Cap master-presentation

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Jan. 19, 2015

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Cap master-presentation

  1. Standards Certification Education & Training Publishing Conferences & Exhibits ISA Certified Automation Professional® (CAP® ) Rev. 7/2009
  2. Overview of this Presentation CAP Overview and Discussion of Benefits Comparison of CAP to Other Certifications How to Become a CAP Overview of the CAP Exam What Can You Do About CAP? Note to presenter: See the instructor notes on title slide.
  3. CAP Overview and Discussion of Benefits
  4. Major New Certification by ISA • “High Stakes” certification used for hiring, advancement, and contracting decisions • Setting the standard for automation knowledge • Worldwide credibility • Not just one more credential, THE credential for professional level automation knowledge
  5. Market Studies Show Strong Interest in Automation Certification • 77% of the respondents believed certification would enhance recognition and respect for individuals working in this field • 67% of the respondents reported that certification in this field would be valuable to their organization. • 64% of the employer respondents agreed that salary/remuneration/benefits should increase for certified industrial automation professionals. • 77% of respondents indicated that they would encourage eligible employees to seek certification in this field if it is offered by ISA.
  6. Employer respondents cited the following benefits for CAP: • -Increased quality • -Safety • -Standardization • -Professional recognition • -Additional means of evaluating potential job candidates • -Help to weed out amateurs posing as automation specialists
  7. Who Is ISA? • A leading, global, nonprofit organization • Setting the standard for automation • 30,000 worldwide members • Develops standards • Certifies industry professionals • Provides education and training • Publishes books and technical articles • Hosts a number of conferences including the largest conference and exhibition for automation professionals in North America.
  8. Like certifications in many other fields, CAP adoption driven by: • Individual automation professionals who want to distinguish their automation knowledge • Companies with professional automation employees who want to advance the education of their employees • Companies providing automation services who want to distinguish themselves in the market • Users of automation services who want to improve the quality of services they purchase …rather than by any legal requirement
  9. CAP Benefits Individual Automation Professionals • Enhances professional credibility – Travel from job to job and provide immediate proof of ability. – Younger professionals increase their recognition and credibility – Mid-range professionals validate and document their range of knowledge – Those nearing retirement enhance their future marketability • Enhances self image • Improves career opportunities - promotion, pay increases, job portability • Encourages life long learning and professional development Individuals also tend to be early adopters of a new certification… and many have achieved CAP status have done so to enhance their own credibility
  10. CAP Benefits Employers of Automation Professionals • Develops a better trained workforce – Provides documented evidence that employees are qualified to do their job. Such documentation is a requirement of the ISO 9001 standard. • Incentive for employees to remain current • Promotes safe practices • Qualification tool for hiring and advancement decisions • Enhances company image with internal or external customers Employers tend to be early adopters of a new certification… and many employers are encouraging their key employees to become certified
  11. CAP Benefits Companies Providing Automation Services • Provider companies can distinguish themselves in the market by advertising that their employees are certified • Many users of automation technician services require CCST certification, and providers who can supply CCSTs have an advantage – the same thing will happen with CAP • Qualified automation professionals doing the work results in fewer call-backs, less rework, and higher profits
  12. CAP Benefits Companies Contracting for Automation Services • When outside companies do your automation design how do you know that… – The people doing the work on your projects are competent? – Your safety critical systems are designed in the best way and to the latest standards? – Your plant will get the greatest advantage from the latest standards on batch recipe management, data integration, fieldbus, wireless, and other areas? • If the people doing your work have a CAP credential… – They have demonstrated competence – Their knowledge of automation is well above average – They are much more likely to know the latest standards – Continuing education requirements keep knowledge up-to-date
  13. More Competent Automation Professionals Develop Automation Systems that… • Are less expensive • Operate more efficiently • Are easier for operators to work with • Are easier to maintain • Have fewer mistakes in design that have to be corrected • Startup hours or even days faster • Have fewer unplanned shutdowns • Utilize the latest, most cost effective standards appropriately • Avoid safety incidents • Avoid environmental incidents
  14. Who are Automation Professionals? • Automation Professionals are: – responsible for the direction, definition, design, development/ application, deployment, documentation, and support of systems, software, and equipment used in control systems, manufacturing information systems, systems integration, and operational consulting • Work for – End-users – Engineering contractors – Specialty automation and manufacturing information providers including System Integrations and application services divisions of supplier companies – Hardware and Software product companies as application engineers, sales personnel and product developers
