept upright at all times during transportation, storage and use. Cylinders are stored in approved locations only. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  41. 41. 4.2 THE CONTROL OF SOURCES OF IGNITION The heat or ignition side of the fire triangle can result from a number of sources which are readily available in the workplace or home. Frequent causes of fire : Electrical apparatus or wiring. Smoking. Gas and LPG equipment. Cutting and welding equipment. Rubbish burning. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  42. 42. 4.2.1 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND WIRING Electrical equipment may cause a fire : Arcing due to overload, earth faults or loose connections. Overheating due to overload capacity. Accidental ignition from apparatus designed to run hot in normal use (heaters, cookers, soldering irons, etc.). Accidental overheating of apparatus not designed to run hot in normal use. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  43. 43. Prevention and Control All electrical maintenance and repair should be carried out by qualified staff. Equipment and apparatus should be protected by correctly rated fuses and earthed in accordance with relevant standards. All apparatus and equipment should be unplugged at the end of the working day. Cookers and cooking equipment should be constantly supervised when in use and switched off when not in use. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  44. 44. Never overload sockets by the over use of adapters. Electrical switching, battery charging and generator locations should be kept free of material at all times and never used for the storage of combustible items. Soldering irons should only be used by competent staff and never left unsupervised when connected to a power source. Approved stands should always be provided for soldering irons. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  45. 45. Do  Check for signs of damage to cables and leads. Do  Report and defective equipment immediately. Do  Switch off unnecessary equipment at the end of the day. Don’t  Overload circuits. Don’t  Cover or place articles over heating appliances. Don’t  Leave heat emitting apparatus such as cookers or soldering irons unattended. Don’t  Tamper with electrical apparatus. Don’t  Attach any combustible materials to light fittings. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  46. 46. Don’t  Overload circuits. Don’t  Cover or place articles over heating appliances. Don’t  Leave heat emitting apparatus such as cookers or soldering irons unattended. Don’t  Tamper with electrical apparatus. Don’t  Attach any combustible materials to light fittings. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  47. 47. 4.2.2 SMOKING Only strict prohibition of smoking in key areas can prevent the risk of ignition of combustible items from discarded cigarettes or matches. Smoking should be prohibited in the following areas:  Storage areas.  Mechanics' workshop areas.  LPG storage areas.  Flammable liquid stores.  Petrol or diesel bowsers.  Offices and computer rooms. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  48. 48. Do  Provide a sufficient number of ash trays in designated smoking areas. Do  Check that smoking materials are correctly extinguished. Do  Erect 'no smoking' signs in all non-smoking areas. Do  Enforce the no-smoking rule. Don’t  Discard smoking materials irresponsibly. Don’t  Smoke in prohibited areas. Don’t  Disregard breaches of the no-smoking rule. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  49. 49. 4.2.3 GAS AND L.P.G. EQUIPMENT All LPG cylinders should be stored in the approved cage or compound at the end of the working day. Hoses and connections should be checked for signs of leaks. The connection of valves, regulators or hoses to cylinders should only be carried out in the open air. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  50. 50. Do  Exercise caution when handling LPG cylinders. Do  Check hoses for signs of leaks. Do  Keep cylinders away from sources of heat. Do  Keep cylinders under shade in direct sunlight. Don’t  Store cylinders indoors overnight. Don’t  Use portable LPG appliances for heating purposes. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  51. 51. 4.2.4 CUTTING AND WELDING EQUIPMENT Extremely high temperatures are produced locally in operations involving oxy-propane, oxy-acetylene or arc welding. Flame, sparks, molten metals or heat transmitted through materials being welded or cut, can ignite combustible items. Lack of knowledge of the working environment by outside contractors increases the risk. Ideally, cutting and welding operations should be subject to a permit to work system supervised by the department head. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  52. 52. Do  Ensure that all cutting and welding equipment is in safe operating condition. Do  Ensure that only trained authorised persons carry out welding and cutting operations. Do  Remove all combustibles from the work area and cover fixed combustible items with a fire blanket. Do  Store oxygen, propane and acetylene cylinders securely in separate compounds outside and in an upright position with all valves turned off. Don’t  Allow contractors to use welding and cutting equipment unsupervised. Don’t  Store welding gases overnight indoors. Don’t  Allow untrained staff to use welding or cutting equipment. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  53. 53. 4.2.5 RUBBISH BURNING Rubbish should only be incinerated at a designated site which is in a safe location and operated by competent persons. Do  Ensure that rubbish is collected daily in rubbish bins. Don’t  Burn rubbish anywhere except in the approved incineration area. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  55. 55. If fire occurs  Set on the fire alarm.  Shout Fire ! Fire ! Fire !.  Attack the fire if possible. If in danger  Don't take risk.  Evacuate to the fire assembly point. When the fire alarm sounds Leave your location.  Report to the assembly point.  Don't stop for personal belongings.  Do not return until the all clear is given. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE
  58. 58. Part 6 PRACTICAL DEMONSTRATION AND PRACTISE - Extinguisher Selection and Use. - Classes A, B and Chip Pan Fires. FIRE FIGHTING COURSE