  15. Requirements for CAP • Education - Experience – Four-year technical degree (engineering, engineering technology, computer science, math, science, etc.) + five years experience – Two-year technical degree + eight years experience including two years in responsible charge – Without a degree, ten years of experience including two years in position of responsible charge • Exam – Pass a comprehensive exam • Continuing automation education – 45 hours every three years (average of 15 hours per year)
  16. CAP Exam • Covers the Automation Body of Knowledge • Difficult and comprehensive – if it wasn’t a tough exam the certification wouldn’t mean much… – but passable by many automation professionals, particularly after studying less familiar topics – Experience helps – Pass rate is about 2/3 • Multiple choice questions • Testing locations worldwide • Testing available every business day and Saturdays at some locations
  17. Who should become CAP certified? • People working in automation at the professional level employed by: – End users – System integrators – Engineering contractors – Vendors • Technical supervisors • Technical sales personnel • Automation educators • ISA leaders in particular should become certified (CAP or CCST) if their work background is appropriate -- section officers, district officers, division officers, and society officers
  18. What some current CAPs are saying: • “The CAP has given me a way to prove to my employer that I have knowledge of automation” • “Since I don’t have a degree, becoming a CAP is the only way I can show my next employer that I am competent in automation” • “I’m nearing retirement and the CAP will help me be more attractive for part-time work” • “In our company, people advance faster with the right credential. CAP is that credential in the automation area” • “My company is using CAP to demonstrate to our customers that we have competent personnel”
  19. Comparison of CAP to Other Credentials
  20. Three Types of Credentials • Certificate – Evidence of taken course or series of courses on one subject – Example: ISA Leadership Development Certificate Program – Usually only requires participation • License – legal right to practice in broad area – Examples: medical doctor, professional engineer – Requires education, comprehensive exam and possibly continuing education • Certification – generally narrower area than license – Examples: Certified Opthalmologist, Project Management Professional, Certified Automation Professional – Requires education, experience, exam and continuing education
  21. Hundreds of Certifications are in Use Today • Many certifications have a legal requirement – particularly in the health field • Hundreds of certifications are voluntary • Professional Engineer Registration in the U.S. – Control System Engineering • Certified Control System Technician
  22. Examples of Voluntary Certifications • Project Management Professional (PMP) – over 200,000 active, 38% outside North America • Certified Safety Professional – 20% salary differential vs. those not certified doing similar work - 18,000 awarded, 10% are also P.E.s • Certified Industrial Hygienist – virtually all practitioners in this area are certified • Certified Manufacturing Engineer (CMfgE) – 12,000 are certified by Society of Manufacturing Engineers • Certified Quality Engineer (CQE) • Certified HR Professional
  23. Each of these certifications… • Have been shown to increase job opportunities for those holding the certification • Some are essentially required to work in the respective field in some industries or companies • Enhances competitiveness of companies offering services
  24. What about the United States Professional Engineer (P.E.) License? • P.E. is legal license granted by states in the U.S. • The P.E. exam can be taken in many technical areas – so does not certify competence in any specific area • Most states require an approved engineering degree (generally engineering technology and computer science do not qualify) • U. S. only • 15% of ISA members report that they have a P.E. • Very little automation work requires the P.E.
  25. CSE option in the P.E. is more specific to automation • Control System Engineering (CSE) exam demonstrates competence in process control -- so has similarities with certifications BUT… • CSE focuses only on process control area of automation • CSE is not usually identified in the P.E. designation so is not a good indicator of automation knowledge • CSE will apparently never reach critical mass – Only about 1% of automation professionals in the U.S. have passed in 14 years – Less than 1% of ISA members report that they have passed the CSE
  26. In automation, P.E.s and CAPs do the same type of work, but… • CAP demonstrates competence across the entire automation field • CAP includes the large number of automation professionals with degrees in areas other than engineering • CAP is worldwide and has worldwide credibility • The number of CAPs will reach critical mass in a few years CAP will be the de facto standard for demonstrating automation competence • CAP is not a legal “license” to practice automation
  27. Comparison to the Certified Control System Technician® (CCST® ) • The job description of a CCST includes: – Calibration – Loop Checking – Troubleshooting – Start-Up – Maintenance/Repair – Project Organization – Administration • These are significantly different tasks from the project, system design, and operation improvement tasks in the CAP’s job description • CCST is focused on process automation which is where most control system technicians work
  28. How to Become a CAP
  29. Submit the Application • Review the application deadlines for the three testing windows. • You can only take the CAP exam during a testing window. • Submit your application either online or mail by one of the application deadlines. • After you submit your application, you are eligible to take the test during a nine month period, or two testing windows.
  30. Become Familiar with the Exam • This presentation • CAP Study Guide, 2nd Edition - 75 sample questions available at Which is not a fieldbus a) Foundation b) Profibus PA c) AS-i d) 4-20 ma
  31. Do General Study in All Topics with one of the following approaches: • A Guide to the Automation Body of Knowledge – 500 page, readable book – comprehensive overview of all 37 topics in the scope of the exam – available at • CAP Three-Day Review Course – thorough basic preparation for the exam – For dates and locations of classes see – additional classes can be scheduled for companies or co-sponsored with ISA Sections. – this review course is also available on the internet • CAP Learning System – self-study modules in print and sample questions on the internet – instructor-assisted with Ask the Instructor and Discussion Board features – available at
  32. Further Study Weaker Areas: • Books - For a list of recommended books see • Web seminars – ISA offers 40 archived web seminars free to members • Short Courses – ISA offers over 60 courses of 1-3 day duration that cover the entire Automation Body of Knowledge
  33. Schedule the exam • ISA will: – notify you when they approve your application – assign an eligibility ID number – send that to you and to the Thompson Prometric testing service • Then go to – enter your eligibility ID number – select the location you prefer - for a list of locations see /ISA – select a time that fits your schedule – anytime there is a space available at the testing center • Take the exam within next two testing windows after the application deadline
  34. Take the exam • Multiple choice questions with four possible answers • 175 questions, four hours • Computerized exam – Allows marking questions for easy review later – Easy return to questions skipped – Pop-up Windows basic calculator on computer – Instantaneous reporting of result when finished • Nothing in, nothing out but scratch paper supplied • Make sure you answer all questions -- but time is usually ample
  35. If you Passed, Great! • Let your management know you are a CAP • Discuss the value of CAP with your supervisor • Suggest your company build CAP into its strategic plan for employee development • Let your internal and/or external customers know you are a CAP and help them understand what it means • Add CAP to your business card, your signature, and wherever you use your name professionally
  36. If You Didn’t Pass This Time… • Analyze your results • Study areas where you could improve • Take the exam again
  37. Overview of the CAP Exam
  38. The CAP Exam Scope Whatyoudo-- JobDescriptionofan AutomationProfessional What you know -- Automation Body of Knowledge Two Views of the Scope of Automation Two Views of the Scope of Automation
  39. What you do -- Job Description of an Automation Professional I. Feasibility Study II. Definition III. System Design IV. Development V. Deployment VI. Operation and Maintenance Job Description of an automation professional defined by these six “Domains” (subdivided into 52 “Tasks”) A full listing of this job description is available at: under Knowledge and Skills 0 5 10 15 20 25 Percentage of questions in each Domain
  40. What you know - Automation Body of Knowledge I. Basic Continuous Control II. Discrete and Manufacturing Control III. Advanced Control IV. Reliability, Safety, and Electrical V. Integration and Software VI. Deployment & Maintenance VII. Work Structure (projects, teams) The technical scope of professional work is defined in these seven “Categories” (subdivided into 37 “Topics”). A full description is in the book, A Guide to the Automation Body of Knowledge and the table of contents can be viewed on the ISA website. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Percentage of questions in each Category
  41. The 7 Knowledge Categories subdivided into 37 Topics (i.e. the Automation Body of Knowledge) should be the focus of your study for the exam.
  42. Knowledge Category I – BASIC CONTINUOUS CONTROL 1. Process Instrumentation 2. Analytical Instrumentation 3. Continuous Control 4. Control Valves 5. Analog Communication 6. Control System Documentation 7. DCS Control Equipment
  43. Category I - sample question When tuning a three mode controller by trial-and-error, which mode is usually adjusted first a) integral b) gain c) derivative d) offset
  44. Knowledge Category II – BASIC DISCRETE AND MANUFACTURING CONTROL 8. Discrete Sensors and General Manufacturing Measurements 9. Discrete Control Concepts and PLC Equipment 10. Motor and Drive Control 11. Motion Control
  45. Category II – sample question IEC 1131 graphical programming languages for PLCs include: a) Structured text b) The ADA programming language c) Function Block Diagrams d) Fuzzy Logic
  46. Category III – ADVANCED CONTROL 12. Process Modeling 13. Advanced Process Control 14. Control of Batch Processes 15. Environmental 16. Environmental Monitoring 17. Building Automation
  47. Category III – sample question What is the best type of control to use if the process changes from time to time and if there are a number of variables to be controlled? a) Fuzzy Logic b) Model Predictive Control c) Model Reference Control d) Advanced Regulatory Control
  48. Category III – sample question What is the relationship between a control recipe and a master recipe and a batch? a) Control recipes are a copy of the master recipe and describe the formulation for a series of batches in a run b) A control recipe is derived from the master recipe and is unique to a batch c) The control recipe is a more general version of the master recipe and covers an entire plant d) The control recipe is used by the research department as a control over a series of batches.
  49. Knowledge Category IV – RELIABILITY, SAFETY & ELECTRICAL 18. Alarm Management 19. Reliability 20. Process Safety 21. Electrical Installations 22. Electrical Safety
  50. Category IV – sample question Which of the following logic systems is the safest and the one most likely to respond to a true demand? a) 1 out of 1 b) 1 out of 2 c) 2 out of 2 d) 2 out of 3
  51. Knowledge Category V – INTEGRATION AND SOFTWARE 23. Digital Communications 24. Industrial Networks 25. Manufacturing Execution Systems and Business Integration 26. Systems and Network Security 27. Operator Interface 28. Data Management 29. Software 30. Custom Software
  52. Category V – sample question A network device that provides isolation from different networks, without changing any of the data is called: a) Hub b) Router c) Switch d) Gateway
  53. Category V – sample question Which of these types of communication methods usually results in less field wiring when connecting process transmitters to a control room a) AS-i bus b) Profibus PA c) HART d) 4-20 ma
  54. Knowledge Category VI – DEPLOYMENT & OPERATION 31. Operator Training 32. Checkout, System Testing, and Startup 33. Troubleshooting 34. Maintenance, Long Term Support and System Management
  55. Category VI – Sample question When training operators on a new control system, which training method would be best: a) Self-study of printed material b) Lecture by the supervisor c) Demonstration by the system design professional d) Practice using the controller on a simulated system
  56. Knowledge Category VII – WORK STRUCTURE 35. Automation Benefits and Project Justification 36. Project Management 37. Interpersonal Skills
  57. Category VII – Sample question A project has completed 40% of the work but has spent 60% of the budgeted funds. What is the cost performance index? a) 0.50 b) 0.67 c) 0.60 d) 0.20
  58. What Can You Do About CAP?
  59. As an Individual what can you do about CAP? • Become certified yourself • Encourage others to become certified • Talk with your management about CAP – Encourage your company to select a representative to become certified – Suggest your company build CAP into its strategic plan for employee development
  60. As a Company Employing Automation Professionals what can you do about CAP? • Identify an initial person in your organization to apply – Also possibly take the three day review course • Build CAP into your strategic training plans • Encourage professionals in your organization to become certified – Develop a policy of payment/part payment for application and/or preparatory training for CAP – Consider a one time bonus for becoming a CAP – Give preference in salary and advance to those who have taken the initiative to become CAPs
  61. As a Company Using Outside Automation Services what can you do about CAP? • Explain the advantages of CAP to your services suppliers • In requests for bids ask for information on which personnel have a CAP • Tell your suppliers that you will begin to give preference… – To system integrators, supplier application groups, and engineering contractors whose lead personnel have a CAP – To individual contractors that that have a CAP
  62. As an Automation Services Company what can you do about CAP? • Identify an initial person in your organization to apply – Also possibly take the three day review course • Build CAP into your strategic training plans • Encourage professionals in your organization to become certified – Develop a policy of payment/part payment for application and/or preparatory training for CAP – Consider a one time bonus for becoming a CAP – Give preference in salary and advancement to CAPs • Advertise that you have CAP certified people • Tell your customers why CAPs on their projects will be better qualified than your competitors’ people
  63. As an Automation Hardware or Software Supplier what can you do about CAP? • Talk with your customers about CAP – Let them know that you support the CAP program because customers with a CAP will be better able to correctly apply your products – Encourage them to become certified • Use CAP to satisfy pre-requisites for training you provide to customers as appropriate
  64. Summary • CAP is becoming the standard for demonstrating automation competence • CAP will be used for hiring and advancement decisions • CAP will be used by automation services providers to differentiate themselves in the market • Users will require CAPs to do their outsourced work
  65. For More Information • Download the CAP Handbook and get other information at • E-mail questions to:

Editor's Notes

  1. This presentation is designed to be used for a variety of purposes: ISA Section Meeting talk (usually about one hour) – suggest using the following sections: CAP Overview and Discussion of Benefits (16 slides but skip the slide on ISA, #8) Comparison of CAP to other Certifications (9 slides) What Can You do About CAP (6 slides) If time is available and it is appropriate for the audience also use How to Become a CAP (13 slides) Seminar for an ISA group (up to about two hours or longer with more discussion) Use the entire presentation Overview to company management (usually best done in no more than 20 minutes). Suggest using the following sections: CAP Overview and Discussion of Benefits (14 slides) What Can You Do About CAP (use the slides appropriate to the type of company) Talks to university groups (often an hour or so). Suggest using the following sections: CAP Overview and Discussion of Benefits (14 slides) Overview of the CAP Exam (21 slides) When talking with groups familiar with ISA, skip slide 8 When using the presentation outside the United States, skip the slides on P.E., slides 22-24. USE ONLY THE SLIDES THAT SEEM APPROPRIATE FOR YOUR AUDIENCE AND PURPOSE Depending on the audience and purpose, you may want to have handouts of the slides you use and possibly other things from the ISA/CAP web site.
  2. When using an abbreviated version of the slides in a presentation, you may want to eliminate or modify this slide. The note to use only the appropriate slides is to make sure that presenters look at the instructor notes. You may want to at least delete this note in the presentation version of the slides.
  3. There are many “certificates” being given today for taking a course or a few courses. Sometimes these are called “certifications”. However, a certification recognized by certification standards groups and legally defensibly in court goes through a rigorous development process that costs hundreds of thousands of dollars. CAP is such a certification. These types of certifications become widely recognized in the field and denote broad credibility.
  4. The Market Study referred to was run for ISA by a contractor in the summer of 2003. This study held focus group meetings and surveyed a large number of people. The results of this study were very positive and ISA used that to decide to go forward with CAP.
  5. Again from the study in 2003.
  6. Use this slide only for audiences that do not know ISA.
  7. Observation of other certifications indicates that early adopters are companies and individuals who want to distinguish themselves in the market.
  8. There are hundreds and hundreds of certifications in many other fields. Most of these have been very successful. Those that have been in existence for at some time typically now include a large percentage of the people working in that field at the highest level. These certifications are in addition to the hundreds and hundreds of certifications that have a legal requirement. Many of the jobs in the health field have a legal requirement, for example.
  9. Many of these certifications have done studies about the value of the certification. All those studies show significant value to the individual and in many cases to the services company that employs the person.
  10. Many people are confused about the relationship of CAP to the P.E. The main area of confusion about the relationship of CAP to the P.E. seems to be that some think CAP is for a lesser level of work than the P.E. That is, a CAP is somewhere between a P.E. and a CCST. That is not true. Both the CAP and the P.E. are for people working at the highest level of work and the P.E. and the CAP are doing the same work. Why have two things than: the P.E. and the CAP? The simple answer is that the P.E. does not satisfy the need for a certification with worldwide credibility that shows that the holder has broad based automation knowledge. Some companies, particularly full-service engineering contractors, value the P.E. and automation professionals in those companies may need the P.E. to advance. Everyone who is eligible should obtain the P.E. since you never know when you may work for a company that has an internal requirement for it. However, for essentially all automation work, there is no legal requirement that the design professional have a P.E. and the focus should be on a certification that denotes competence in automation.
  11. The Control System Engineering exam in the Professional Engineering program is sponsored by ISA but administered by the individual states in the U.S. Passing the CSE exam does demonstrate competence in the process control area of automation (though more people were granted CSE option in the P.E. by grandfathering that by taking the exam.) However, having passed the CSE exam is not easily designated in the P.E. since one just says they have a P.E., not what exam they took to get it. The CSE has been a good program for those in automation who qualify for the P.E.; particularly those whose companies want them to have the P.E. However, its growth has been so small that it will apparently never become a readily recognized credential in automation that can be used to identify those with advanced automation knowledge.
  12. CAP demonstrates competence in automation since all CAPs take a rigorous and comprehensive exam. There is no grandfathering with CAP as there was with the CSE; that is no one gets to bypass the exam because they have been practicing a long time. The continuing education requirement in CAP also demonstrates commitment to learning new technology on an ongoing basis. (Even in those states that have a continuing education requirement for the P.E., the education does not have to be in the automation field.) CAP covers the entire field of automation while the CSE exam in the P.E. only covers process control. CAP does not require an approved engineering degree from a U.S. college or university. Many people working in automation at the professional level do not have an engineering degree. Some U.S. certifications like the Project Management Professional (PMP) have had substantial growth outside the U.S. 38% of the holders of that certification are outside North America. CAP is also attracting a lot of interest outside the U.S. As the number of CAPs increases, there will be even more focus on those with the CAP being recognized as having better capability.
  13. A review of the job description of the CCST clearly shows that it is covering different work. Even so, a person could obtain both the CAP and the CCST.
  14. A rough estimate is that a typical automation professional might spend 100 hours in focused study for the exam. This could include short courses, reading books, studying the CAP Learning Modules or other activities. As a further rule-of-thumb, a short course specifically focused on CAP like the ISA three day CAP Review course would be worth double; that is the equivalent of 2 focused hours for each hour in class. Unfocused study, like reading automation books, might be worth 0.5 X, that is it would take 2 hours of reading general automation books to be worth one focused hour. Of course this will vary greatly depending on the experience and knowledge level of the individual. People with a lot of experience have done well on the exam with no study while others have studied a lot plus taking the three day ISA CAP Review Course. There is no requirement that you get a certain percentage of questions right in each Category; however, the more you know about each of the Categories and Topics the better your changes. That is, if you know a lot but only about one category, you will probably not do well on the exam.
  15. Scheduling the exam is easy on the Prometric web site. Depending on how busy your selected testing center is, you may need to schedule a few days in advance of the time you want to take the exam.
  16. With online testing, a pass-fail result is given as soon as you complete the exam.
  17. Work with your management to see if they can build CAP into their strategic planning for training. All it takes is for management to say that they will favor CAPs in future job promotions and salary increases. The benefit is that everyone in the group will learn new things and your customers, whether internal or external, can have greater assurance that you are a competent group.
  18. This may be confusing so go a little slow here.
  19. The next group of slides go through each of the seven categories listing the Topics that are in that category, and then on a subsequent slide giving a sample question that could be in that category.
  20. The correct answer is b) gain. The gain or proportional band is the first mode that should be adjusted when tuning a three mode controller.
  21. The correct answer is
  22. The correct answer is b) Model Predictive Control. That control technique uses a model of the process to calculate the response the process should have to a given input, and then the value of that input is adjusted by an optimization program to give the best process response. At the next calculation time interval the entire calculation is done over so actually only the first calculated output is used.
  23. The correct answer is b) The control recipe is unique to a batch – that is, each individual batch has a different control recipe, each of which is derived from the master recipe. The ISA 88 standard covers the batch automation area and is one of the most important standards that ISA has developed.
  24. The correct answer is 1OO2. In this type of system, either one of two interlocks can shut down the plant. If either fails to function, then the other can do the job. In 2OO2 or 2OO3, it is necessary for two interlocks to function to shut down the plant. That reduces the number of unnecessary shutdowns, but is less safe. In a 1OO1 system only one interlock need function properly to shut down the plant, but there is no backup so if it fails to function, no shutdown will occur when needed.
  25. The correct answer is b) Router. The Hub has no isolation; the Switch has no isolation and manages traffic; and the Gateway provides isolation but changes the protocol.
  26. The correct answer is b) Profibus PA. Of course Foundation Fieldbus also will reduce wiring but that was not one of the choices. HART can reduce wiring a little because it can bring in secondary measurements from transmitters without additional wring, but the wiring is not reduced nearly as much as with a full digital fieldbus like Profibus PA. AS-i is a discrete bus and cannot handle analog signals. 4-20 ma is all analog and has the most wiring.
  27. The correct answer is d) Practice using the controller on a simulated system. Generally, self-study of printed material, lectures and demonstrations are not nearly as effective and retained as well as is hands-on practice.
  28. Earned value is the estimated cost of the work completed. Generally this is the same as the percent complete times the total budget. Cost Performance Index is the earned value divided by the actual expenditure. So CPI = 40%/60% or approximately 0.67. CPI values less than 1.0 indicate that there is cost is over budget as is also obvious from fact that much more has been spend than the work done.
  29. For more detailed information on the CAP program, the ISA website has detailed information or you can email ISA.